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942.5702 M. L 

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v.33 

1388015 



GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



« 





3 1833 00730 8916 



VOL. XXXIII. 



A HISTORY OF 

PEMBROKE COLLEGE 
OXFORD 



Oxford 

HORACE HART, PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



Digitized by 


the Internet 


Archive 






in 2014 









https://archive.org/details/publications33oxfo_0 




PORTRAIT BY SIR ANTONIO VANDYCK 



A HISTORY OF 



PEMBROKE COLLEGE 
OXFORD 

ANCIENTLY BROADGATES HALL 

IN WHICH ARE INCORPORATED 

SHORT HISTORICAL NOTICES OF THE MORE EMINENT MEMBERS 
OF THIS HOUSE 

BY 

DOUGLAS MACLEANE, M.A. 

SOMETIME FELLOW, LECTURER, AND CHAPLAIN 
FORMERLY KING CHARLES THE FIRSTS SCHOLAR J RECTOR OF CODFORD ST. PETER, WILTS 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS 



PRINTED FOR THE OXFORD HISTORICAL SOCIETY 
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

1897 



' As if there were sought in Knowledge a Couch whereon to rest a 
searching and restless spirit ; or a Terras, for a wandering and variable 
mind to walk up and down with a fair prospect ; or a Tower of state, for 
a proud mind to raise itself upon ; or a Fort or commanding Ground, 
for strife and contention ; or a Shop, for profit or sale ; and not a rich 
Storehouse, for the glory of the Creator and the relief of Man's estate.' 
(Bacon, Advancement of Learning.} 



1388015 

ILLUSTRISSIMO DOMINO 

ROBERTO MARCHIONI DE SARISBURIA 

l 

PRAENOBILIS ORDINIS PERISCELIDIS EOUITI 



SERENISSIMAE BRIT ANN I ARUM REGINAE CONSILIARIO PRINCIPALI 



ACADEMIAE OXONIENSIS CANCELLARIO 
COLLEGII PEMBROCHIAE VISITATORI BENIGNISSIMO 



lit 

HAEC QUALIACUMQUE TEMPORIS PRAETERITI MONUMENTA 
CUM PERMISSU 
HUMILLIME DEDICAT 

AUTHOR 



( May this the youngest College in England have the happiness of 
a youngest Child, who commonly have in their Mother's love what they 
lack in the land of their Father.' 

Thomas Fuller, in 1662. 



PREFACE. 



It might be impossible to do for one of the greater founda- 
tions what is here attempted for a small College, to bring 
together, namely, in a single volume all that is known of its 
history, and interweave therewith a kind of Athenae, or series 
of biographical sketches, of its best remembered sons. The 
domestic life of these houses of learning is usually sequestered 
and uneventful. It is difficult for the historian of any particular 
College ' proprie dicere ' even the ' communia ' of ancient 
observance and picturesque tradition which are shared by 
all — those incongruities between ourselves and our surroundings 
which are to strangers the attractive charm of Oxford. The 
chief interest then of an educational institution must always 
lie in the sons whom (to use the old phrase) it has given to 
serve God in Church and State. It would indeed be a task 
worth doing to show on the one hand how probably every 
College is linked to the successive unfolding movements of 
thought, literature, and politics by some notable influence 
contributed by it to the national life, and on the other hand 
how each is representative of a period. Pembroke, one of the 
three Stuart Colleges *, had an old pedigree and considerable 
fame before the grant of its charter by James the First, and, 
either as Hall or College, records many eminent and honour- 
able names on its roll. Of a succession of great canonists, 

1 Wadham 1610, Pembroke 1624, Worcester 1714. 



viii 



PREFACE. 



Repyngdon, Bonner, and Story played bold parts in the pre- 
lude or drama of the Reformation. Jewell resided and taught 
here at a critical part of his career. Among the men of letters, 
of law, and of action in the spacious Tudor times were such as 
Heywoode, Beaumont, Peele, FitzGeffrcy, Dyer, Randolph, 
and the Carews. Pym and Speaker Rous were leaders in 
the troubled days that followed. Camden, Corbet, Browne, 
Collier, exemplify in different ways the Stuart literature. 
Chief Justice Scroggs recalls the State trials of ' Popish Plot ' 
clays. Lord Chancellor Harcourt links us to the wits and tory 
politicians of 'great Anna's' Augustan age. In the early 
Georgian period there were almost contemporary at Pem- 
broke the greatest moralist and man of letters, the greatest 
jurist, and the most famous preacher of the eighteenth 
century; and of the College days of Johnson and Whitefield, 
as also of Shenstone and Henderson, interesting records are 
preserved. Finally, an archbishop has been contributed to 
each of the primatial sees of Canterbury, York, and Armagh. 
The difficulty must be to set bounds to the human interest 
of a College history. 

' Omnia pontus erant, deerant quoque littora ponto.' 
In some cases, no doubt, the fame of an alumnus has to be 
shared with another College. 

If omissions or inaccuracies in so wide a field of history and 
biography are noticed, the literary limitations of a Wiltshire 
village may be a plea for indulgence. The author's task has 
been made much easier by earlier publications of the Oxford 
Historical Society, and by Mr. Foster's monumental work. 
The existence of the Alumni Oxonienses has rendered it 
unnecessary to give in every case dates of degrees and 
detailed biographical particulars. Other obligations I must 
be content gratefully to acknowledge without always naming 
them. 



PREFACE. 



ix 



But I may express my especial gratitude to a friend of many 
years, GEORGE Wood, Fellow of Pembroke, who has made 
rather than found time amid tutorial and bursarial duties to 
revise the proof-sheets of this book, and without whose vigilant 
help its blemishes would have been many more. I have to 
thank the Reverend the Master and the Fellows for giving 
me access to the College muniments, as well as for individual 
assistance. 

I had designed to append a catalogue of Fellows, Scholars, 
Gentlemen-Commoners, Commoners, and Servitors ; but the 
addition of four or five thousand names would have so swollen 
the bulk of the volume that it has been thought undesirable. 
My rough materials for the purpose, collected chiefly out 
of the Alumni Oxonienses, will be deposited in the College 
library, as an assistance towards a Regis trum Collegii y to be 
compiled, perhaps, by some future generation. 



Lent, 1897. 



DOUGLAS MACLEANE. 



CONTENTS. 

CHAP. PAGE 

I. Origines I 

II. The Legists— St. Aldate's Church ... 14 

III. Broadgates Hall— Aularians .... 26 

IV. Halls on the Site of the present College . 33 

Note on a former Owner of the Mas- 
ter's Lodgings 49 

V. Streets round the College .... 50 

Note. A Jews' Quarter .... 58 
VI. Religious Houses on the south side of 

the College 60 

VII. Scholars of Broadgates Hall .... 66 

VIII. Sixteenth-century Lawyers and Canonists . 74 

IX. Poets and Dramatists 94 

X. Historical Writers 116 

XI. Divines 126 

XII. High Politics 137 

XIII. Foundation of Pembroke College . . .146 

Note A. Wightwick's Home . . . 164 

B. Wills of the co-Founders . 167 

Pym's Signature 171 

Pedigree A. The Tesdale Family . 172-174 

B. The Bennet - Tesdale 

Family . . . . 175, 176 

C. The Wightwick Family 177-179 

XIV. Natalitia and Statutes 180 



xii CONTENTS. 

CHAP. PAce 

XV. Wightwick's Foundation— Abingdon School . 193 
Note A. Caesar's Lodgings . . . .201 

B. Charter Fellows and Scholars 203 

XVI. King, Chancellor, and Primate . . . 206 

XVII. Masterships of Clayton and Langley . .213 

Note. Some Members of Broadgates or 

Pembroke who became Heads of Houses 239 

XVIII. Puritans and others 241 

XIX. Masterships of Wightwick and Bishop Hall 

—Dissensions 255 

XX. Seventeenth-century Buildings and Accompts 272 

XXI. Channel Island Foundations .... 282 

XXII. Other Benefactions 291 

Note. Johnson's Conversation on College 

Benefactions 307 

XXIII. The later Stuart Period 309 

Note. The Gloucester Canonry . . 319 

XXIV. George the First's reign— Journal of a 

Gentleman-commoner 3 21 

XXV. Johnson 330 

Note A. John Taylor, LL.D., of Ashburne 349 
B. Freshmen's Gaudies— Going round 

the Fire 351 

XXVI. Whitefield . . 352 

Note A. Johnson and Whitefield . . 359 

B. Servitors . . . . . . 360 

XXVII. The Chapel 362 

XXVIII. The Singing Birds 370 

XXIX. Two Archbishops, some Lawyers and Scholars 382 

XXX. Men of Science— Mastership of Dr. Adams . 389 

XXXI. John Henderson— 'A forgotten Genius' . 397 

XXXII. An Old Day-Book 406 

XXXIII. Romantic and Tractarian Movements . . 416 

XXXIV. Bicentary— Modern Building and Rebuild- 

ing—The Wolsey Almshouse— The Back 

Lodgings 428 

XXXV. Reform 445 

XXXVI. Mastership of Dr. Jeune 463 

XXXVII. College Customs, Life, Clubs and Societies 483 

XXXVIII. Minutes of Conventions . .... 498 



CONTENTS. xiii 

PAGE 

APPENDIX A. University Distinctions ; Prelates . . 503 

B. Burials in St. Aldate's .... 509 

C. Note on the College Plate . . . 514 

D. A Form of Prayer to be used at Evensong 

on the Day of the Commemoration 
of the Founders and Benefactors of 
Pembroke College 516 

E. Principals and Masters . . . -517 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Portrait of William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke 

(by Sir Antonio Vandyck) Frontispieci 

Signatures to the Statutes of 1624 and 1628 .to face p. 192 

North -West Interior Angle of the Old Quad- 
rangle to face p. 432 

Burghers' Print of the College as then finished, 

A. D. i 700 at end 



ADDENDA. 



P. 39. Dr. William Tooker. — For a fuller account of him see Wood, Ath. Ox. 
i. 385, 386. He calls him ' an excellent Grecian and Latinist, an able divine, 
a person of great gravity and piety, and well read in curious and critical authors.' 

P. 40. Minote Hall. — For certain gifts by Robert le Mignot to St. John's 
Hospital, see Wood MS. D. 11, p. 26. The references passim to Wood MS. D. 2 
should mention pages, not folios. 

P. 108, n. 1. Sir Lewis Stukeley. — It was he who seized and subsequently 
betrayed Ralegh. See Wood's Ath. Ox. i. 371. 

P. 129. James Martin. — The Eidyllia in Obitvm fvlgentissimi Henrici Wal- 
Hae Principis duodecimi, Romaeqtie mentis terroris maximi (Oxford, 161 2, small 
quarto, with woodcuts), was edited undoubtedly by James Martin under the name 
of ' Jacobus Aretius' ("Aprjs, Mars), and almost all of the thirty and more poems 
— besides the three Idylls in hexameter verse, called ' Amyntas,' 1 Tityrus,' and 
' Daphnis,' which are presumably by Martin himself — were written by Broadgates 
Hall men. Mr. Falconer Madan, who kindly draws my attention to this volume, 
possesses the Editor's copy with his list of authors' names. The Editor and writers, 
he remarks {Early Oxford Press, O. H. S., p. 80), are more disguised than usual. 
One of the poems is in Chaldee (Hebrew type), one in Syriac, one in Arabic, one 
in Turkish (these three in Roman type), and a few in Greek. The volume testifies 
to the learning, and I presume to the Puritan sympathies, of the Lateportenses at 
the close of the Hall's career. It was in 1612 very full (see page 146). 

P. 141. John Milton. — This person is doubtless the same as one John Melton 
who gave 22s. in the year 1620 towards the enlargement of the dining hall, and 
who is described in Dr. Clayton's book of contributors as ' generosus, Aulae 
Lateportensis olim Comensalis.' 

P. 238. Sir Peter Pett. — Another accomplished Bachelor of Arts from Cam- 
bridge (matr. Sidney Sussex College, 1629) was Charles Gatacre (Gataker, 
Catagree, Categorye, &c), son of Thomas Gatacre, 'the learned presbyterian.' He 
took M. A. from Pembroke June 30, 1636. When Lucius Lord Viscount Falkland 
made his retirement at Great Tew a rural Academe, to which Sheldon, Morley, 
Hammond, Earle, Chillingworth, and the choicest philosophers and wits of Oxford 
resorted, Charles Gatacre was one of those in whose converse he took delight. 
Wood {Athenae, i. 501) thinks he was afterwards his chaplain. He became rector 
of Hoggeston, Bucks, in 1647, and died there November 20, 1680, aged 67. Lord 
Falkland's second son, Sir Henry Cary, ' so exceeding wild and extravagant that 
he sold his Father's incomparable Library for a Horse and a Mare,' married Rachel, 
daughter of the Sir Anthony Hungerford who entered Broadgates Hall in 1623. 
See page 233. 

P. 249, line 25. Rosewell. — This is the date given in Foster. But see page 230. 
One Henry Rosewell, who entered Broadgates in 1607, was knighted. 



ADDENDA. 



xv 



P. 271. Bishop Hall. — Mr. Falconer Madan has drawn my attention to two 
Latin poems in the Poematum Miscellaneorum Liber Primus (Lond. 1707, 4 0 ) of 
Joseph Perkins, headed ' Ad Socios Coll. Pembro. Oxon. qui versus meos flammis 
mandaverunt.' Perkins, who entered Oriel in 1675, was a nav y chaplain, and with 
difficulty supported a large family by writing flattering elegies and other verses, 
but was cashiered in 1697 for falsely accusing a naval officer of theft. He styled 
himself the ' Latin Laureate,' or, by way of exhibiting his Jacobite sympathies, the 
' White Poet.' He wrote ' A Poem, in English and Latin, on the death of Thomas 
Kenn ' (Bristol, 4 0 , 171 1), and was a hanger-on of the nonjurors. As such he 
would bear no love to the Whig Bishop of Bristol, in which town moreover he 
tried in vain to obtain preferment. The Bursar, however, and Mr. Joseph E. 
Barton, Scholar of the College, who have obligingly examined for me Perkins' 
poems in the Bodleian, have failed to discover the reason for the burning of his 
verses by the Fellows of Pembroke. The clue might have been looked for in the 
following portion of one of the two expostulatory epigrams : — 
' Pieris ausa fuit vastum tentare profundum : 
Et mersa est tumidis syllaba nulla fretis. 
Sed cum Pembrokiae temeraria irrupit in aedes, 

Heu ! Veneris facta est victima grata Viro. 
O Cravenne, tibi flammae cessere furentes : 

Ast elegus diro jam perit igne tuus. 
Franciscum rapuit Pontus, quern jam rapit ignis : 
Conjurant fatum bina elemenia tuum.' 
The elegy, however, 'in obitum nobiliss. consultiss. fortissimique satrapae 
Gulielmi comitis de Craven' (1697, 4 0 ) and that on Sir Francis Wheeler (1697) 
are to all appearance harmless. Perkins ends with threatening literary vengeance 
on the College, much as College authorities are now threatened with the Times : — 
' Fulmine disjecit scelerati tecta Tyranni 
Jupiter : et vires Musa Parentis habet.' 
P. 280, n. 1. Bee Herluin tythes. — The Abbey of Bee in Normandy took its 
rise from Herlouin, a knight of Brionne, who had retired to this secluded vale. 
Attracted by his reputation for piety, Lanfranc took the cowl there, and became 
prior. The Abbey came to possess the Walhngford tythes, which finally were 
owned by Pembroke College. See page 162. 

P. 288. D'Auvergne. — See Histoire de la Mai son D'Auvergne, by Baluze, fol., 
2 vols. (1708). 

Pp. 304, 305. Dr. John Smyth, Master. — On his monument in the south aisle 
of Gloucester Cathedral it is stated that he died (aged 66) at Exeter, and is buried 
in the cathedral there. There are ascribed to him ' doctrina, morum comitas, 
religio,' and he is said to have been ' Collegio ob munificentiam carissimus.' 

Pp. 341-345. I have seriously understated the number of Johnson's visits to 
Oxford. Dr. Birkbeck Hill points out to me that he was there in the following 
years:— 1754, 1755, 1759, 1762, 1763, 1764, 1766, 1767, 1768, 1769, 1770, 1773, 
1 774, 1775 (twice), 1776, 1777, 1781, 1782, 1784 (twice). The incident described 
on page 343, as recalled by the father of the late Bishop of Chichester, occasions 
some difficulty, for Dr. Hill shows that Boswell, who left for Scotland on July 1, 
1784, and did not return till after Johnson's death, cannot have been at Pembroke 
in November. Durnford, however, matriculated in October. He may, of course, 
have been staying with the Master in the preceding June, and it is more likely that 
he should have met Johnson thus than as an invited freshman. 

P. 349. Tom Tyers. — Chalmers {Biog. Diet) says that Johnson was supposed 



xvi 



ADDENDA. 



to intend Tyers by the character of Tom Restless in the Idler, No. 48. Tyers died 
Feb. I, 1787. 

P. 383. Newcome. — There is a portrait of the Archbishop in the Master's 
Lodgings. 

Pp. 384, n. 2, 440. I regret to record the death, since these lines were printed, 
of Canon Scott-Robertson and of the Rev. Henry Robinson Wadmore. 

P. 396, n. 1. Dr. Adams. — A profile portrait of him is carved on his monument 
in the south aisle of Gloucester Cathedral. Next to it is the monument of the 
Rev. Thomas Parker, Fellow of Pembroke, Rector of Saintbury St. Nicholas 
and Vicar of Churcham St. Andrew, who died December 22, 1800, aet. 47. 

P. 477, line 3, add, William Francis Higgins, matr. Jan. 27, 1864, of 
Turvey House, Beds, High Sheriff of that county in 1872, who was cousin of 
Charles Longuet Higgins, esquire, one of Dean Burgon's ' Twelve Good Men.' — 
Alfred Beaven Beaven, matr. 1864, Scholar 1865, Head Master of Preston 
Grammar School, 1874. 

P. 504, at the bottom add 

Lecturer in Mechanics. 
1 887. Frederick John Smith, M. A., F.R.S. , Millard Lecturer in Trinity College. 
P. 505, under Radcliffe's Travelling Fellow, add 

1 715. Robert Wyntle, M.D., Warden of Merton. 



ERRATA. 



P. 6, line 14, pro 'C. NatteV lege « C. J. NattesV 

P. 159, n. 1, pro 1 Rev. A. C. Bartholomew ' lege 1 Rev. C. W. M. Bartholomew.' 

P. 184. lines 20, 21, pro * Tesdales-Thomas ' lege 'Tesdales — Thomas. 

P. 193, n. 1, after ' in the hands of insert ' a member of the firm of.' 

P. 233, last line but one, pro ' 1625' lege ' 1623.' 

P. 235, line 31, /n? 1 Geat ' lege ' Great.' 

P. 265, line 3 from bottom, pro 'Ms.' lege 1 Mr.' 

P. 290, lines 9, 10, pro ' Sir Linton Symons' lege 1 Sir John Lintorn Simmons.' 
P. 302, n. 1. This note refers to the last line of p. 301. 
P. 350, line 19, pro ' Taylore' lege ' Tayloro.' 
P. 408, n. 1 . pro ' 1780 ' lege 1 1769.' 



HISTORY OF PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 



CHAPTER I. 

ORIGINES. 

Pembroke College, Oxford, is so named from that William Herbert, 
Earl of Pembroke, whom — if Sonnets i-cxxvi. were, as seems most 
probable, addressed to him — William Shakespeare calls ' Lord of my 
love,' ' My sun,' ' My all the world/ and 1 Time's best jewel.' 

' Myself almost despising 
Haply I think on thee, and then my state, 
Like to the lark at break of day arising 
From sullen earth, sings hymns at heaven's gate. 
For thy sweet love remember'd such wealth brings 
That then I scorn to change my state with kings.' 

Before its incorporation as a college it was called Broadgates Hall, 
a flourishing institution which Anthony Wood 1 and the old anti- 
quaries boldly trace back, as a place of academic learning, to at least 
the Norman Conquest. In the earlier chapters of this book will be 
set down what is known of the history of Broadgates Hall. Pembroke 
College does not merely stand on its site, but carried on its existence 
unbroken, taking over its buildings — of which the chief one still 
remains — its principal, its students, and its traditions. 

In the twelfth century, if not earlier, Oxford, then ' a huddled group 
of houses girt in with massive walls/ had for warder at its eastern and 

1 Wood had an affection for the metamorphosed old place, where his father was 
bred. Here he used to practise the violin, exercising 'his natural and insatiable 
genie he had to musick,' while ' William Boreman, gentleman commoner of 
Pembroke College, of the Isle of Wight, my companion,' played with skilled hand 
on the virginal. (See Life and Times, ed. Rev. A. Clark, Oxford Historical 
Society, i. 173.) 

B 



2 



THE SOUTH GATE. 



western gates St. Peter the Apostle, and at its northern and southern 
entrances St. Michael the Archangel : — 

Invigilat porta australi boreaeque Michael ; 

Exortum solem Petrus regit atque cadentem. 

The church of St. Peter-in-the-East still remains, that of St. Peter-le- 
Bailey has moved a little from the west port, and at the Bokardo 
entrance to the city the very early tower of St. Michael— half military, 
half ecclesiastical — is yet standing. But St. Michael's at South Gate 
was demolished by Wolsey, to make way for his splendid quadrangle. 
It adjoined 1 on the east side the southern gate of Oxford, which 
stood about fifty yards lower down than the present entrance to Christ 
Church: Hutten writes in his Antiquities of Oxford (1625) 2 : ' There 
stood within these few yeares 3 an old auntient Gate of Stone . . . and 
there on a faier Stone were quartered the Armes of England and 
France in one Scutchion, the Armes of England being graven in the 
former and upper place and those of France in the nether, con- 
trarie to all that I heretofore have seene. ... On the left standeth 
the old and auntient Hall Broadgates, now weary of it's former 
name and stiled by the title of Pembroke Colledge by King James.' 
The south side of Pembroke College stands actually on the twelfth- 
century town wall. Before this wall was built, the city was protected 
by a vallum of earth, dating probably 4 from the early part of the tenth 
century, topped with wooden brattishes and palisading. The Castle 
Mount is an imposing relic of it. The ground on which the College 
stands is a good deal higher than Brewers Street, at the end of which, 
till 1834, St. Aldate's Street made a steep dip, suggesting that the 
original rampart coincided at this part of the city with the present 
mediaeval wall. Probably there were always dwelling-houses between 
the wall and St. Aldate's churchyard. 

In the angle of that churchyard there was in the middle of the 
thirteenth century a ' great house,' held in demesne of the priory 
across the road by Richard Segrym. Richard is the best-known 
member of a family which had been prominent in Oxford, probably 
before the Conquest. The name occurs thrice in the Oxford Domes- 
day (a.d. 1086), ' Segrim ' holding a mansion assessed for geld at i6d., 
'another Segrim' one which paid 2s., and 'Segrim' 'three houses 
free,' paying 5s. ^d., whereof one was waste and paid no geld. Of 

1 See Wood's City of Oxford, ed. Clark, Oxford Historical Society, i. 164, n. 5. 

2 Elizabethan Oxford, ed. Plummer, Oxford Historical Society, pp. 86, 89. 

3 'In man's memory,' Wood's City (composed 1661-6), i. 250. It is seen in 
Speed's map (1610) and in Hollar's (1643) ; but the latter reproduces Agas. 

4 Parker, Early History of Oxford (Oxford Historical Society), p. 116. 



HOUSES ON THE WALL. 



3 



721 houses then existing, 478 were waste. Of the remaining 243 
only thirteen paid as much as 2s., and only three as much as the half 
of &s. 4d. Two of the third Segrim's houses paid this sum between 
them, and must therefore have been, together, the most important 
tenement in Oxford. They adjoined the town wall, for a ' free ' was 
the same as a ' mural ' house, being so called as exempted from pay- 
ment of its geld on condition of the tenant keeping the wall in repair 1 . 
It is possible therefore that they were identical with Richard Segrym's 
magna domus 2 in the angle of St. Aldate's churchyard. Quite apart 
from a Wood's identification of the Segrym house with the present 
Pembroke College, it seems certain that one of the southern angles is 
meant, since there can never have been room on the north of the church- 
yard for a large tenement ; and if so the house was near the town wall. 

1 Such repair consisted, before the days of solid masonry, in looking to and 
clearing the vallum and ditch and mending the palisade. Ibid. p. 237. 

2 There were other Segrym possessions in different parts of the town. Richard 
Cutrich, c. 1220-30, cries quits to Richard Segrym of all right in a property in 
' Cattestrete ' (St. Frid. Charter 415, Wigram), reserving to the Lady Cristina Kep- 
harm a rent of two shillings, and to himself and his heirs a halfpenny ; for which 
grant Richard gave him four marks ' in Gersumam.' Richard bestowed it on the 
Priory, Eva, relict of Richard Cutrich, quit-claiming, c. 1250-60 (Ch. 417). 
Another tenement sold him by Cutrich, with a 5*. rent paid him by John Pady for 
a barber's shop and two selds in All Saints, and a messuage almost opposite All 
Saints Church, were given by Segrym to the canons as late as c. 1260-70 (Ch. 
394), they admitting him as a brother, &c, and agreeing to perform service for 
him on his obit as for a canon professed and to mark his name in their marti- 
logium. Land in ' Southbrygestrete ' outside the walls is conveyed to him, 
c. 1240-50, by Beatrice, daughter of Helye Winter (Ch. 229) ; and he, c. 1250-60, 
confirms the sale of the rent (3J. 6d.) by his brother Henry to the Priory (Ch. 231, 
232). It is styled ' Domus Care Hospitalis S. Johannis,' and ' Domus quondam 
Sarte.' The Priory granted to the same Henry, c. 1250, for 6d. rent, the land 
which his father had held in St. Aldate's, and he the same year gave up all right 
in the land of Isward, held of the Priory by Isaac the Jew, in St. Aldate's (Ch. 
291, 292). About 1230 Richard Segrym gave to St. Frideswyde's i6d. rent from 
land formerly held of him by John Halegod ' in Shidezerdestrete, ubi sunt scole 
legum ' (Ridehall, ' nunc Regis bedelli ' in margin), 6d. from a house held by the 
same J. H. opposite ' the gate of our Lord the King ' in St. Mary Magd. parish ; 
lSd. rent and 6d. rent in the parish of St. Peter-in-the-East, in consideration of 
a rose to be paid him every St. Margaret's day (Ch. 430). He sold also for 8s. 
a rent of I2d. from land adjoining ' Maydenehall ' on the east (Ch. 525). This was 
for the Infirmary. A little later he conveyed to the Prior and Convent 55-. rent ' de 
domo I. Crompe, id est Blakehalle ' in St. Mary the Virgin's (Ch. 438), and c. 1250- 
1260 he gave for the office of the Chantry a 6d. rent in St. Edward's (Ch. 180). 
Another gift was of a 1 2s. \d. rent in St. Aldate's inside the walls, and a 4^. 6d. 
rent 'in suburbio,' with three messuages (Ch. 290), Nov. 25, 1254. In 1270-71 
mention is made of ' a corner seld towards the south ' in the parish of All Hallows, 
leased to Matilda Penny of Binsey, 'which was once Master Richard Segrim's' 
(Ch. 395). Alice Segrym gave to St. John's Hospital a rent of 2*. from a house in 
St. John's Street (Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 213). 

B % 



4 GIFT TO ST FRIDESWYDE'S OF 

About the year 1254, then, Richard Segrym completed a series of 
gifts to the prior and convent of St. Frideswyde by surrendering under 
a charter of quit-claim, in perpetual alms, all that great messuage 
situated in the angle of the churchyard — probably the family resi- 
dence — which was sometime held by him in dominico of the canons, 
they paying him every Christmas one halfpenny for all service, &c. 
The charter recites that they receive him into their familiar fraternity, 
and will, from the time of his decease, find a chaplain canon to 
celebrate divine service for his soul, the souls of his parents, the soul 
of Christiana Pady, and the souls of all the faithful departed, for ever. 
Adam Feteplace, mayor of Oxford (1245, 1253-60), and others attest it. 

Sciant presentes et futuri quod Ego Ricardus filius Ricardi Segrim 
dedi concessi et quietum clamavi pro salute anime mee et animarum 
omnium antecessorum et successorum meorum Deo et Ecclesiae sancte 
Frid' Oxon' et Canonicis ibidem Deo servientibus illud messuagium 
magnum cum omnibus pert, suis in perpetuam elemosinam quod situm 
est in angulo cimiterij S. Aldati Oxon' quod de dictis Canonicis aliquando 
tenui Habendum et tenendum predictum messuagium de me et heredibus 
meis predictis Canonicis et successoribus suis et Ecclesie sue predicte 
Reddendo inde annuatim michi et heredibus meis j obolum ad Natale 
Domini pro omni servicio seculari exaccione et demanda michi et heredi- 
bus meis pertinente Et ego Ricardus Segrim et heredes mei predictum 
messuagium cum pert, predicto Pr. et Can. etc contra omnes homines 
Christianos et Judeos warantizabimus et defendemus imperpetuum Dicti 
quoque Canonici divine pietatis intuitu pro se et successoribus suis rece- 
perunt me in eorum fraternitatem familiarem in pleno Capitulo suo 
unanimiter in omnibus bonis spiritualibus que in eorum Monasterio fient 
imperpetuum Insuper concesserunt michi quod a tempore mortis mee 
invenient j Capellanum Canonicum celebrantem specialiter divina pro 
anima mea et pro animabus patris et matris mee et pro anima Xpiane 
Pady et omnium fidelium defunctorum imperpetuum Et ut hec mea 
donacio concessio et quieta clamacio rata imperpetuum permaneant huic 
scripto sigillum meum apposui Hijs testibus Ada Feteplace tunc Majore 
Oxon' et alijs \ 

In the margin of the older or Corpus Christi Cartulary is written 
' De magna domo Segrim que est in dominico.' On Nov. 25, 1254, 
the final concord was made of divers gifts from Richard Segrym to 
the priory 2 . One of them was a rent of four shillings paid him by 
Thomas de Slanfand (or Clanefend) for a tenement held of him ' in 
St. Aldate's Churchyard/ for which Richard had been accustomed to 

1 Charter 288 in the St. Frideswyde Cartulary (ed. Wigram, Oxford His- 
torical Society). 

2 Charters 289, 290. 



SEGRYM J S 'MAGNA DOM US/ 



5 



j»ay the canons sixpence yearly. It was afterwards held by Matilda 
le Veisy or her son Thomas. 

The latter gift is not clearly localized. Probably the house stood 
at the east end of the church, where till living memory ancient 
tenements remained. But the 1 great house ' of Segrim ' in the angle 
of the churchyard ' is positively identified by Anthony a Wood with 
Broadgates Hall, now Pembroke College. ' From the said Segryms 
the said large tenement was called Segrym Hall, it being inhabited by 
Clerks in the time of the said Mr. Richard Segrym, if not before : 
which place . . . came to be called Broadgates, alias Segrym (corruptly 
afterward Segreve) Hall V It is put very explicitly in a Wood's short 
treatise on Broadgates Hall inserted in his Ciiy of Oxford 11 ; and 
again, under St. Aldate's Church, ' an ancient hostle or hall called in 
severall ages Segrim, Segrave, and Broadgates 3 .' AylifFe 4 follows 
Wood. 

On the other hand, Wood makes another statement, at first sight 
inconsistent with this. Under South-west Ward he writes : ' Adjoyning 
South Gate were the tenements of the Segrims, burgesses of Oxon at 
and divers years after the Norman Conquest, and held " in dominico," 
as it should seem, of the Cannons of S. Frideswyde. Afterwards or 
about those times they were converted into hostels for people of 
a scholastick and religious conversation. Which continuing for that 
use till the decay of discipline and doctrine in our University, came to 
be the possession of the servants and retainers to the said Priory. At 
length Thomas Wolsey, that heroick and publick-spirited Cardinall, 
when he converted the said Priory into a College, turned also these 
tenements into an Hospitall . . . Behind Christ Church Hospitall 
before mentioned was somtimes that venerable peice of antiquity 
standing called Broadgates Hall, which with other halls adjoyning hath 
risen from that estate to a college called Pembroke College V The 
Wolsey Hospital or Almshouse was never part of Broadgates Hall, 
though it is now a possession of Pembroke College. They were 
separated by two small properties belonging the one to Abingdon 
Abbey and the other to New College. Wood in a note refers to 
charters 71, 73, 82, and 83 6 , by which it appears that he is referring 
to several Segrim properties close to St. Aldate's Church, viz. Richard's 
' magna domus/ his house ' in the churchyard ' rented by Slanfand, 

1 Gutch's ' Wood's Annals,' iii. 614. 

2 City of Oxford, ed. Clark, i. 563 (Oxford Historical Society). 3 Ibid. ii. 35. 

4 1 Antient and Present State of the University of Oxford ' (17 14). 

5 City, i. 193, 194. 6 In Wigram, Nos. 262, 265, 288, and 289. 



6 



THIRTEENTH-CENTURY TENEMENTS IN 



and land belonging to Segrim son of Robert, or Robilct, next a solar 
and cellar which were ' hard by the church/ ' in the angle, at the 
entry of St. Aldate's churchyard/ and which had on the south (' towards 
the royal way/ i.e. the way just inside the city wall) another solar 1 . 
I take a. Wood to mean that, the £ magna domus Segrim ' being 
represented by Broadgates Hall, the Almshouse is on the site of 
Richard Segrim's house ' in the churchyard ' and of the house of 
Segrim Robertson, or of the latter only. The churchyard, there is 
reason to think, was once larger than it is now and may have included 
part of the Almshouse site, which formerly projected more to the north, 
almost touching the dwellings pulled down in 1834. The house at 
the south-east corner, within two yards of the Almshouse, is depicted 
in Tufner's water-colour in the National Gallery, and (as seen through 
Tom gateway) in C. Natte's drawings, 1804. Mr. Clark marks the 
Almshouse site as ' Segrim's Houses.' It would seem, however, from 
the St. Frideswyde Cartulary that somewhere in this corner is the 
locality of a messuage in St. Aldate's parish demised by the Priory, 

1 The solar belonged to a certain Renewant, and was originally one with the 
solar and cellar. The latter was granted, c. 1210-20, by Henry, son of Simeon, 
to Warine the smith, son of Payne, the carrier of Abingdon, at a rent of 4s. 
(Charter 262). Warine soon after gave his interest to the Canons (Ch. 263) ; 
but, c. 1240-50, John Pilet gave them a rent of 8d. arising out of this tenement 
(Ch. 440). The Prior and Convent, before 1228, demised it to Henry Virun — 
from whom it was subsequently named — for a rent of 13s. ^d. (one silver mark), 
and a consideration (Ch. 264). He let it, c. 1230-40, to William Dodeman, at 
a rent of 10s., William and his heirs to receive the water coming from the afore- 
said solar (Ch. 265). At a later date it was held by Ralph le Plomer. On one 
side of this property was the land of Robert Chacchefravis (out of which he gave 
a rent of 2s. to St. John's Hospital), and beyond that William Lowedin's land. 
Next also to Robert Chachefrais' house was Walter Patyn's ' close to the church- 
yard '; and beyond that John de Marisco's. All these were in St. Aldate's parish 
(Wood, MS. D. 2, foil. 166-7). On a third side of the Virun cellar and solar 
Reginald the baker lived (Charter 262). It is not easy to group these properties, 
so as to give to each access to the street. The fixed points are the ' Via regia ' 
and ' the angle of the churchyard at the entry.' The rubrick of Charter 262 speaks 
of a ' domus angularis 7 connected with the ' Viron & Renneuant ' tenement. There 
may have been an entry to the churchyard at the north-east corner, but it is quite 
impossible to locate these properties on the north side of the church. Walter 
Patyn's house, hard by the churchyard, is scarcely any clue to the others. Agnes, 
his relict, and Joan, his daughter, granted it to Walter Haringer, who gave it to 
the Master and Brethren of St. John's Hospital, they paying 6d. yearly to the heirs 
of Walter Patyn, and on behalf of those heirs i6d. to the lord in chief, and 2d. to 
the church of St. Aldate. He also gave another messuage, once Peter the Turner's, 
in St. Ebbe's parish, whence the Hospital was to pay 2s. yearly to Benedict Kepe- 
harme's heirs, and for him and his heirs 2s. to St. Abba's church, so vizt. that if 
the same Walter de Haringe should return safe from his pilgrimage to Jerusalem, 
having taken the cross, the aforesaid messuages should return to him ' soluta et 
quieta ' for his life, and after his death should remain with the Brethren, they doing 



THE ANGLE OF THE CHURCHYARD. 



c. 1215-25, to Henry Juvenis — who gave his name to Vine Hall — 
and described as being ' at the corner as you go from our churchyard 
towards St. Aldate's church on the left near the highway V I take it, at 
any rate, that Richard Segrym's messuage was in the south-west angle 2 , 

the aforesaid service to the capital lords. He also gave other lands to the Hospital 
' sub sigillo viridi cum cruce.' This was in the mayoralty of Peter Torald, who 
witnessed (Wood, MS. D. 2, foil. 166, 167). 
It may have been thus : — 



[Beef Hall Lane.] 



Peter 
Turner 
2 


Marisco 


Patyn 
[Minote] 


Lowedin 




Churchyard 

1 Rich. 1 
| Segrim) 


Cachefrais 


Parish boundary. 




Reginald 
the 
baker 


Virun 
[B 






road 


gates] 

son of 
Robert 
Segrim 


Richard 
Segrim 

[Almshouse] 


Renewant 



Via Regia. 



The town wall. 

In which case it was out of the son of Robert Segrym's rather than out of Richard 
Segrym's house that Broadgates Hall grew. The site where I have placed Patyn 's 
house in the plan is described later as ' juxta cimiterium,' and belonged to St. John's 
Hospital ; but was not this through Robert Mignot's gift ? See page 39. 

1 Charter 269 in Mr. Wigram's edition of the Cartulary. Charter 270 is the 
demise to John de Weston, about the same date, of a messuage in St. Aldate's parish 
' at the corner as you go from our churchyard towards South Gate on the left.' 
St. Aldate's parish is bounded by St. Aldate's Street. Wood (MS. D. 2, fol. 165) 
gives a charter of quitclaim whereby Martin de Chacombe gave up to St. John's 
Hospital his right in the tenement situate in St. Aldate's parish hard by the church- 
yard, ' vizt. in the corner as you go from the said church to the hall called le 
Bollehall.' It is beyond doubt that Bole Hall was to the north or north-east of 
the church. In 1302 Warin Davidson gives up his right in the same. About 1240 
Richard Segrym gave the Priory a tenement, rented at 4s., ' in suburbio ' outside 
South Gate beneath the wall, towards the Friars Minors (Charter 219). This 
would be in the present Brewers Street. Walter de Oseney was afterwards the 
tenant. In the map at the end of Mr. Wigram's Carttilary some other properties 
have been localized to the south of St. Aldate's churchyard ; but dubiously. 

2 ' In angulo,' not ' in cornerio.' Since, at any rate, the fifteenth century there 
has been a very large building at the south-east corner. But everything points to 
the other corner. Wood had doubtless something to go upon. For ' Segrave 



8 



A HOUSE FOR NOVICES. 



the site afterwards of Broadgates Hall. It was valued in 1278 
at 20s} 

It is likely enough that when this came to be a possession of the 
canons of St. Frideswyde they should have made it a hostel fcr 
students. A house given them by Richard Segrym in Schidyerd 
Street (a rose being the rent) is found in 1278 inhabited by clerks, as 
Ride or Bedell Hall. To this purpose most of the conventual pro- 
perties round St. Aldate's were put. Wood, however, is more or less 
guessing 2 when he says of the 4 magna domus ' that 4 this hall of 
Broadgate was alwaies and while it was termed Segrim Hall possessed 
by schollers 3 ; ' 'it was inhabited by Clerks in the time of the said 
Mr. Richard Segrim, if not before 4 ; ' and his reasons for supposing 
that it ' was a place before (and perhaps after) the Norman Conquest 
wherein the Novices of that Priory received their first or juvenile 
learning 5 ' are not very convincing. 4 Their register, wrot in the 
beginning of Edward I [1272], tells us that it did of old belong to 
their priory and that they had time out of mind and not to be found 
in record a certaine quitt rent thence ; which expressions, togeather 
with that note inserted in St. Aldate's Church making that Church to 
be a monastery, hath alwaies given me to suppose that it was 
a religious place, and where they formerly nursed up their novices 6 '. 
But, as a note in Gutch's edition of the Annals points out, 4 monastery 
was the Saxon word for a church/ 4 The word minster,' writes 
Mr. Parker 7 , 4 is often used simply in the sense of a church with 
a priest or priests attached.' But a Wood seizes on the name in 
order to build up a theory of a community of students, prepared here 
as in a cloister for both (he says elsewhere 8 ) 1 S. Frid. and Abendon 
Monasteries.' Abingdon is added on the authority of Twyne : — 

1 Quamobrem monasterium diceretur (nisi forte quodnovitiis Abendoni- 

Hall ' he refers to Twyne, xxii. 254, and Charter 9 (?). See also Wood's Life and 
Times, ed. Clark, Oxford Historical Society, iv. 309, for ' Segrym Hall.' 

1 ' Itm Prior et Convent. See Fredeswid tenet unu ten' cu ptin q' eis dedit Ric. 
Segrym in ppeta. elem. sin' aliquo redditu & valz x\s. p. ann.' {Hundred Rolls, 
p. 788). 

2 Mr. James Parker, M.A., writes to me: 'Wood, Ayliffe, &c., held briefs for 
the antiquity of the University, and every straw was seized. And, because a build- 
ing was a Hall for students in the fifteenth century, therefore what was on its site 
was a Hall for students in the eleventh.' 

3 City, i. 565. 4 Gutch, iii. 614. 5 Ibid. 

6 City, i. 563. 4 In Scripts, written in the time of King Henry I, stiled a Monas- 
tery,' Gutch, iii. 614. See the Abingdon Chronicle (Rolls Series), vol. ii. p. 174. 

7 Early History of Oxford, Oxford Historical Society, p. 292, n. 

8 Peshall, p. 145. At Wood's City (ed. Clark, Oxford Historical Society), ii. 35, 
n. 2, Twyne is quoted for excluding the Abingdon novices. 



RICHARD SEGRYM. 



9 



ensis coenobii monachis illic in academia recipiendis instituendisque de 
more inserviret) haud in promptu esse opinor 1 .' 

The two Houses presented a parson to St. Aldate's by turns. Con- 
sidering the immemorial antiquity of some of our cathedral schools, 
there is no impossibility in Wood's theory. 

Something more should be said of Richard Segrym. His name is 
of constant occurrence in the charters. He had a brother Henry 2 , 
their father Richard 3 , a burgher of Oxford, holding land of the Priory 
in St. Aldate's parish, afterwards conveyed by the canons to Henry. 
Richard the elder deceased before 1230 4 , and may be the same as 
a Segrym the Weaver mentioned c. 1220-30. His father was pro- 
bably Henry Fitzsegrym, provost with John Kepeharme before 11 54, 
and also with William Wakeman in Ralph Pady's time 5 . The 
Henry whose name appears as witness in 11 94 may be the grandson. 
The next ascending progenitor is said by a Wood to have been 
Segrim a clerk, called Segrim the Deacon, who was living in 1138. 
But ' Segrimus a clerk' held land in Oxford about 11 80. The 
former is identified by Wood with Segrim son of Robert, or Robelot, 
who lived near the entry of St. Aldate's churchyard 6 . But Robert's 
son was alive c. 1210-20. We also find an 'Alice, daughter of 
Segrim,' who had a son Gilbert 7 ; Segrim Bywall (juxta murum 8 ), 
1 129, whose house near the north gate was granted to Oseney Abbey 
at its foundation, the confirmation of the charter of which he witnessed 
with Robert and Nigell D'Oilly and Robert Bishop of Lincoln 9 ; 
and one Peter Segrym of Yechslep (Islip), who at the Eyre of 1285 
was,\vith thirty-seven others, presented by the jury for illegal fishing 'with 
Kydell and Starkell ' (the former a kind of faggot). The offenders, who 
included the two abbots and the preceptor of Cowley, were all fined 10 . 

It may be asked, who was Christiana Pady, for whose soul Richard 
Segrym stipulated that the canons should say mass for ever ? Her 
father, Ralph Pady n , a burgher, had a mill in St. Edward's parish before 

1 Quoted by Bishop Tanner, Notitia Monastica (ed. 1744), p. 419. Dr. Ingram 
follows neither the Chronicle itself nor a Wood in saying that Segrym's ' distin- 
guished mansion,' ' together with St. Aldate's Church adjoining,' is described as 
monasterium. The document says nothing about Segrym's mansion. 

2 Charters 231, 291, 292. 

3 In the Christ Church Cartulary, charter 525 (Wigram), the name appears as 
Roger. 

4 Charter 430. 5 Wood MS. D. 2, foil. 367, 400. 6 Charters 262, 263. 
7 Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 213. 8 Parker's Early History, p. 274. 

9 City, ii. 188, 192. He had other properties. 

10 Rogers' City Documents, Oxford Historical Society, p. 209. 

11 Charters 162, 377. There is evidently a mistake in the date assigned to charter 
117* See also Wood's City, ii. 174. 



IO 



CHRISTIANA PADY. 



1180-90. With Henry son of Scgrym, then provost, ( Gaufrid Padi,' 
Roger Brodege (or Brodgate) and others 1 , c. 1 1 70, he witnessed a grant 
to Oseney Abbey. With John Kepeharme he was a witness c. 1181. 
Christina's uncle John left her some property. His son, her cousin John, 
was Mayor 1227-9 an d 1234, living in a house in St. Frideswyde's 
parish, called from him Pady House, but afterwards Ledenporch Hall, 
for which in 1480 the nuns of Godstow, who held it in 1192, were paying 
the old rent of 4s. 2 He was alive in 1262. The Lady Christina we 
find at the close of the twelfth century wedded to Laurence Kepeharme, 
who with her consent gave to Oseney Abbey some land in St. Michael's 
at North Gate 8 , the same, probably, as the 1 Segrim land ' described in 
an Oseney rental of 1260. He died before 1228. She next was 
married to Jordan Rufus, Rufify, Rasus, or le Rus 4 . On April 28, 
1 24 1, she, with her husband Jordan's assent, gave to the Priory one 
messuage and four selds, together with her body, which she had 
devoted to be buried among the canons, they agreeing that at her obit 
and anniversary they will do for her in the service for the dead as for 
a canon professed, and cause her name to be marked in the martilo- 
gium. A little later she is again a widow, and confirms to the Priory 
(circa 1241-50) all the lands which Jordan, her sometime husband, had 
with her assent demised to them, viz. those which her previous husband 
Laurence Kepeharme had bequeathed to the Priory, with a life-interest 
retained for herself 5 , and also her corner messuage in All Saints'. 
In return the canons assign her the house in which she lives in the 
parish of St. Frideswyde and the full corrody daily of a canon and six 
silver marks yearly all her life. Before this, about 1228, Jordan and 
she had exchanged two properties with the Priory against certain 
rents 6 . Before Jordan's death, Richard Segrym had cried quits 
to the Priory of all his right and claim in the All Saints' messuage given 
them by Christina, relict of Laurence Kepeharme. One John Pady 
paid him (c. 1260-70) $s. rent for several properties in All Saints' 
parish. In other documents his name is mixed up with Christiana's. 

1 Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 367. See also Charter 865. 

2 Charters 115 and 13 App.; City, ii. 60. Philip Pady owned the Mitre Inn 
temp. Henry III {City, i. 79). A later John Pady was provost in 1326 (Wood MS. 
D. 2, fol. 368). s Ibid< f()L 37o> 

4 Mentioned in the Oseney Cartulary ; Twyne, xxiii. 84. 

5 One of these was the ' domus Christinae,' afterwards Grip, Gup, or Gulp, 
otherwise Leberd, Hall (Charter 102 ; City, i. 169), in Richard the Second's time 
' vacua placea.' Another (given, Wood says however, in the beginning of Henry 
III) was Parn Hall, afterwards Tabard, Furres, and Bear Inn, now Mr. Foster's 
shop in the High Street. 

6 Charter 116. 



LAURENCE KEPEHARME. 



n 



I cannot find evidence that they were akin to one another. Is it 
fanciful to suppose that this was a very true and faithful friend, and 
one who would fain once have been more than friend ? The Segryms 
and Kepeharmes were for centuries the two leading burgher families 
of St. Aldate's parish, and doubtless, whether as friends or enemies, 
kept up a rivalry of state and dignity, the Kepeharmes having their 
mansion on the north the Segryms on the south, of the church. 
Certainly they vied in their gifts to Holy Church. In Stephen's reign 
(1135-1154) a Kepeharme and a Segrym were aldermen or provosts 
of a hundred together. Laurence Kepeharme who wedded Christiana 
Pady, and Richard Segrym who procured her to be prayed for, were 
about of an age and brought into intimate connexion, witnessing deeds 
together more than once. Were one weaving an old tale out of 
guesses, it might be surmised the one had been the successful, the other 
the unsuccessful suitor. Christiana was buried in the priory church 
about 1250 2 . Richard also had an obit there 3 . 

1 Benedict father of another Laurence (c. 1220-30) granted to St. Frideswyde's 
' totam curiam illam que est retro domum que fuit Chiere Judee in venella (que 
vocatur Kepeharm Lane) que est ante domum meam.' Kepeharme Lane or 
Twychen seems to have been the now obscured continuation of the yard of the 
New Inn. Wood says it ended in Pennyfarthing (now Pembroke) Street. 

2 Wood, City, ii. 173. 3 Ibid. ii. 61. 



Note on Kepeharme and Rufus. 

It is not easy to make out any circumstances relating to Christiana Pady's second 
husband Jordan Ruffy. He was provost with Peter son of Torald in John Pady's 
mayoralty (Wood MS. D. 2, foil. 199, 222, 223). There are a number of persons 
called Rufus or le Rus or Rubeus (Redhead), as Hugh (c. 1220-30 ; another tenanted 
Culverd Hall, 1275), son of Stephen ; Adam son of Hugh ; Roger a fuller (c. 12 10- 
28), William de Burgesete (c. 1220-30); Laurence (c. 1247), provost with Robert 
Minhot or Mingnote, of whom hereafter (Wood MS. D. 2, foil. 196, 214, 375), — 
these two witnessed an agreement in Peter Torald's mayoralty, between Richard 
of Dorchester and Richard son of Richard Segrym, about Elias Winter's land in 
' Suthbriggestreete ' (fol. 161) ; — Albert (c. 1 250-60) ; Adela (c. 1 260-70). A Master 
Adam Rufus studied under Grostete, who addressed to him, before 1 210, a treatise 
on the nature of angels, desiring him to inquire diligently the opinions of the wise 
with whom he may converse. Grostete mentions him, about 1237, as 'Friar 
Adam Rufus of good memory,' formerly his beloved pupil and friend {Grey Friars 
in Oxford, ed. Little, Oxford Historical Society, p. 179)- He is mentioned 
c. 1 215 at Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 517. Another Franciscan, a Lector, was Richard 
Rufus, or le Ruys, of Cornwall, who commented on the Sentences, and was 
a Master, probably of Arts (ibid. fol. 142), and also B.D. He went from Oxford 
to Paris in 1253 to lecture, and on his return was regent-master of the Friars. 
Adam Marsh praised him highly, but Roger Bacon denounced in the most unsparing 



12 



BURGHER FAMILIES. 



terms the evil influence of the erroneous subtleties which ' Ricardus Cornubiensis, 
famosissimus apud stultam multitudinem ' had made popular. Simon le Rous 
was juror of Wolvercote in 1301 {City Documents, ed. Rogers, p. 160). 

There is nothing unusual in Richard Segrym styling Christiana by her maiden 
name, though twice a widow. George Hcriot's wife, ex.gr., in 161 2, had on her 
grave in St. Gregory's, ' Hie Alicia Primrose jacet,' though she is also called 
Hcriot in the inscription. 

Wood says of the Kepeharmes : ' People they were in their times of great 
repute and wealth, and bore the cheife office of magistracy of this corporation for 
divers yeares ' {City, i. 199). The following stemma can be made out. 



Kepeharmus (c. 1087) 



I 

John, 

Alderman (Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 369). 
Provost with Henry son of Segrim temp. 
Stephen (1135-54). Witness together 
with ' Segrim the Deacon ' of the grant 
of a footsbreadth of wall by Hugh K. 
(Wood MS. D. 2, p. 400). Held ' terra 
iuxta venellam ' before 1 139 (Charter 
14, Wigram) 



I 

H U G H , = PETR 0 N I I.L A 
witness with John K. and Henry 
Segrim (fol. 370) 



Laurence, 
Alderman ; Mayor 
1 178. Witness with 
Benedict K. (Wood 
MS. D. 2, fol. 223): 
with John K. and 
Henry Segrim c. 1180 
(fol. 486). 



I 

Robert, 
conveys to 
Priory land 
and a rent in 
St. Edward's, 

c. 1170-80 
('Gildehall') 
(Ch. 161) 



i and 1200. 
204. Holds 



John, 

Alderman ; bailiff c. 1 1 
His relict, Alice, alive 
land next what had been Ralph Pady's 
mill (Ch. 162), and a great house hard 
by St. Edward's churchyard (Ch. 163), 
in the corner (Ch. 164), c. 1180-90. 
No longer his, c. 1 190- 1200 (Ch. 165). 
His heirs hold, c. 1230-40, a garden 
next it and two adjoining houses in 
St. Mary's parish, by hereditary tenure 
(Ch. 358). Perhaps he is the John 
' carpentarius ' who (c. 1250) had held 
a tenement in St. Peter-in-the-East 
parish (Ch. 444). Died at Vine Hall 
(his 'great house') (Ch. 171), which 
the Priory, c. 1215-25, demise to his 



LAURENCE 



Benedict, 
a rich burgess, lay- 
brother of St. Frides- 
wyde's (Wood, City, 
ii. 166), conveys to 
Priory Trill Mill, c. 
1 180 (Ch. 192, 193), 
and a court in Kepe- 
harme's Twychen, in 
front of his house, 
where afterwards two 
small houses were 
built, c. 1220-30 (Ch. 
275). This was in 
St. Aldate's parish 
(Ch. 274). He was 
alderman 1224, 5, 8. 



Hugh. 

His father grants him his land 
in St. Aldate's parish next to 
Joan's (Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 
163). 



Laurence Joan 



Wood gives Benedict as Laurence's father, but in a note {City, i. 200) says, on the 
evidence of Charter 171, that he was the son of John. No doubt John's son had 
not only an uncle but a second cousin of his name. The Laurence who married 
Christiana Pady deceased before 1 230. But we find a Laurence Kepeharme 
witnessing the grant of Hart Hall to the prioress of Studley at Michaelmas 1267. 
(See Regis trum Collegii Exoniensis, ed. Boase, O. H. S. p. 284). 

There was a Robert (son of John), one of the jurors of St. Aldate's in 1297 {City 
Documents, ed. Rogers, Oxford Historical Society, p. 151), who had a tenement 
outside East Gate in 1295 (Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 367), — the name occurs a hundred 
years later in several deeds,— and John his son, of whom Aaron and Vives the Jews 



BURGHER FAMILIES. 



J 3 



held in 1279 {Collect, ii. 305); alive 1318. Also a second Hugh and Petronilla. 
Wood certainly confuses the two couples, for he says of the earlier Petronill {City, 
i. 199) that she gave St. Frideswyde's a messuage which she had from Roger Pilet 
in St. Mildred's parish, whereas the grant is dated 35 Henry III (1 250-1, Charter 
622 ; see Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 527). From a Charter (621) dated c. 1240-50 it 
appears her husband was then dead. One John Kepeharme is described as her 
heir A. D. 1319 (Ch. 625 ; see also 194). There was a John who helped witness 
the conveyance of Hart Hall in 1267, together with William Kepeharme, a burgher, 
to whom were leased, c. 1255-60, two messuages in St. Aldate's, between the land 
of Roger the Spicer on the south and that of Keyna daughter of Mosse, the 
Jewess, on the north. He had a wife Joan, daughter of Henry Perle, and issue 
(Ch. 293). Of the same date also are Walter, and Robert who married Sibyll. 
These Kepeharmes -were ' all for the most part wealthy burgesses. Whome to 
enumerate with their pious gifts to the Church would now perhaps seem taedious ' 
(Wood, City, i. 200). Wood traces the fortunes of their house, from them called 
Kepeharme Hall, and of ' tenementum Kepeharme, Henxsey Hall in le Fish Street 
in parochia S. Aldati,' frequented afterwards by Welsh legists. It stood really in 
Kepeharme Lane, which was also called Hinxsey Lane, and next it in the same 
lane was Gloucester Hall, to the east. There was also a Kepeharme Hall for 
scholars next the old ' Angel ' {City, i. 130). As for Christiana Pady's first husband, 
if there is no mistake in the date of Charter 102 (Wigram), Leberd or Grip Hall 
was conveyed to him as early as c. 1 1 70-80. Wood however says that Laurence 
when a boy was 'in the year 11 80, or about then, perhaps soon afterwards,' about 
the time that the saint's reliques were translated, miraculously restored to life at 
the shrine of St. Frideswyde's, after being cut by a clumsy chirurgeon for the stone 
{City, ii. 166). The name frequently occurs in the charters. Laurence and 
'Xpina' convey, c. 1200-10, to Simon Rok two selds in All Saints' parish hard by 
St. Edward's Lane (Ch. 372). Henry Bodyn, c. 1220, conveys to Laurence, for 
a pound of cummin yearly, a strip of land in All Saints', next the house of Richard 
the man of God, the light before whose windows is not to be disturbed or minished. 
Laurence was to give his wife, the lady Gunnore, three ells of burnet for 
a cloak (Ch. 384, 385). This and divers properties in the Jewry in St. Aldate's 
(Ch. 261) he bequeathed to the Priory. About 1220 John of Bletchingdon 
ratifies the gift by Laurence of four properties in St. Mildred's, and several 
in St. Aldate's and St. Michael's Southgate, including the Synagogue, once Sagar 
Poy's. We find him (c. 1210-20) confirming to Ralph the Miller (Ralph Pady?) 
a conveyance of land in St. Frideswyde's parish (Ch. 110). About 1280-90 John 
Sowy the Goldsmith quit-claims to the Priory of all right in the properties within 
and without the town ' which once belonged to Laurence Kepharm.' Laurence 
held also of the Priory land in St. Michael's Northgate (Ch. 469), before 1190- 
1200. Together with his father, John Kepeharme, and Henry son of Segrym, he 
witnessed in 1194 the gift by Hugh de Malannay to St. John's Hospital of lands 
received by Hugh from John Earl of Mortain (King John). See also Charter 728. 



CHAPTER II. 



LEGISTS— ST. ALDATE'S CHURCH. 

From a very early period a number of hostels for students of law, 
owned for the most part by religious houses, were clustered round 
St. Aldate's Church. The principal of these, whether called Segrym's 
or Broadgates Hall, was an appendage of St. Frideswyde's Priory, 
the original cradle of the University of Oxford. Founded as a nun- 
nery in the eighth century, ' St. Frids ' was broken up in the Danish 
wars, and the buildings, after some vicissitudes of occupation by 
regulars and seculars (the latter described by William of Malmesbury 
as 4 clerks '), were assigned in Henry Fs reign to a priory of Austin 
Canons (' canonists ' Huber 1 calls them) placed there by Roger 
Bishop of Sarum. Hutten says that the place had been given by the 
Conqueror to the Abingdon monks, but they, perceiving it to be 
ruinous, gave it to Roger. In these quiet cloisters and those of 
Oseney Abbey, founded as an offshoot of St. Frideswyde's in 1129, 
we shall find the earliest Oxford schools, though neither house, 
Mr. Lyte remarks, ever attained great celebrity as a place of education. 
Here Thibaut d'Estampes taught 'secular studies' about 11 18, and 
in 1 1 33 Robert Pullein came from Paris and lectured in the Holy 
Scriptures. Another Biblical scholar was Robert of Cricklade, Prior 
of St. Frideswyde's. But arts and theology had a powerful rival at 
hand. The tradition of the famous law schools of Rome, Constanti- 
nople, and Berytus had never quite disappeared 2 , and was now to be 
quickened into new life by an accident and by the needs of an age in 

1 Huber supposes they were clerks united again after the storms of the Conquest 
for fresh scholastic activity ; and he asks, was this a regular college even before 
A. D. mi ? 

2 In 804 a school at York is described by Alcuin, where instruction was given 
not only in grammar and rhetoric, but also in law. A century earlier St. Bonitus 
of Auvergne is said to have been < grammaticorum imbutus initiis, necnon 
Theodosii edoctus decretis.' Lanfranc, born at Pavia A.D. 1089, is described as 
' ab annis puerilibus eruditus in scholis liberalium artium et legum secularium ad 
suae morem patriae.' 



STUDY OF CIVIL LAW. 



15 



which the priesthood was no longer the only profession needing 
special training, and the knowledge of law, kept alive in dark ages by 
the clergy, was henceforth to have separate students and professors. 
About the year 1135 the Justinian Pandects were discovered at 
Amalfi. In n 49 a master from Lombardy, Vacarius, came with 
other civilians and a library of law books to decide the controversies 
between Archbishop Theobald and Bishop Henry de Blois, the pope's 
legate, into whose place Theobald had been put through the influence 
of Beket, himself a student of law at Bologna. Arriving in Oxford 
Vacarius introduced the study of Roman jurisprudence to crowded 
lecture rooms. King Stephen, jealous of Italian influences and of 
the supplanting of the ancient customs of Church and Realm by 
a foreign code, silenced him and forbade the possession of books on 
civil law. At Paris also it was suppressed. But the new learning was 
spreading rapidly over Europe, and having crossed the narrow seas 
was not easily expelled. In days when clerks everywhere formed one 
great guild, and when though there were no conveniences there was 
much hunger for learning, ideas ran from land to land like wildfire. 
To reverse Adam Smith's saying, a scholar was then of all kinds of 
luggage the easiest to be transported. The tendency of things 
moreover, both in Church and State, was towards codification and 
centralization. In England, Stephen's successors, especially Edward I, 
were attracted by the unifying and imperialist ideas of the Roman 
system. The Church, after the publication in 1140 of Gratian's 
Decretals, discovered that the civil might be made ancillary to the 
canon law. By the end of the twelfth century the civil law was 
dominant at Oxford, and Vacarius' suppressed work, the Liber 
Pauperum, had become the leading text-book of the University, giving 
to the students of law their name of Pauperists. 

The extent to which this study had encroached on divinity and the 
seven liberal arts is illustrated by the history of Emo, afterwards 
Abbot of Bloomkap, and his brother Addo, two young Frisians, who 
after 'hearing and glossing' at Paris and Orleans came in 11 90 to 
Oxford, eager to apply themselves to the ' studium commune litter- 
arum.' This consisted of the Trivium (grammar, logic and rhetoric) 
and the Quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy). 
They were however quickly convinced that a knowledge of Roman 
law would be more to their advantage, or, as we should say in modern 
educational parlance, would pay best. Our examination statutes, like 
an ever-changing cloud, shift and melt and elude the clasp. But that 
simpler time also had its fashions and experiments, its discarded ideals 



i6 



EXPELS ALL OTHERS. 



and new favourites. Kmo and Addo ' took up ' civil law. The 
Mathematical Faculty has calculated that there are now four thousand 
different ways of achieving that degree which entitles the possessor to 
teach mankind as Master. These brothers had a more restricted 
choice of books. After hearing lectures they copied out their notes 
and made extracts from the Decretum and the Liber Pauperum, 
Addo during the former part of the night, Emo during the latter — an 
arrangement which, as Prof. Holland observes, had the advantage of 
making one truckle-bed suffice for both. Ten years earlier Daniel 
of Morley, in Norfolk, after studying in Paris and Toledo, returned 
with 1 d. priceless multitude of books/ but was chagrined to find 
Aristotle And Plato superseded by Titius and Seius, the John Doe and 
Richard Roe of Roman law. However, not to remain the only 
Grecian among Romans, he halted at Oxford to pick up the fashion- 
able science. Giraldus too, though he calls Oxford the place where 
the English clergy most excelled in clerkly lore, complains of the 
desertion of ' bonae litterae V The haste with which the legists 
leapt from a rapid study of the Institutes to the Digests and the Code 
was also deplored by many. Roger Bacon declared that the Civil 
Law corrupted the study of philosophy. It was said that the Sibylline 
prophecy, ' venient dies, et vae illis, in quibus leges obliterabunt 
scientiam litterarum/ was being fulfilled. A clerk named Martin, 
who had himself studied law at Bologna, loudly reproved the Masters 
assembled in public, in that 'the Imperial laws had choked every 
other science ; ' again, the Archbishop on a public occasion blundering 
in his Latin, the same ' merry blade ' stopped the hum that went 
round by crying, ' Why do ye murmur ? Grammar is out of date/ 
The civilians were indeed the spoiled children of Alma Mater. In 
1268 'the inceptors in civil law were so numerous, and attended by 
such a number of guests, that the academical houses or hostels 
were not sufficient for their accommodation, and the company filled 
not only these, but even the refectory, cloisters, and many apart- 
ments of Oseney Abbey. At which time many Italians studying at 
Oxford were admitted in that faculty.' ' The study of law,' writes 
Mr. Green, ' was the one source of promotion, whether in Church or 
State.' A century later the legists refused to be subjected to statutes 

1 Wood says that there was then a threefold division of clerks into superseminati, 
ill-grounded and superficial, pannosi, patchy scholars, and massati, ' who built an 
unshaken edifice upon the solid foundation of literature, as well of the divine as 
human law, and other faculties.' But owing to the discouragement of everything 
but jurisprudence the last class were 'very few and rare.' 



LAW SCHOOL IN ST. ALDATE'S CHURCH. 17 



made by ' artists ' and theologists, though the claim of Bachelors of 
Civil Law and of the Decrees to be styled Master, and their appeal to 
the ' foreign court ' of the Arches, were unsuccessful. 

The law students were but slightly connected with the religious 
houses, though a knowledge of civil law had come to be an indis- 
pensable part of the training of a canonist, and 1 divinity was reputed 
bare without it 1 .' Indeed the canon law tended everywhere but in 
Paris, where the theologists were strong, to become an appendage 
thereto. Still, as Bishop Kennet observes, ' it was then customary for 
the Religious to have schools that bore the name of their respective 
order ; ' and belonging to the Priory, round which — as the great church 
of the Patroness of Oxford — a multitude of inns had grown up, were 
the 1 Schools of St. Frideswyde ' in or near Schools Street, and ' Civil 
Law' or 'Great Civil Law School' in St. Edward's parish. The 
centre of the hostels for jurists outside the west gate of the Priory 
was a Law School in St. Aldate's Church. It is true that the interesting 

1 I quote the following from Mr. Ruskin's description of Simone Memmi's 
frescoes in Santa Maria Novella {Mornings in Florence. The Strait Gate, p. 144). 
First of the Seven Heavenly Sciences is : — 

' I. Civil Law. Civil, or " of citizens," not only as distinguished from 
Ecclesiastical, but from local law. She is the universal Justice of the peaceful 
relations of men throughout the world, therefore holds the globe, with its three 
quarters, white, as being justly governed, in her left hand. 

She is also the law of eternal equity, not of erring statute ; therefore holds her 
sword level across her breast. 

She is the foundation of all other divine science. To know anything whatever 
about God you must begin by being Just. 

Dressed in red, which i?i these frescoes is always a sign of power, or zeal ; but 
her face very calm, gentle, and beautiful. Her hair bound close, and crowned by 
the royal circlet of gold, with pure thirteenth-century strawberry leaf ornament. 

Under her, the Emperor Justinian, in blue, with conical mitre of white and 
gold ; the face in profile, very beautiful. The imperial staff in his right hand, the 
Institutes in his left. 

Medallion, a figure apparently in distress, appealing for justice. (Trajan's 
suppliant widow ?). 

Technical points : — The three divisions of the globe in her hand were originally 
inscribed Asia, Africa, Europe. The restorer has ingeniously changed Af into 
Ame— RICA. 

II. Christian Law. After the justice which rules men, comes that which 
rules the Church of Christ. The distinction is not between secular law and 
ecclesiastical authority, but between the rough equity of humanity, and the dis- 
criminate compassion of Christian discipline. 

In full, straight-falling, golden robe, with white mantle over it ; a church in her 
left hand ; her right raised, with the forefinger lifted . . . Head-dress, a white veil 
floating into folds in the air . . . 

Beneath, Pope Clement V, in red . . . Note the strict level of the book, and the 
vertical directness of the key.' 

C 



1 8 



THE CHAPEL OF THE LEGISTS. 



chamber afterwards used for this purpose and as a library of law books, 
over the south aisle, was a late Perpendicular erection. But it is most 
unlikely that a civil law school should be built in a parish church as 
late as Henry VII or Henry VIII 1 , unless there had been one there 
before. Wood says that it was ' anciently ' so used, being ' frequented 
by the students belonging to the Halls of Broadgate, Beef, Wolstan, Bole, 
Moyses, &c. 2 ' The numerous legists of this quarter had no other centre 
of teaching. Huber says (§ 69) that even in the fifteenth century the 
Masters assembled their forms in the porches of houses and churches, 
the conventual schools alone having good lecture rooms. 

The chamber in St. Aldate's is described in the churchwardens' 
accounts, 26 Hen. VIII, as 'y e library/ being rented at ' 26s. 8d. p. a/ 3 
' When the University was in a manner left desolate in the reign of 
K. Edw. VI. the said School went to ruin and the books were lost/ 
Church law-books were not likely to survive the other 1 cobwebs ' of 
mediaeval knowledge swept away by the Visitors. After the founda- 
tion of Pembroke the room was again furnished with books and was 
used as the College library until the year 1709, the College executing 
the repairs, as also of the chapel below. It was taken down by 
a resolution of the vestry in 1842 as 'dangerous/ being then rented 
by Mr. P. Walsh. The loss of this picturesque feature of the church 
is to be deplored. 

But the Broadgates students, and after them the members of 
Pembroke, had also the use of the aisle itself for their devotions. 
Probably it was shared originally by the other hostels around 4 . 

1 It might, to judge by the prints, have been of the fifteenth century ; but the 
unfeeling mutilation of the tops of the beautiful aisle windows by the floor points 
to a later date. 

2 Like Chaucer's ' Sergeant of lawe, war and wys, 

That often hadde ben atte parvys ; ' 
or that ' parvise ' where we have all been supposed to respond to the Masters of the 
Schools' questions. 

3 Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 67. 

4 Now that the library and school over the aisle of St. Aldate's has been 
destroyed, St. Mary's alone retains a similar chamber. In that church, over the 
old Congregation-house, a public library was begun to be built about 1320 by 
Bishop Cobham ; but until 1409 the books were kept in the vaulted room below, 
locked up in chests or chained to desks. There is such a library of chained 
volumes over one of the aisles of Wimborne Minster, and also in All Hallows, 
Hereford, and in Hereford Cathedral. In St. Mary's the legists used St. Thomas's 
Chapel. When a great Congregation was holden, ' at the proclamation of the 
bedell for the faculties to receed or goe to their places, the non-Regents went in 
the Cancell, the Theologues in the Congregation house, the Decretists in St. Ann's 
Chapel, the Physitians in St. Catherin's, the Jurists in St. Thomases, and the 
Proctors with the Regents in Our Ladie's Chapel ' (Wood's City, ii. 30). 



DOCKLINTON'S AISLE. 



i9 



In the Oxford Sausage there is an eighteenth-century epigram ' on 
Part of S. Mary's Church being converted into a law School/ 

c See here — an event that no mortal suspected ; 
See Law and Divinity closely connected ! 
Which proves the old proverb, long reckon'd so odd, 
That "the nearest the Church the farthest from God.'" 

The aularians having no extra-diocesan privileges, the principal of 
every hall and his scholars were obliged by the University statutes to 
repair on solemn days to their parish church for Divine Service, 
though sometimes they had a private oratory l . The appropriation of 
an aisle of St. Aldate's to the scholars of Broadgates may perhaps lend 
some colour to Wood's assertion that the budding monks who first 
inhabited, as he asserts, the 'ancient hostle/ performed in the adjoining 
Church, of which the Priory were joint-patrons, ' those usuall rites and 
services that were required by their rule/ Leonard Hutten says : 
' In this Church there is a Chappell of newer building than it selfe, 
but the Founder or Builder thereof I doe not find. It is peculier and 
propper to Broadgates where they daily meete for the celebration of 
Divine Service 2 / It was the Chapel of Pembroke College till 1732, 
a rent being always paid of 6s. 8d. 

The founder was John de Dokelynton, who also built the tower and 
steeple in the ninth of Edward III (1335, 6), and it was usually 
called by his name. Wood calls it ' Trinity Chapel and Doclinton's 
Chantry.' He says 3 : — 

'John Doclinton or Ducklinton (he was a fishmonger, and white fishes 
in a red circular feild are in this chappie to this day) severall times maior 
of this city, desiring the health of his soule, did to the honor of the 
Virgin Mary and All Saints institute a perpetual chantry, 9 Edw. Ill, 
in a chappell of his own building on the south side of this church. 
Wherin ordaining a chapleyn to celebrate divine service for his and the 
soules of his wives, Sibyll and Julian, for the soules of his father and 
mother, and also of Henry bishop of Lyncoln, while living and when 
dead, setled on him and his successors for ever an annuall revenew of 
5 marks issuing out of severall of his messuages in Oxon, viz., out of that 
that he then inhabited in Fish Street, another in St. Michael's parish at 
North Gate, out of two shops in the parish of All Saints, out of another 
tenement near Soller Hall in St. Edward's parish, and out of another in 
Grandpont neare Trill Milne. This gift and institution (as also the 
license of the king and Alexander Medbourn, the then rector of this 

1 The principal of Hinxsey Hall in St. Aldate's parish was licensed in 1485 ' ad 
celebrandum in oratorio ' (Wood's City, ed. Clark, O. H. S., i. 201). 

2 Antiquities of Oxford {Elizabethan Oxford, ed. Plummer, O. H. S., p. 88). 

3 City, ii. 37. 

C 2 



20 



JOHN DE DOCKLINTON. 



church, for it) was confirmed by way of inspeximus by Henry Burwash, 
bishop of Lyncoln, the same year 16 calends of Aprill : and afterwards 
paid to St. Frideswyde's Priory 6d. per annum, as appears by one of their 
rentalls of all their revenews in Oxon for the year 15 17 in which this 
chappell is stiled Trinity Chappell.' 

As a fishmonger he naturally lived near his trade in Fish (St. 
Aldate's) Street. Wood elsewhere says that he owned Borstall Hall 
(in High Street) ' in the raignes of Edward II and III V which his 
wife Sibyll granted in 1336 to William Sedbury of Worcester; and 
that in his will (1348) he bequeathed Soller Hall (in Bear Lane) to 
his wife Alice 2 . This then was a third consort. Chaucer speaks of 
a Solar Hall at Cambridge. Wood inclines to identify Docklinton's 
Inn in Fish Street with the Christopher 3 . 

Docklinton's name is of frequent occurrence. About 1284 the priory 
demised to John de Doklindon and Juliana his wife a seld, rented at 12s., 
in the parish of All Hallows (Ch. 398). In 1303 he was bailiff with John 
of Beverley 4 . In 1312 he conveyed Hart Hall to Bishop Walter de 
Stapledon and also Arthur Hall. The former he had bought in 1301 from 
Elias de Herteford the younger for .£20, the latter in 1308 of Agnes de 
Staunton 5 . In 1318 he witnessed an agreement between the Abbess of 
Godstow and the Rector and Scholars of Stapledon Hall, and another in 
1323 between Agatha Oweyn and the same ; also two grants by Elena le 
Boun to Thomas le Macoun in 131 5, a grant of John de Ew to John de 
Durham on the morrow of the Conception of the Virgin 131 7, and a con- 
veyance of Nicholas Bone to Thomas and Agnes le Mason in 1322. 
A grant from Thomas and Agnes to Nicholas, Feb. 6, 132^, is witnessed 
by him as mayor. In 1335 he bequeathed 20s. to each of the four Orders 
in Oxford. While mayor in 1327, we find him taking part in an extra- 
ordinary riot on the part of the joint commonalties of Oxford and 
Abingdon, in which Abingdon Abbey was sacked and pillaged of its 
treasures and muniments. A number of rioters were hanged, but whether 
Docklinton was found guilty is not clear. In the 35th of Edw. I (1307) 
he witnessed the lease to Balliol College of the old Synagogue, afterwards 
one of the numerous Broadgates Halls, almost opposite the east end of 
Pennyfarthing, now Pembroke, Street. In 1341 Adam de Kemerton was 
instituted to a chantry in St. Aldate's, no doubt Docklinton's. Richard de 
Lelewood left a bequest in 1349 for the repair of the Lady Chapel, and 
John Shawe in 1361 for St. Peter's light 6 . 

Docklinton's Aisle, under part of which is a vaulted Norman crypt 

1 City, i. 129. 

2 City, i. 174. Perhaps wife is a mistake for daughter. He had a daughter 
Alice who owned, 1356, a hall and a shop annexed to it in St. Edward's parish 
(Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 58). She granted it to John de Norton. 

3 City, i. 198. 4 Oxford City Documents, ed. Rogers, O. H. S., p. 165. 
5 Bodleian Charters, 287. 6 Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 53. 



THE AISLE NOW REBUILT. 



21 



long used as a charnel-house, was a fine specimen of Decorated 
architecture at its best. When Dr. Ingram issued his Memorials 
(1837) it was still divided from the nave by the original massive wall 
pierced by three acutely pointed arches of different sizes. On opposite 
sides the corbel-heads of King Edward III and his queen Philippa 
remained, having once, Dr. Ingram suggests, supported the luminaries 
of SS. Peter and Paul. The piscina and a niche for a small figure of 
a saint existed on the south side near the place where the altar once 
stood. After 1674 the east window, an elaborate specimen of pure 
Decorated tracery, was somewhat obstructed by a small mortuary 
chapel built by John West, Esq., lord of the manor of Hampton 
Poyle 1 . In Mackenzie's print (1835) of the church, looking westward, 
this chapel has a Gothic appearance. Against the west window of 
Docklinton's aisle, in the companion print looking eastward, is a small 
classical addition, apparently a porch, which Dr. Ingram calls 'a 
modern excrescence/ but which looks like good work of Charles II's 
time. The south wall of the aisle had three windows, and a west and 
east window. It has in the present century been lengthened in both 
directions, and the additions at both ends swept away, but the tracery 
of the east window has been kept as an ornamental division between 
the aisle and its continuation, after the fashion of the beautiful chapels 
at Coutances. The hood-moulding of one window has the original 
finials. The chamber above was lit by six square-headed double-light 
Perpendicular windows, and was reached by a newel staircase at the 
south-west external corner. What Dr. Ingram calls the ' disgraceful 
termination ' of this staircase, a double-gabled erection with a sundial 
on its southern face, may have been a later addition for the storage of 
books and papers. The aisle had a battlemented parapet. Round 
the churchyard used to be a stone wall with a substantial gateway at 
the west, and another towards the south-east. A glance at any old 
picture of this, reputed the most ancient, as certainly it was the most 

1 On Oct. 9, 1674, his daughter Anne died in St. Aldate's parish, and was buried 
in the churchyard ' on the south side close under the wall of the chancell.' A 
' little chappell ' was in the same month ' built over her by the fond father,' 
and a monument placed to ' the truly virtuous Mrs. Ann West, the youngest and 
dutiful Daughter of the above.' He, his wife Mary Kirke, and another daughter 
were laid there. He was described as ' a Benefactor to the Church and the Poor 
of the Parish.' Mr. West, who was one of Charles II's Gentlemen Pensioners, 
died Jan. 8, 169%. Anne's shield was ' Ermine, a bend indented sable,' impaling 
her mother, viz. ' parted per fess or and gules a lozeng counterchanged of the 
feild : on a canton azure a lion couchant or collared and chained argent holding 
a cutlas blade in his two pawes.' Wood, ii. 295. The present Master tells me 
that he remembers a beautiful little chapel to the east of the aisle. 



22 



THE NAME 'SAINT ALDATE/ 



lovely of Oxford parish churches l , and a second glance at the present 
uninteresting edifice, must disenchant any one with the well-meant 
blundering of the 'restoration' era of a generation back. If the spires 
of Oxford, which is incredible, are still 1 dreaming,' that of St. Aldate's 
is an architectural somnium aegrum. 

In the churchwardens' accounts of 26 Hen. VIII, 20s. appears as 
received for ' a tenement next y e church style now called y e church 
howse.' It adjoined a property of the prioress of Studley 2 . 

Besides the crypt there still remains a pure Norman arcading inside 
the church. ' The piety of the Norman Castellans/ writes Mr. Green, 
' rebuilt nearly all the parish churches of the city.' Speed says that 
this church was 'founded, or restored' in 1004. The old-fashioned 
guide-books content themselves with saying that 'it is of antiquity 
beyond the reach of satisfactory investigation,' and that it was once 
wooden. Mr. Parker 3 dismisses as an idle tale the fabulous con- 
nexion with the probably mythical British saint Eldad, through 
whose means Hengist was defeated, and who caused the corpses of 
the 460 British barons and consuls, murdered on Salisbury plain, 
to be ' buried in a cimitery near adjoyning.' This saint is described 
by Leland as Bishop of Gloucester about a.d. 450. There is at 
present a St. Aldate's Church in Gloucester, mentioned first in any 
extant writing c. 1291. Like the one in Oxford, it is situated just 
inside an ancient gate of the city, on the left hand ; and Mr. Parker 
conjectures that in both cases Aldate is really Aldgate, i. e. Old Gate, 
the saint's name to whom the church is dedicated having slipped out, 
just as St. Martin's at Quatervois is commonly called Carfax Church. 
The Normans, he suggests, took Aldgate, softened to Aldate, to be 
the name of a saint. Early in the twelfth century we find mention 
of ' Ecclesia S. Aldae.' Afterwards the name appears as S. Aldatus or 
Aldathus. The churchwardens' accounts, temp. Henry VIII, speak 
of ' y e feast of S. Aldate,' but this need not mean more than the parish 
feast 4 . Wood 5 says, 'This church hath bin anciently 6 and com- 

1 A very pleasing water-colour by the younger Prout of Docldinton's aisle and 
the ' school ' overhead has lately been presented to the College by Mr. Alfred 
Thomas Barton, M.A., Vicegerent and Senior Tutor. 

2 Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 67. The house (demolished in 1831) at the south- 
eastern extremity of Pembroke Street was called Church House. 

3 Early History of Oxford, p. 290 sq. 

4 Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 67. 

5 City, ii. 34. 

6 In an Exeter College computus of 1358, 'xmd. pro vino dato Radulpho Code- 
ford quando alloquebatur Rectorem de Seynt Holde.' History of Exeter College, 
Boase, O. H. S., p. xxi. His name was Walter de Leverton, a B.A. 



THE DIVIDED PATRONAGE. 



23 



monly called by the names of St. Aid's, St. Old's, St. Olave's, and 
now at this day St. Toll's.' The present traditional designation 

* St. Old's ' is now almost peculiar to University men, the younger 
townspeople pronouncing ' Aldate ' as it is spelled, as they do also 

* Magdalen.' In the 1773 map of Oxford by Longmate, the name 
is actually given as 'Aldgate,' as it also is in a guide-book which 
I have of 1827. Noble gives it thus in 1806. In the English 
version (made about the end of the fifteenth century) of the Oseney 
Cartulary, a charter of 1226 is signed by ' Reginald, Chapelyn of ye 
church of Seynte Oolde of Oxford.' 

At the general taxation in 1296, the ' verus valor' of this Church 
was four marks. In Henry VIII's reign it was valued at £54. In 
1773 the real worth was put at £100. 

The patronage of this church was given by King Charles I to 
Pembroke College. How at an earlier date St. Frideswyde's and 
Abingdon Abbey came to share the advowson is told in a curious 
story in the Abingdon Chronicle, ii. 174, 175 1 : — 

Est in civitate Oxeneford monasterium quoddam Sancti Aldadi episcopi 
venerationi consecratum. Cujus omne beneficium duo clerici ex eadem 
villa, fratres, Robertus et Gillebertus, cum quodam Nicholao sacerdote 
aeque dimidiabant. Contigit autem ut, vocante Deo, praedicti duo fratres 
habitum monachi in hoc Abbendonensi coenobio, hujus abbatis, scilicet 
Ingulf], tempore susciperent, et partem ecclesiae quae eis contingebat, 
cum terra et domibus infra civitatem, hereditario jure sibi pertinentibus, 
huic ecclesiae dono perpetuo contraderent. Quod videns Nicholaus, 
alterius partis ecclesiae dominus, abbatem simul et conventum convenit, 
postulans ut ei partem fratrum praedictorum cum sua, quamdiu viveret, 
tenere concederent, ita ut censum quern pars accepta exigebat (scilicet 
xx. solidos) annuatim persolveret. Conditionem etiam talem imposuit : 
ut cum habitum mutare vellet, non nisi in ecclesia ista mutaret, vel etiam 
si in illo habitu, quo tunc erat, vitam finiret, pars dimidia ecclesiae 
supradictae, quae sua erat, cum altera parte in perpetuum isto loco 
remaneret. Rogante etiam Nicholao, in privilegio Romano ista ecclesia 
posita est, quod tunc temporis renovabatur. Reversus ergo ad propria, 
ii. solidos per annos singulos in recognitionem pacti praenotati, extra 
censum consuetum, dum vixit persolvit. 

Defluente vero postmodum aliquanto tempore, Nicholaus idem, subita 
aegritudine correptus, letali morbo se sensit detineri. Qui salutis propriae 
recordatus, ad fratres suos Abbendoniam nuntium transmisit, petens ut 
religionis habitum indueret priusquam deficeret. Qui cum mortem ejus 
nondum sic imminere putarent, et iccirco aliquantulum venire tardarent, 
Nicholaus in extasi detentus jacuit. Astantes autem Sanctae Frithes- 
withae canonici, jamque mortuum putantes, et idem fortasse propter 

1 Rev. Joseph Stephenson, ed. in Rolls Series. 



24 NOBLE'S TOMB. 

lucrum suum dcsidcrantcs, nescienti habitum suum supposuerunt, sicque 
ad suam ecclesiam quadam vi et injuria rapuerunt. Postea tamen re- 
vocato spiritu ad se rediens, cum a Wigodo abbate Oseneiae interrogaretur, 
utrum ei habitus sic assumptus, aut ibi mori, placeret, respondit se amplius 
in quodam vili specu velle projici quam ibi detineri. Dicebat cnim bono 
suo se ibi non posse sepeliri, ubi sepultus fidem, quam fratribus suis debuit, 
probaretur mentiri ; se potius ad eum locum deferendum, quern seu vivus 
seu mortuus elegerit inhabitandum. Detentus tamen ab his qui bonis suis 
inhiabant, praesentis vitae finem [faciens ?] inibi interceptus atque sepultus 
est. Partem vero ecclesiae quam Nicholai diximus esse, et jam jure 
nostram, negligentibus circa rerum suarum defensione[m] prolatis [prae- 
latis ?], usque hodie detinent, et perpetue detinere nituntur ; nobis tamen, 
cum parte jam nostra, personatus dignitate reservata. 

The one moiety was confirmed to Abingdon by Pope Eugenius III 
in 1146 1 ; the other to St. Frideswyde's in 1122 (1132?) by King 
Henry I 2 . Ingulf (Prior 1132-58) 'ecclesiam sancti Aldadi dedit 
sacristae V It was agreed that after the next vacancy there should be 
alternate presentation. King Stephen, about n 50, directed the 
Bishop of Lincoln not to put the prior of St. Frideswide's on trial 
touching the moiety of St. Aldate's and touching St. Edward's, except 
before himself, ' quia de propria elemosina mea sint.' 

The patronage of Docklinton's chantry was at one time distinct from 
that of the church. For Wood 4 preserves a charter of 19 Hen. VI (1441) 
whereby Thomas Goldsmith and Nicholas Norton remit and release 
to John Fitzallen and Joan his wife, and their heirs and assigns, all 
their right ' in a cottage or plot also called the presteshouse in peny- 
farthinge streete with the advowson of Docklintons chauntry joyneing 
to S. Aldate's church/ as also in ' Dokelynstons yn' and in Solar 
hall in St. Edward's parish. 

A memorial of the ancient connexion of our House with St. 
Aldate's Church remains in the fine alabaster tomb and recumbent 
effigy of John Noble, LL.B., principal of Broadgates, and official of 
the archdeacon of Berks. It formerly stood in Docklinton's aisle 
'under the upper South window/ but has now been placed against 
the north wall of the chancel, one of the sides being thus con- 
cealed from view. The tomb is enriched on the south and west 
sides with a number of canopied niches containing angels who hold 

1 Dugdale, i. 107. 

2 The Rev. S. R. Wigram {Cartulary of St. Frideswide's, O. H. S., p. 10) con- 
siders that there are no sufficient grounds to doubt the genuineness and date of this 
charter. In the cartulary it is No. 5. Mr. Parker thinks Henry I may possibly be 
an error for Henry II {Early History of Oxford, O. H. S., pp. 292, 293). 

3 Abingdon Chronicle, ii. 291. * MS. D. 2, foil. 163, 164. 



PARISH CHURCHES USED BY COLLEGIANS. 25 



shields, all blank except one. The east side shows a sculptured 
group, representing an aged couple kneeling — probably Noble's parents, 
who may have erected the monument — and their family behind. 

The figure is bareheaded and vested in the gown and hood of 
a bachelor of Laws. The sleeves of the gown are long and pointed. 
The caputium is lined with fur, and there is a line of fur along the 
outer edge of the cape quite an inch wide. The tonsured head rests 
on a cushion. Some judicious care is needed for the inscription if it 
is not to become altogether illegible. It runs thus : — 

J&agt#ter $oift$ Noole in legtr/ fcacallartus quonfca principalis 
auk latar* portar' et oflu' arcfto'ni itfark': et ofcttt gecu&o ote %unu 
®nno Dni mtll'o ccccc°.nij ©ui* ate pptctct' tie* &me ISfuc ipe te 
petim* miserere ({°H U( beteti MeDim' pottos noli Dapnare rebemptos. 

J&tseremtnt met, mtseremtnt met, saltern bos amtci met, quia 
manus Dni tettgit me \ 

The latter words, from Job (chapter xix. 21), are the prayer of a soul 
in purgatorial pains. Noble supplicated for D.C.L. May 14, 1510. 

In the same way that this aisle was appropriated to Broadgates, the 
scholars of Balliol once worshipped in a part of St. Mary Magdalen 
Church, those of Exeter in St. Peter in the East, University College 
used St. Peter in the East and afterwards St. Mary's, Oriel St. Mary's, 
Lincoln Allhallows Church, while the parish Church of St. John 
Baptist is still the Chapel of Merton. 

1 Hearne made this inscription out incorrectly {Collections, ed. Doble, iii. 197). 
He adds : — ' The Founder of Pembroke Chapell, John de Doclington, he was buried 
I think in y e lower End of y e Chapell in w ch on the Floor is a large Marble Stone 
with a Saxon Inscription not legible.' 



CHAPTER III. 



BROADGATES HALL — AULARIANS. 

Round such centres as St. Aldate's the twelfth-century law-students 
lodged in crowded purlieus as thick as bees. At first the swarming 
scholars, gathered out of all nations, had found bed and board in 
the dwellings of the citizens and common lodging-houses. So in the 
Miller's Tale Heende Nicholas the clerk lodges with John the wright 
and Alisoun his young wife, the other members of the household being 
Gill the maiden and Robin the knave 1 . But as the University 
gradually took shape these lodging-houses were brought under an 
increasingly strict control, and became licensed hostels, inns, halls or 
entries, under the disciplinary jurisdiction of the Bishop of Lincoln's 
chancellor and his commissaries, assisted by an official called Heb- 
domadarius 2 . Of these receptacles there were at one time an in- 
credible number and variety, distinguished by the name of the owner 
or by some fanciful designation. 

Among the halls for legists on the west of the Priory none was 
more important or regarded in after-times as more time-honoured than 
Broadgates Hall at the corner of St. Aldate's churchyard. The 

1 'A chambir had he in that hostillerye, 
Alone withouten eny compaignye, 
Full fetisly i-dight with herbes soote, 

His almagest and bookes gret and smale, 

His astrylabe longyng for his art, 

His augrym stoones leyen faire apart 

On shelves couched at his beddes heed, 

His presse i-covered with a falding reed, 

And all above ther lay a gay sawtrye 

On which he made a-nightes melodye, 

So swetely that al the chambur rang, 

And Angelus ad Virginem he sang.' 
On the other hand the 1 younge poore scholars two ' of the Reeve's Tale dwelt in 
' a great college ' at Cambridge called the ' Soler Hall,' which had a warden and 
a manciple. The accommodation enjoyed by Hendy Nicholas was not available for 
all. The pest of 1448 was ascribed in part to the lying of so many scholars in one 
room. 

2 See Ingram's Memorials, St. Mary Hall, p. 16. 



BROADGATES HALL. 



27 



name was a common one. There appear to have been six, possibly 
seven, other halls that bore it. They were these : — 

1. In the parish of St. Michael's at South Gate, probably on the right 
hand as one goes to Folly Bridge, conveyed ' under the name of Broade- 
gates' by Richard Charingworth and Thomas Leye, goldsmith, to 
Sir Adam de Shareshull, 1362. On the authority of Olyver Smith, 
Wood tells us that the Brethren of the Holy Cross (Crutched Friars) had 
their first abode there 1 , Richard de Charingworth being their Prior. 

2. In St. Aldate's parish, a little south of the east end of Penny-farthing 
(Pembroke) Street on the opposite side. When the Jews were licensed 
to build synagogues the canons of St. Frideswyde exchanged it for other 
tenements with Copyn the Jew, of Worcester. After the Expulsion it 
came 'through king Edward the I his hands' to William Burnell, Dean 
of Wells (1291), who converted it into a hall for students, with a tenement 
adjoining, ' and for their better convenience turned the said Synagogue, 
or at least part of it, into an oratory to exercise their devotion therin.' 
It was now called Burnell's Inn or Synagogue. He gave it, in 1307, to 
Balliol College, and it was sometimes called Balliol Hall. Richard 
Clifford, Bishop of London, was bred in it, and afterwards endowed it, 
bequeathing a thousand marks to his poor scholars there. From him it 
was styled London College. In 1469 it appears to have the name 
Hospitium de le Pyke, at which date it still paid the 4d. rent for which 
Copyn the Jew had compounded long before. Among other benefactors 
to it was Bishop Goldwell. The religious students were Bernardines, 
but afterwards Benedictines. The seculars studied civil and canon law, 
'having schooles neare them 2 .' This Hall passed to Wolsey and was 
pulled down by him for the building of his new College. Wood says that 
it was 'called Broadyates in the 41 Edward III ' [1367] 3 . So Savage in 
Balliofergus (1660) ; but he confuses it with the Broadgates on the other 
side of St. Aldate's church : — ' The Synagogue whereunto did belong the 
entrance in at the great Port or Gate, and the sollar over it ; from which 
great or broad Port or Gate, as it is thought, the House of the Students 
(now Pembrook Colledge) was call'd Aula Lateporte?isis or Broadgates- 
hall. This Synagogue and Port was given to Stephanas de Cornubia, 
Master of this House [Balliol] and the Scholars, 35 Ed. I V 

3. In St. Peter le Bailey parish, ' which by the name of Brodeyates was 
demised by Roger Burewald to Simon London in the beginning of the 
raigne of Henry III' (1220) 5 . In a charter of 1294 it is described as 
'juxta ecclesiam S. Petri in Balliolo.' 

1 Gutch's Wood, Hist. Antiq.,andL City, ed. Clark, i. 303, 564; ii. 490. ' On the 
north side of the Wheatsheafe ' a Wood thinks. It was ' on Grandpond, betweene 
a plot of ground belonging to Einsham Abby on the north and a tenement of 
Thomas de Legh on the south.' The land belonged to St. Frideswyde's. 

2 City, i. 157-9. 

3 City, i. 564. Unless he is speaking of another ex-synagogue. Savage certainly 
is speaking of Balliol Hall. This and the other names continued till the fifteenth 
century (i. 158). Halls were often polyonymous. 

4 p. 27. 5 Wood's City, i. 218, 564. 



28 



OTHER HALLS SO NAMED. 



4. In St. Edward's parish, in Schydierd Street (Oriel Lane) — ' an ancient 
habitation for clerks,' situated between Lumbard House (Beke's Inn) on 
the south and Pady House (Nun Hall) on the north. It was also called 
Hunsingore's Inn, from its owner Master Richard Hunsingore, clerk, to 
whom the Priory gave leave, on the morrow of Holy Cross day, 13 17, 
to raise a wall 28 feet long between a tenement of theirs called Brodegate 
in the corner in Schidiard Street and a tenement of his in which he had 
his chamber called Brodyates, adjoining it 1 . ' He, it seems, being a man 
of a publick spirit and excellently learned in those times, made great 
additions and enlargement to it for the reception of the greater number 
of schollers ; and furthermore did his bounty only rest in that particular 
but also in the foundation of an oratory or chappie in this hall, for which 
(it seems) craving the Diocaesan's license, had it procured about the 
aforesaid year 1317.' Hence a Wood thinks it resembled more a college 
than an ordinary hall. Hunsingore's chantry in St. John Baptist's 
Church was founded by this Richard, who was official to the Archdeacon 
of Oxford. He, in 1317, 'gave severall revenews for the maintenance of 
a priest who should celebrate and sing divine service for his and his 
parents' soules. He died anno 1337, and was buried at South Newenton, 
of which place he was rector to the day of his death and to which he 
gave moneys for a preist that should celebrate there also V 

5. Concerning the Broadgates at the lower eastern corner of Schydierd 
Street, near the town wall, we know nothing, except that it belonged to 
the Priory. Wood does not give it in his list of halls of this name 3 . 

6. * Bradyates in parochia S. Mariae,' called by Standish an 'old, 5 i.e. 
disused, hall. ' It was of old time inhabited by schollers, but (by the 
decay of them) by luminours, servants to them, as severall rentalls which 
belonged to [Oseney] Abbey tell us, stiling it thus : — " tenementum 
illuminatorum Brodyates cum sellario et selda in fronte." It yeilded for 
the most part 33.?. 4^. per annum ; but in another, 5 Richard II [1381], 
but 26s. 8^.,' owing to the decay of the Halls 4 . It was on the site of part 
of Brasenose. 

7. A more important one was the Broadgates on the north side of High 
Street in All Saints' parish, ' belonging sometimes to S. John's Hospitall 
within few yeares after their foundation, as appears by an inquisition 
6 and 7 Edward I [1279]. This had its entrance at the wide or broad 
gate at the utmost house saving one of the limitts of this parish from 
S. Marie's and almost opposite to the Swan Inn 5 . Within the said gate 
hath anciently bin a larg court wherin have been divers receptacles for 
schollers, as also a chappie with other aedifices adjoyning, as the ruins 
therof did shew two yeares agoe.' Wood adds a note, ' pulled downe anno 

1 So Wood, City, i. 141, quoting Charter 156 (Wigram). But the Charter 
speaks only of one ' Brodezate.' Wood, however, elsewhere {City, i. 564) affirms 
that the other was 'termed in Edward Ill's raigne [1327-77] Brodeyate alias 
Hunsingore Inn.' He seems nevertheless to be referring to the same charter. 

2 City, ii. 73. 3 City, i. 564. 4 City, i. 135, 565, 637. 

5 City, i. 81. The modern King Edward Street has been cut through the old 
inn-yard. See Mr. Clark's note. 



ORIGIN OF THE NAME. 



29 



1661.' Elsewhere 1 he says, 'It hath now a brod gate and was a place 
sometimes of venerable sanctuary for malefactors. There hath bin very 
ancient building, but of late hath bin pulled downe.' In illustration of its 
character of asylum he gives the story of John Harry, a tailor, who having 
stabbed a man (in 1463) 'fled for fear of loosing his life for the said fact 
to this place. Wherupon Mr. William Hill, one of the proctors, came to 
take him away and committ him to safegaurd. But upon information 
given to him that it was a place priviledged of old time by the Pope, and 
by the laying clairne to the said priviledge by the Master and Covent of 
S. John's Hospitall, the man at length upon some small security found 
the benefit of the place and was dismissed. Several others I find made 
use of it for that purpose till the year 1 530, but how long afterwards it 
doth not appeare.' Wood gives a list of principals. William Alburwyke, 
Chancellor of the University in 1324, was one of them, but before Wood's 
list begins. 

In later times when Broadgates Hall is spoken of the one which 
has been incorporated as Pembroke College is always meant. Wood 
seems to imply that it had this name before Henry VI. It continued 
by the name of Segrym Hall, ' and, corruptly, Segreave alias Broad- 
gates, till the raigne of Henry VI ; and then altogeather called " Aula 
cum lata porta" or "Aula Lateportensis " because that probably the 
entrance therin was broader than others V But elsewhere he states 
that this place, ' continuing by the name of Segrym Hall till about the 
beginning of Henry VI [1422], came to be called Broadyates (from 
a large entrance made into it about that time) and in writings Broad- 
gates, alias Segrym (corruptly afterwards Segreve 3 ) Hall V If he had 
evidence that a wide entrance was made temp. Henry VI, he would 
not say that ' probably ' this gave the place its name. The first principal 
of whom we have certain record is William Wytham, 1436; but if 
the Broadgates in St. Peter le Bailey parish had that designation in 
1220, it seems unlikely that it would have been given for the eighth 
time two centuries later to a hall which already had a distinctive title. 
Probably all these halls received their name about the same time, 
like the Ledenporch, Glazen, or Chimney Halls, in a period when 
such peculiarities were a real distinction. We have no evidence that 
later, in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Broadgates Hall had 
a noticeably wide portal 5 . In Agas's map there is shown a rather 
large porch. In Sir Thomas Browne's speech, however, at the 

1 City, i. 565. 2 City, i. 564. 

3 ' Segrealle,' Peshall. 1 Segrevi,' Latin edition. 4 Gutch's Wood, iii. 614. 

5 The old Broad Gate of the city of Exeter, now destroyed, looks in the pictures 
a very pinched entrance, just as Broad Street in Bath is one of the narrowest 
thoroughfares of that beautiful city. 



30 AN OXFORDSHIRE BY-WORD. 

inauguration of Pembroke College, the name is said to have been 
perhaps ironical. The old building was then still standing. Browne 
asks also ' What father or founder of this House do we recall ? ' In 
a charter of Stephen (c. 1139), mention is made of a rent of 3s. from 
land held of the Priory by Roger Brodgee, or Brodgate 1 ; and it has 
been suggested that the hall had its name from some principal or 
tenant. But this would not account for the other halls of the same 
name, one of which had, we know, a wide gate. Besides, in that 
charter Roger is among the few that have a surname, and the sur- 
name attached to him no doubt from his residence. If so, this proves 
that there was a place called Broadgates as early as King Stephen. 

Heywood the Epigrammatist, who was at Broadgates temp. Henry 
VIII, gives as one of his proverbs (No. 455) current in Oxfordshire, 
' Send verdingales (farthingales) to Broadgates Hall in Oxon.' Fuller, 
quoting this, adds : — 

1 This will acquaint you with the Female Habit of former ages, used not 
only by the gadding Dinahs of that age, but by most sober Sarahs of the 
same, so cogent is a common custom. With these Verdingales the Gowns 
of Women beneath their Wastes were penthoused out far beyond their 
bodies, so that posterity will wonder to what purpose those Bucklers of 
Pasteboard were employed. These by degrees grew so great that their 
wearers could not enter (except going sidelong) at any ordinary door, 
which gave occasion to this proverb. But these verdingales have been 
discontinued this fourty years.' 

In the University Register, under date Feb. 8, i57f, the official 
description is 1 the hall commonly called " the Broadgates." ' 

In the Wood MS. (D. 2, fol. 224) is the record, dated 38 Edw. Ill 
(136D, of the grant of a messuage formerly belonging to William le 
Wylde having £ a hall called Brode3ates in the parish of St. Ebbe on 
the east part/ I can only interpret this as a name for Beef Hall; 
in which case ' Segrym Hall ' existed as ' Broadgates ' as early as 
Edward III, and was large enough to have annexed a tenement in 
St. Ebbe's parish. There is also this, at fol. 472, 'Ex alio rentali : 
14 1 4 Brodyates Mr. John Baron (coll. Merton), Mr. Nic. Wytham 
1425, '8 per Hibernicos 1432.' 

1 Charter 14 in Wigram's St. Fridewide's Cartulary, and see Dugdale, ii. p. 146. 
Wood, however, has an entry, ' Rog. Brodege (forte Brodeye ut alibi).' MS. D. 
2, fol. 368. He witnessed a deed of gift to Oseney with Henry son of Segrim 
(then provost) and Ralph Pady. ' Bradgate ' occurs thrice as a surname in the 
matriculation registers of the beginning of the seventeenth century. A John 
Broadgate, aet. 75 in 1701, was called the 'Smyrna Doctor,' being chaplain to 
the British factory there (Noble, i. 107). The 'Tuns' had a landlord of this name. 



THE HALLS. 



3i 



Originally built of timber or wattle and thatch, from the time of 
the great fire of 1190 all but the humblest hospiiia were constructed, 
partly at least, of stone. Not a few belonged to religious houses ; but 
the majority were originally owned by laymen, and were, after 12 14, 
let to the clerks at rents fixed by a board of eight assessors, four 
being Masters and four townsmen, though even before this rents 
were not uncommonly fixed by a jury of Masters and citizens, called 
Taxers. Any building used for the reception of scholars was called 
aula, the term domus being usually reserved for a religious or semi- 
religious establishment. The University aimed at securing for its 
students the permanent and exclusive use of certain houses, and the 
proprietors of academic halls were not suffered to apply them to any 
other purpose than the reception of students, nor demise them without 
the proviso, ' in case the University had no occasion for the same.' 
That they might not become ruinous, the principal of each hall was 
to give notice to the landlord of necessary repairs, which were to 
be defrayed out of the rent. If the principal omitted to do so, the 
dilapidations fell on himself. 

Unlike the Colleges, which were not originally establishments for 
instruction but eleemosynary houses of religion, and whose fellows, 
till the end of the fifteenth century, had no other duties than those of 
religion prescribed by the College statutes, and those of study pre- 
scribed by the University 1 , and unlike the Inns, which were mere 
lodging-houses, Halls were distinctly teaching institutions. Either 
a teacher gathered scholars round him, or students associated them- 
selves in one house and elected a head or moderator who usually was 
their teacher. They might migrate from hall to hall at pleasure, 
but could not, from the middle of the thirteenth century, be turned 
out. The University took steps to prevent the landlords from 
evicting scholars arbitrarily. 

It was at this time that the idea of corporate college life — with 
its community of worship, organized study, and domestic order — 
for the training of lay Churchmen and secular clergy took shape in 
the House of the Scholars of Merton, the House of Balliol, and the 
Mickle Hall of the University in High Street. This same feeling of 
the desirability of discipline and domestic supervision led to the 
establishment of the Halls under a more settled rule. This vigorous 
common life was the one great difference between Oxford and Paris, 
intensifying corporate consciousness and bringing about the eventful 
influence of Oxford on the national fortunes. About the time that 
1 Huber, vol. i. § it 5. 



32 



AULAR1AN LIFE. 



the scholars were secured from capricious turning adrift, the University 
forbade principals to sell their office, to hold two halls at once, and to 
be absent for more than a year. But it was not till 1420 that 
' unattached ' students were abolished, and every scholar or scholar's 
servant obliged to dwell in a hall governed by a responsible principal. 
In the first year of Henry V a statute was enacted against those 'called 
by the wicked name chambur-dekenys ' {camera degen/es, Wood *), who 
occupied unlicensed lodgings and were a disorderly element. These 
' Irish and Welsh vagabonds ' would often, ' in the habit of poor 
scholars, disturb the peace of the University, live under no government 
of principals, keep up for the most part in the day, and in the night- 
time go abroad to commit spoils and manslaughter, lurk about 
taverns and houses of ill repute, commit burglaries and the like.' 
Like the limitours, they were frequently licensed to beg, ' singing 
Salve Regina at rich men's doors/ 

It was further, in the early fifteenth century, decreed that principals 
should be graduates, and should apply before the Chancellor every 
year for the renewal of their licence ; that they should reside in their 
halls, keep a list of members, report disorderly conduct, and admit no 
student expelled from elsewhere. They took an oath to maintain 
discipline. The students were bound to attend lectures unless 
graduates. The principal was elected by his aularians; but after 
Leicester's chancellorship, about 1570, they were obliged to elect the 
person nominated by the Chancellor. When any vacancy occurred, 
an inventory was made of the common stock of goods and chattels 
pertaining to the Hall, and a cautionary deposit was given to the 
University by the newly admitted principal. 

The principal's profits arose from tuition fees. He did not cater 
for the aularians. This was done by an upper servant or manciple, 
'wise in buying of vitaille,' who was sometimes a scholar. These 
purveyors acquired so much consequence that a statute was passed 
forbidding any manciple to become principal of a Hall. Purveyance 
for twenty miles round Oxford was secured by grant of the Crown to 
the scholars. There was in every Hall a common table, and what 
each contributed to the common purse of the Hall was called 
' Commons,' about eightpence to eighteenpence a week. Additional 
fare for private consumption could be obtained from the manciple and 
w r as called ' batells.' The rent of a single room was from js. 6d. to 
1 3 s. 4d. a year. 

1 Rather, chamber-servants — in a large house the lowest class. 



CHAPTER IV, 



HALLS ON THE SITE OF THE PRESENT COLLEGE, 

No College stands within more natural boundaries than Pembroke 
College. Yet it is an almost accidental agglomeration of ancient 
tenements in two parishes, belonging formerly to a number of different 
owners. By the purchase in 1888 of the Wolsey Hospital the process 
of gradual expansion became complete. Except a minute strip of 
land 1 outside its western wall the College covers the whole quasi- 
rectangular area formed by the city wall on the south, St. Ebbe's Street 
on the west, Beef Lane and St. Aldate's churchyard on the north, 
and St. Aldate's Street on the east. The extreme length is 540 feet; 
the extreme breadth 130. 

The academic tenements which once covered this area were as 
follows, beginning from the east : — ' Segrim's Houses ' (the Wolsey 
Almshouse), New College Chambers, Abingdon Chambers, Broad- 
gates Hall, Cambey's Lodgings, Minote or St. John's Hall, the 
double Hall of SS. Michael and James, Beef Hall, Wyld's Entry, and 
Dunstan Hall. For all of these lands, except the Almshouse (which 
belonged to Christ Church) and Cambey's, the College paid rent till 
recent times. 

I have already spoken of ' Segrim's Houses,' and will hereafter 
treat of the Almshouse upon this site. It was divided by a wedge- 
shaped strip of ground (averaging 17 feet broad, belonging also to the 
Priory, and forming part of the butt-yard) from the neighbouring New 
College land. Until 1866 the College leased this strip of Christ Church 
for a shilling yearly, collected by one of the almsmen and kept by 
them. In the accounts in the time of the Commonwealth, £ 1 2d. for 
y e Almesmen in christ church Plospitall,' ' for a little ground.' In 
Agas's map there is something which may answer to the present 
double gates opening on to this slice of ground, but Dr. Ingram and 
1 The City are about to sell this to the College. 
D 



34 NEW COLLEGE BUILDING. 

Oilier (1843) can hardly be correct in staling that the broad gates 
which gave the Hall its name were here * opposite the south-east corner 
of St. Aldate's churchyard/ In Burghers' engraving (1700) there are 
on this slip a few trees (represented at the present day by two limes), 
and grass with formal walks, which have now disappeared. In 
Loggan's (1675) there are only trees and grass. 

Next to this, where the Old Quadrangle now begins, stood New 
College Building or Chambers, and between them and Broadgates 
Hall were Abingdon Chambers. ' For the enlargement of the said 
Hall a certain tenement adjoining (on the east side, as it seems) was 
added to it, and so also was another on the east side of that which 
belonged to New College, and was rented by the Principal of Broad- 
gates in the reign of Hen. VII for 6s. 8d. yearly 1 .' New College 
Building is first found rented by a principal of Broadgates in 1498, 
the fourteenth year of Henry VII. In 15 10 Mr. John Noble had 
succeeded Doctor Brian [Hygden] as tenant, paying 6s. 8d.*, ' eo quod 
scholares abunde fuerint absentes per magnum tempus propter peri- 
culum infirmitatis V Mr. Darbyshire and Mr. Greene, principals of 
Broadgates, appear as tenants in 1556 and 1564 respectively. Before 
Darbyshire another tenant, Dr. Gilbert, appears. ' New College hath 
a tenement between brodgates o y e west and y e Almeshouse on y e East, 
sometles in y e tenure of Dr. Gilb* V In the 20th of Henry VIII 
(1528), however, it has another name, connected perhaps with the trade 
which flourished close by — 'Brewers tenement pulled downe by y e 
cardinal V This is the same as ' Brewer's tenement belonging to New 
College w cn stood iuxta ecclam S tJ Aldati et iuxta Brodyates 6 / 
mentioned under 1495, and apparently identical with New College 
Building. If so, did Wolsey rebuild it, for there is a building next the 
Almshouse in Agas? Another entry in the New College bailiffs' 
accounts, which Wood hesitatingly assigns to the 20th of Henry VII 
( 1 504), is this : ' Will, plomer oweth lately y e ten. by Brodgates V 

Before its annexation to Broadgates in (as it seems) 1498 there are 

1 Gutch's Wood, Hi. 614. The brothers Robert and Gilbert gave to Abingdon 
Abbey not only their moiety of St. Aldate's advowson, but ' terram et domus infra 
civitatem.' These were probably the Abingdon building. 

2 Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 283. 

3 Ibid. fol. 284. 4 Ibid. fol. 288. 
5 Ibid, fob 284. 6 Ibid. fol. 282. 

7 Ibid. fol. 283. In 1529 William Plummer was surety in £10 for John Harvey, 
late warden of the Minorites, that he would appear to answer charges laid against 
him. In 1537 he witnessed the will of a widow who left 'to the four ordres of 
fryers four nobles to singe dirige and masse at Allhallows church at the buryall 
and moneth mynde.' (Little's Grey Friars , pp. no, n. 1, and 319.) 



ABINGDON CHAMBERS. 



35 



scholars found in it in 1495. The house was then rented by Mr. 
Parson Agar, ' called afterwards Dr. Akers V At an earlier date the 
famous prelate Thomas Bekynton was principal there. j£_388Ql.5 

Thomas Bekynton was fellow of New College, 1 408-1 420. While 
Dean of Arches he tried the heretic Taylor. He was also Prolocutor of 
the Lower House. As an eminent canonist he was one of three lawyers 
appointed to draw up articles of procedure against the Wycliffites, and — 
having been tutor to Henry VI — wrote a learned work in opposition to the 
Salique law. Bekynton was advanced to be Secretary of State, Keeper 
of the Privy Seal, and Bishop of Bath and Wells (1443). Together with 
Bishop Langton and Sir John Fastolf, he was dispatched, in 1432, as 
ambassador to the Court of France, to negotiate a peace, and was also 
a member of the great embassy sent to Calais in 1439. In 1442 Bekynton 
went on a fruitless embassy to Armagnac to arrange a marriage between 
Henry VI and one of John IV's daughters. He died Jan. 14, I46f, and 
was laid in a noble tomb built by himself. It was opened in 1850 
and his skeleton found — that of a tall man with a well-formed skull. 
Bekynton's chief fame rests on his princely encouragement of men of 
letters and his architectural works. Besides rebuilding the palace at 
Wells, he erected a public conduit and fountain, the Vicars' Close, and 
other edifices there. His rebus — a tun and a flaming bekyn or beacon — 
is to be seen on the walls of Wells, of Winchester, and of Lincoln College, 
of which the Rector's Lodgings are due to him. He also promoted the 
College at Eton, where he was himself consecrated. 

A rent of 20J\ was paid for this land to New College from 1545 till 
April 16, 1866, when it was redeemed. In 1544 it was rented at 30^. 
'Anno Henrici 8 vi 35 0 ad 36 111 : — super doctorem Parre [=Apharry], 
principalem de Broadegates pro redditu suo hoc anno 30X. 2 ' 

At what date Abingdon Chambers came to be leased by the Principal 
of Broadgates we do not know, except that it must have been before 
the renting of the New College tenement, and before 1485, for the 
New College tenement is then said to be ' by Brodgates V Wood says 
the building contained ' two or four chambers ' ; the area was half 
a rood. It was quit-rented of Christ Church, to which this Abbey 
property passed, for 6s. 8d. 

These two tenements and Broadgates Hall adjoining seem to be 
represented in Agas's large map in Bodley (1578) 4 by an irregular 
string of unimposing houses, together with a fairly large building at 
about the middle of the south side of the present Old Quadrangle, and 

1 MS. D. 2, fol. 281. But perhaps this was John Akars, one of the ' scholars of 
ripe wits and abilities in Cambridge ' who were among the first students of Cardinal 
College. (Strype, Parker, i. 10.) 

2 City, i. 607. 3 Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 281. 

4 Ralph Agas's map however was made about 1550, though not published 
till 1578. 

D 2 



36 



DWELLERS BY THE WALL. 



perhaps another building a little east of where the chapel now stands. 
The Wolsey Almshouse in Agas, Speed (1610) and Hollar (1643) is 
quite an imposing quadrangular pile. There are some entries in the 
Oxford Cily Documents, edited by the late Prof. Thorold Rogers, 
which refer to these localities at an earlier date. In the list of 
contributors to the lay subsidy or poll tax of 4 Richard II (1 380-1) 
are these names in the south-west ward (pp. 15, 17) : — 

De Waltero Benham ffysshmongere et Emma Vxore eius . . xij*/. 

De Elizabetha seruiente eiusdem iiij^. 

De Elena seruiente dicti Walteri \\\]d. 

A little lower down Joan Benham { Spynnestere' pays \2d. and her 
servant Ellen 4^. On page 302, in a Town Rental of 12 Ric. II, we 
find, after the rent of a little tower on the east of the South Gate (the 
entries go westward) : — 

De Waltero Benham pro occupatione muri villae praedictae iuxta 

portam Australem Oxon 

De eodem Waltero pro quodam turrello iuxta ostium domus suae 

ibidem xijV. 

De eodem Waltero pro quadam venella vocata la Hamele inclusa 

iuxta caemiterium ecclesiae S. Aldati 4d. 

From which it appears that Walter Benham, the fishmonger, then 
occupied the wall just west of South Gate, and had his house there, 
and rented the lane called Hamel, which is now the approach to the 
College \ The ' turrellum ' close to his door and rented by him must 
have been part of the South Gate, for there was no other bastion near. 

Of Broadgates Hall itself the principal building still remains, viz. 
the refectorium, until 1847 the dining-hall of Pembroke, and now the 
library. The transverse portion was added in 1620. This oddly 
shaped room has very thick walls and one deeply splayed original 
window. The mullions have been altered, but the old drawings show it 
to have been of the fifteenth century. Broadgates continued ' for divers 
generations' after 1378 to be valued at \o>s. But the priory let it to 
principal Noble in 151 7 for 30^., 'yea, for 20.?. on the principal 
repairing of it/ ' which rent continuing till the dissolution of Religious 
houses or thereabouts (at what time there were but few scholars in the 
University), it fell to 1 ^s. 4^. and so it continued till the said Hall was 
given to Christ Church by King Henry VIII 2 .' This and the other 
Christ Church rent were redeemed in 1866 for £40. 

1 A hundred years before (1285), one Thomas de Benham was attached in con- 
nexion with a case of manslaughter. Robert Benham was an ' ynneholder ' in the 
'parish of Seynt Mary Mawdelen ' in 1534. {Oxford City Documents, pp. 202 
and 67.) 2 Gutch, iii. 16. 



THE OLD MAPS. 



37 



Passing to the other side of Broadgates, we now come to an 
imposing-looking building, which fronted the churchyard on the west 
as far as Beef Lane. It was wider, however, than the present Master's 
house, and moreover stood further back, having in front of it a toft or 
narrow garden ground \ Agas and Hollar show it as a kind of oblong 
quadrangle, the north end having three gables. Agas seems to include 
this building, or these buildings, under the general designation 
'Broadgates,' and, when Vertue in 1744 made Pembroke College the 
subject of the Oxford Almanack top, he drew the Earl of Pembroke 
laying at King James's feet a representation of a building closely 
resembling the 1 quadrangle ' given by Agas and intended doubtless to 
stand for old Broadgates Hall. The short north side of this building, 
or block of buildings, occupies in Agas a fifth of the whole length of 
Beef Hall Lane, and in Hollar a third, or even a half. A fifth is 
probably the right measurement. Out of the western side of the 
' quadrangle ' starts a fairly large building, running a little askew from 
Beef Hall Lane, and from the south-west corner of this juts out 
towards the city wall another smaller one. One other inconsiderable 
building is shown towards the end of the Lane. In the large open 
space between the Lane and the town-wall there are trees. 

From Agas, of course, we do not look for scrupulous accuracy. But 
the buildings described above seem to answer to a row of halls for 
legists which we know lay between Broadgates Hall and Littlegate, 
now St. Ebbe's Street. These were Cambey's, Minote, SS. Michael 
and James, Beef, and Dunstan Halls. The first two (united in one 
hall from 1575, if not from 151 7) are represented, I believe, by the 
' quadrangle,' the double hall of SS. Michael and James by the build- 
ing running out from it with a spur-like projection, Beef Hall being 
the more distant building standing on the Lane, and giving its name 
to it to this day, while Dunstan Hall had either been demolished before 
Elizabeth's reign, or it is the most westerly of the buildings on or near 
the city wall, a little distance south of Beef Hall Lane. All these 
came to be part of Broadgates Hall and Pembroke College. I will 
at the end of this volume discuss the exact position of these different 
buildings, some of which were standing until 1844, when the present 
New Quadrangle took their place. 

Cambey's Lodgings, at right angles to Broadgates, is now represented 

1 This however is not clear. Wood (City, i. 213) represents 'Cambie's' as 
behind 'the M r Lodg,' which he says was 'sometimes a void peice of ground.' 
In his diagram the words are afterwards scored through. In 1626 'Cambey's 
Place' was bounded on the east by the churchyard (MS. D. 2, fol. 623). 



33 



CAMBEY'S LODGINGS. 



by the Master's house. In a catalogue compiled by John Rowse, 
who is said to have died in 1491, under the heading 1 juxta ecclesiam 
S. Aldati ' are a number of halls for legists existing in his day, but 
Cambey's is not one of them. They are Latiportensis, Polton, James, 
Michael, Beof, and Dunstan. Cambey's was either considered as 
practically part of Broadgates, or was not used for academical 
purposes ; probably the latter, for the principals of Broadgates do not 
seem to have rented this house until 1 5 1 7, at which date it belonged 
to a family named Cambey or Cambray — ' Cambye's Lodgings, so 
called from one Mr. John Cambye, who held them of St. Frideswyde's 
Priory, an. 151 7, and who also about that time did build them anew 
to the end that the Scholars of Broadgates might live in them V He 
also rented the next land on the west. In no list of halls is there 
any that can be identified with this residence. In the St. Aldate's 
registers transcribed by Wood, among the burials are: 'Jan. 11, 

1540, John Cambraye;' 'Jan. 18, i545,Margt Cambraye 2 .' 

When the Cambeys gave up their house for the use of the students 
of Broadgates, John Noble, already mentioned, was principal. ' Old 
Mr. Windsore,' a Wood tells us, called the place ' Veale Hall,' and he 
adds a note ' Radulph Viel V There is no ' Aula Vitulina ' in any of 
the lists of halls. Miles Windsor, born in Henry VIII's time, probably 
knew of a fifteenth-century occupant, Ralph Viel, and called it Veal 
Hall to match Beef Hall in the same lane. St. Michael's, between them, 
was dubbed by this humourist ' Mutton Hall V Cambey's Lodgings 
were inhabited by clerks till 1549, when ' some difference happening 

1 So in Gutch's Wood. However in the St. Aldate's accounts of 1534 * s an entry 
' of a tenement lying by brodyates now in y e tenure of mfis Camby 8d. p. a.' 
(Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 67). 

2 Perhaps the Ellen Camby was of this family whose brass 4 on a blew flat 
stone' in Stanton Harcourt chancel, representing her with lifted hands, one of 
which holds her beads, is mentioned by Wood. The inscription, as he remarks, is 
noticeable at the date of 1566 : — 

4 Of your charity pray for the soule of Elen Camby late the wyff of John Camby, 
which decessed the xxiv day of June in the yere of our Lord God mv c lxvi. On 
whose soule Jesu have mercy, Amen.' {Life and Times, ed. Clark, O. H. S., i. 220.) 
A similar inscription close by, of 1569, asks intercession 'for the soule of S r 
Henry Dodschone preist, late vycar of this church.' 

3 An industrious antiquary, but a Wood speaks slightingly of his ' vaine doting 
collections.' He came to Oxford in Queen Mary's reign, having been born about 

1541. Windsor acted in Christ Church hall before Queen Elizabeth in 1566. He 
died in the year of the foundation of Pembroke and was buried in C. C. C. chapel. 
He lodged near St. Michael's at Southgate. 

* One Alice Viel had a house in St. Peter le Bailey parish in the middle of the 
thirteenth century {Cartulary of St. Frideswyde, ed. Wigram, O. H. S., Charters 
359 and 360). 



ST. JOHN'S ENTRY. 



39 



between the principall of Broadgates and the owner of them, were for 
sometime vacant. At length the priviledges of the University being 
urged and produced were brought to their use againe, and annexed to 
the said hall of Broadgate, which continued to the last state therof.' 
The University forbad inns once used for academical purposes to be 
diverted to other uses, unless required by the owner or his family for a 
residence, or unless about to be let on a lease of at least ten years. 
At the dissolution of the monasteries, Cambey's, though still occupied 
by the Broadgates students, came into the hands of a layman, Thomas 
Owen, of Elsfield, Southants (fellow of New College 1536, B.C.L. 
1544), who in the twenty-ninth of Elizabeth (1587, Nov. 7) sold it to 
William Tooker ' of the citie of Exon, gent. 1 ' On July 22, 1596, 
Dr. William Tooker, then canon of Exeter and of Sarum, archdeacon 
of Barnstaple and chaplain to the Queen, conveyed the place to 
George Summaster, principal of Broadgates, who already rented the 
next building on the west. He, ' for the most part ' rebuilt the house, 
and by will, dated July 1st, 12° Jacobi (16 15), bequeathed it to Samuel 
Summaster 2 of Painsford, Devon (knighted 1 6 1 6). Sir Samuel Sumaster 
and Dame ffraunces his wife in 1622 sold it to Dr. Clayton, last 
Principal of Broadgates, and first Master of Pembroke College. 
Thomas Clayton, doctor in physique, with Alice his wife, conveyed 
it for some reason in 1625 to Mr. John Rous, of Oriel, Bodley's 
librarian, the friend of Milton, for £368. On April 19, 1626, 'y e 
said Jo. Rous sold y e said Cambies Lodgings to y e M r fellows and 
scholars of pemb. coll. for S5° li y 3 ' wno repairing and making some 
alteration on them, were appointed to be the Lodgings of the Master.' 

Next to Cambey's was an Entry, which temp. Edw. II was rented 
of St. John's Hospital without East Gate for \2s.\ — ' introitus juxta 
Mine Hall reddit per annum domui S. Johannis, 1 2s. 4 ' In the list 
(1438) in the Munimenta Academic a (ii. 519), 'Introitus Sancti 
Johannis ' is given. But perhaps this was in Cat Street 5 . 

1 William Tooker (1554-1621), Winchester fellow of New College, afterwards 
Dean of Lichfield, disputed in 1583 before the Polish prince. He wrote a Latin 
quarto, Charisma, sive Donimi Sanationis, upholding Elizabeth's power to touch 
for the Evil. (Strype, Annals, iv. 438, 626.) He received absolution, in the 
Convocation of 1604, for non-comparence. 

2 Entered Broadgates Hall Oct. 23, 1607, from Devon, arm. fil., aged 16. 

3 I quote Wood MS. : ' All the tenement and garden ground having a garden of 
All Souls on the west known as Cambye's Place or Lodgings near Broadgates Hall.' 
' Broadgates Hall, now Pembroke College,' is described as its southern boundary. 
But on the west was Magdalen land, not All Souls land. Perhaps Minote was 
looked on as an adjunct of Cambye's. 

4 Wood's City, i. 566. 5 Ibid. i. 594. 



4o 



MINE OR Ml NOTE HALL. 



Next on the west 1 was Mine or Minote Hall, belonging to the Hos- 
pital of St. John Baptist. ' It was soe called, as it should seem, from 
a name that owned it ; of whom Robert Minhote [in a note, Robert le 
mignotc] probably was one was provost of Oxon [with Laurence Rufus] 
about the 17 Henry III ' (1233) 2 . Robert Minnoth witnessed among 
other agreements a grant of land to the Friars Preachers about 1250. 
His name occurs in a deed with that of Richard Segrym 3 . On folio 167 
is an undated but witnessed charter by which Adam, son of Richard 
the vintner, grants to Robert le Mignot and his heirs all that 
messuage which he had of Joan, daughter of William Leggi, lying 
between the land which had been William's the son of Amfrid, and 
that which had belonged to Jordan le Jaune, ' sinser ' [incenser ?], in 
St. Aldate's parish. In another charter Robert Mingnot of Oxford 
grants to St. John's Hospital his land in St. Aldate's, and 14^. 6d. 
rent, &c. In the Hundred Rolls we read : ' Fratres Hospitalis Sancti 
Iohannis tenent unum tenementum quod eis dedit Robertus Myngoyth 
in perpetuam eleemosynam sine redditu, et valet una marca per 
annum.' It is placed in St. Aldate's parish (vol. ii. p. 789). In the 
22nd of Edward I (1293), 'aula Minot iuxta cimiteriu S. Aid.' paid 
the Brethren 20s. 4 In the 2nd of Edward III (1328) it was a house 
for clerks and rented by the rector of St. Aldate's at 30s. 5 In 32 
Edw. Ill (1358) Mr. Richard Wolfe paid 26s. 8d. for it 6 , and as late 
as 9 Ricardi II (1385) he was still the tenant 7 . It is in Simon Parret's 
catalogue of 1390 8 . In the 5th of Henry VI (1426) Mr. William Lawle 
occupied it as an academical hall 9 . In the 3rd of Henry VII (1487) 
Mr. Grey, vicar of Bloxham, abode 1 in the hall called Minote,' paying 
2 3 s. 8d. 10 The old name, however, was giving way to one derived from 
the Hospital which owned the place. Thus in a rental of about 1400 
the premises are described as 'tenementum Rob 1 Minote Aula vocat. 
Iohannis in parochia S. Aldati n ,' and again in 1425 12 . ' Senjonyshall ' 
in the Lay Subsidy of 1380 may be the one in Logic Lane. Standish 
distinguishes Myn Hall from Minote, and says he forgets what parish 
the latter was in 13 . He places the former on this site. Wood is not 

1 Though in Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 243, there is a strange remark : 'Note that 
Mingnot hall was in St. Tolls parish and not in St. Ebbs, and therefore I suppose 
it stood between y 6 Almeshous and pembroke coll. or therabouts. ' 

2 Wood's City, i. 521. Vide supra, p. 7. 

3 Wood MS. D. 2, foil. 161, 196, 214, 375. 4 Ibid. fol. 232. 

5 Ibid. fol. 237. But at City, i. 521, the rent is put at 16s. 4^. 

6 Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 239. 7 Ibid. fol. 240. 

8 City, i. 630. » Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 241. 

10 Ibid. fol. 243. " Ibid. fol. 469. 12 Ibid. fol. 474. 

13 4 Tam subito meminisse non possum ' (Wood's City, i. 636, n. 4). 



PHILIP PULTON. 



4i 



quite sure if they are the same i . He identifies Minote or St. John's 
with Polton Hall. Philip Polton was principal of St. John's Hall in 
1458. In Rowse's list (before 1491), Polton Hall comes between 
4 Latiportensis ' and ' James ' ; Wood says, ' neare Broadgates Hall or 
els on the north side of the Church,' where Peshall also puts it. 

Philip Polton, son of Thomas and Edith, (fellow of All Souls and 
archdeacon of Gloucester ; died Sept. 22, 1461 2 ), ' built at his owne charges 
the north isle adjoyning to [St. Aldate's] church, anno 1455. In which 
afterwards by his will, anno 1461, he instituted a chantry therin after this 
manner following : — 

' first, that there should be a chapleine of his own presentation therunto 
named John Fayrwater who should for the health of his soul say mass 
dayly in the said chapel or isle, excepting festivall and lord's dayes on 
which he should celebrate in the choire of this church ; 

' that the said John Fayrwater should repaire all those tenements that he 
should leave for the maintenance of him and his successors ; 

' and lastly, after the said Fayrwater's death, the rector of this church 
togeather with the parishioners should have power alwaies to present 
another chapleine or preist whensoever the former resigned or departed 
this life. 

' These conditions being drawed up by the founder Philip Polton, he 
settled severall lands and revenews on the said John Fayrwater and his 
successors for ever, viz., a messuage in St. Michael's parish at South 
Gate, two messuages in Grandpont in the same parish, and others in 
Abingdon, lying in Sturt Street, Boreweste Streete, Cotfettell Streete, and 
others in Wynyard Boningwell. Besides he gave to this church a gradual 
(" graduale ") and a processional, and also to this his chappie a new missal, 
with 4 paire of preist's vestments, a silver paxill, and a large chest to 
containe the said utinsells and other "jocalia" belonging therunto. 

' The next year after the erection of this chappie one Joane Wylmott, 
wife of John Wylmott of this parish, became a benefactresse to it. For 
she dying anno 1456 and buried here in this chappie left to her executors 
(her husband and Philip Polton aforesaid) her tenement joyning on the 
north side of the lane leading from Fish Street to Hinxsey Hall (which 
indeed is Keepharme Lane) in the parish of St. Aldate, as also a garden 
ground in St. Edward's parish on the south side of Jury Lane ; which she 
willed to be sold and the moneys therof to be employed for the. use of this 

1 City, i. 566, and n. 5. He mentions an entry 'in an accompt of the houses of 
clerks in Edward the Second his raigne— " le Mine Hall de Luttlemore, 2 marcae." 
It was in St. Aldate's.' But Minote cannot have belonged to the nuns of Littlemore 
in that reign, if at all. At City, i. 521, he places Minote among the halls of 
unknown situation. 

2 On a brass in All Souls chapel: 'Hie iacet Magister Philippus Polton Bac- 
calarius Canon., qui fuit Archidiaconus Gloucestrie, qui obiit xxii die Septembris 
anno Dom. millesimo cccclxi. Cuius anime propicietur Deus. Amen.' At each 
corner of the stone are three mullets pierced in a shield, without tinctures. 



4 12 



HALL OF SS. MICHAEL AND JAMES. 



chappel, termed in her will St. Saviour's Chappell, as indeed in other 
charters it is soc called, being dedicated to Our Saviour Christ. 

'All these revenews being soe setled I believe they amounted to noe 
inconsiderable sum by the year. Yet notwithstanding, it appears by a 
certificat authorising severall commissioners I Edward VI [1547] to take 
a survey of those Chantryes within this city to be worth but £4 8s. per 
annum, being then stiled Aldaster's Chantry V 

In Wood's diagram the garden of Minote Hall extends to the town 
wall, whereas Cambey's only stretches half-way, the rest belonging to 
Broadgates. 

In 1 54 1 Magdalen received 3J. 4^. rent 'pro gardino nuper in 
tenura mri Camby vocat. mynehall.' So that John Cambey rented it 
till his death in 1540 2 . Wood notices that ' that tenement of St. Johns 
Hospitall is called a Hall in a lease dated 35 Henry VIII [1543], 
wherby S. Michael's Hall was let by All Soules College to Dr. John 
Warner; registrum antiquum Collegii Omnium Animarum fol. 167, 2V 
In 1575 Mine changed its name to Summaster's Lodgings, and ceased 
to be an independent Hall. Standish (Registrar, 1552-79) has in his 
catalogue of defunct halls : 1 Min Haulle nunc in tenura principalis 
de Brodegates/ Wood says that Mr. George Summaster 'was the 
first that converted [Minote] into chambers for the scholars of 
Broadgates/ The 3s. 4a 1 . rent was paid till 1781. 

The 'S. Michael's' just mentioned was the later name for the next 
tenement on the west, consisting of two academic halls, one named 
from St. Michael the Archangel, the other from St. James 4 . These 
religious designations of Halls were not common. The former 
or more easterly (though a. Wood in one place seems to reverse the 
order, and Rowse gives the names as ' James, Michael, Beof ') had also 
the name Durham Hall, from Thomas de Derham 5 , who owned it 
temp. Henry III. This was ' a very antient place for students/ ' Of 
both I find mention in a husteng roll Oxon, 12 Edvv. Ill [1338], 
wherin 'tis said that one John Attehole, the atturney of the Abbat 

1 Wood's City, ii. 38, 39. The pillars parting this aisle and the body of the 
church were built in the year 1581. 

2 Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 243. 3 City, i. 212, n. 6. * City, i. 566. 

5 John de Durham, his son and heir, no doubt inherited from him Caroll Hall 
and an adjoining house in ' le Little Bailly ' close to St. Ebbe's church. See 
Registrum Coll. Exoniensis, ed. Boase, O. H. S., pp. 303, 4, 7. He demised 
* Carolehalle ' Sept. i, 1338, to Master John de Wyldelond and Joan his wife. 
The Durham House placed tentatively here in the map at the end of Mr. Wigram's 
Cartulary was, I think, the one mentioned at City, i. 218. It lay, A. D. 1400, 
between a tenement of Robert Baturwyk and a tenement of the Warden and 
Scholars of the College of the Blessed Mary of Winton, and in St. Peter ad Castrum 
parish. 



BEEF HALL. 



43 



of Letele, did distreine Mr. Hugh Sampson, parson of Ruyshendon, 
for the arreares of a certaine annuall rent issuing from a messuage in 
the parish of S. Aldate called Durham Hall "inter tenementum 
vocatum Aula S. Iacobi et tenementum Hospitalis S. Iohannis," &c. 
As for the second of these two halls I find noe farther mention. 
But for S. Jeames Hall it often occurres in our registers, wherin 
are the names of severall principalis therof, and that it was in 
S. Aldate's parish and neare Beef Hall V The double tenement was 
held of All Souls, paying a yearly rent of 4s. with a groat acquittance. 
Dr. John Warner, we have seen, held it in 1543. In a lease of 16 12 
the eastern boundary of Beef Hall is described as ' a parcel of ground 
belonging to All Souls College, sometimes [i.e. formerly] called 
Michaell Hall.' This designation had probably swallowed up that of 
{ Jamys.' Both were for legists. Mr. William Pyknam, B.C.L., principal 
of £ Michell Halle,' on December 22, 1458, implored pardon of Convo- 
cation for having affirmed publicly in the canon law schools before 
the Commissary (John Danvers) that the latter would pervert justice 2 . 
The old 4<y. \d. rent was redeemed, Aug. 14, 1773, for £12 \2s. 

Still further west was Beef Hall ; the name survives in Beef Lane. 
' The king's highway leading to Beef Hall ' is till recent times the 
expression in leases for that Lane. This Hall then must have been 
the oldest, or the largest, of the hostels between St. Aldate's and 
St. Ebbe's churches, or else the one which originally abutted actually 
on the highway. Wood says that Beef Hall was ' so called from an 
Ox over its dore or else within on the walls.' He mentions an ' Ox 
School,' and schools in School Street, ' ubi bos depingebatur,' quoting 
a writer 3 who avers that there was an inn at Padua, granted to legists 
in 1493, with this sign, and that the schools established in that house 
1 Bovinae sunt appellatae .' Lassells, in his Voyage into Italy, says that 
the Padovan public schools ' are called II Buc or Oxe,' asking if the 
first Readers there can have come from Oxford, a surmise which 
a, Wood negatives. There was a Bull Hall close by in Pennyfarthing 
Street, and elsewhere an Elephant and a Swan Hall. Rowse spells the 
name 1 Beof,' and a. Wood elsewhere derives it from a certain Befford 4 . 

1 City, i. 212. So again at City, i. 594: C S. Jacobi in parochia S. Aldati, 
annexa Bevanae 1451.' Mr. Clark's map at the end of City, vol. i, makes the 
division of parishes to come between St. Michael and St. James, an alley running 
at this point down to the city wall. 

3 Anstey, Mun. Acad. p. 680. 3 Anton Ricobon, 1598. 

4 City, i. ail, n. 4. A John Bufford was discommoned in 1297 in consequence of 
a riot. A William Bufford was juror in 1322. Samuel son of Ralph is mentioned 
c. 1255. 



44 



NICHOLAS DE TJNGEW1CK. 



A coroner's inquest was holdcn in 1302 touching the death of William 
Bufford, who dwelt 'in parvo Balliolo in parochia S. Ebbae ' — close, 
that is, to this Hall. 

There is a mysterious ' Aula Bevana 1 ' held under one principal in 
1 45 1 with James and Beef. Wood places it among the halls of an 
uncertain site, as well as an 'innominata iuxta Aulam Bovinam, 
S. Aldati 2 . Perhaps it was on the other side of the Lane. Beef Hall 
was given to the University by Mr. Nicholas de Tingewick, Doctor of 
Physic. His name, with those of the Chancellor of the University and 
the Warden of the House of Balliol, occurs in 1327 as witness to 
a deed' (in the Balliol College archives) by which the Lord Nicholas de 
Quappelad, by the grace of God Abbot of Reading, released to the 
scholars of the House of Balliol £20 sterling for the soul of Adam de 
Poleter, burgess of Reading, for the building of St. Catherine's chapel 
of the said House, gave them ten silver marks for the same purpose, 
a glass window of the value of £10 and more, and timber, lath, &c, 
with the carriage of the same. In the Pembroke College Library is 
a valuable medical MS. called Breviarium Bartholomew written by 
John Merfield or Marfield, a monk of St. Bartholomew's Priory in 
Smithfield, in the reign of Henry VI 3 . In a chapter treating of the 
cure of the jaundice (ycteritid) the writer affirms : ' Moreover lice 
(pediculi) of sheep, bruised and compounded with honey and water 
(hydromel), can cure jaundice. In consequence of which Master 
Nicholas Tyngewick, in his chair at Oxford, related that he rode forty 
miles to an old woman who had by this remedy cured an infinite 
number, so to speak, of persons, and that he gave her a sum of 
money for instructing him in that cure.' This Nicholas gave his 
name to Tinswick or Tingwick Hall or Inn (called temp. Henry III 
Corbett's Hall), which was repaired by Sir Peter Besills, of Abingdon, 
Knight, who held it of the University, and died in 1424. Later it 
came to All Souls College, and was destroyed to make room for their 
cloister. The principality had been granted to Tingewick on his own 
motion, 1322, in consequence of his having made it over, together with 
' another tenement in St.Ebbe's parish 4 / to the Chancellor and Scholars 

1 ' Bevana, annexa Bovinae, lacobi annexa Eevanae ' {City, i. 590). ' Annext to 
Bovina or Beef Hall, as is in one of our registers and an ancient catalogue of halls 
made in Queen Marie's raigne ' {City, i. 513). Not in Rowse's. 

2 This can only mean that the nameless hall was in St. Aldate's, in which case it 
must have clung closely to the skirts of SS. Michael and James, which were just 
inside St. Aldate's parish. 

3 See Sixth Report of Historical MSS. Commission, p. 550. Dr. Clayton lent the 
folio to Twyne. 4 Gutch, ii. 714. 



BEEF HALL FOR IRISH CLERKS. 



45 



of the University, on condition that they always find two Masters that 
are Regents in arte dialectica, to oversee and govern the grammar 
schools that he purposed to place therein. Doubtless the other tenement 
was Beef Hall. The University repaired it a. d. 1352. The manciple 
of ' Tyngeswycisyn ' and the manciple and cook of ' Befhalle ' paid 
poll tax in 1380 \ Tingewick read his lectures in the Physic School 
adjoining his inn. Though medicine was his chief study, he was also 
bachelor in arts and divinity, and in 1308 succeeded Ralph de Stanford 
in the Sarum prebend of Major Pars Altaris. He was fellow of 
Balliol till he became B.A., and in 1325 was one of the two Magisiri 
extranet, or extrinsic procurators, for seeing Devorguilla's statutes for 
that college carried out. He and Friar Robert of Leicester laid down, 
1 in the presence of the whole community,' Fitzralph, afterwards Arch- 
bishop of Armagh, the great opponent of the Mendicants, being present, 
that the statutes did not allow the members to attend any lectures 
except in Arts 2 . 

Beef Hall was for canonists and civilians and 1 in some ages in- 
habited by Irish clerks.' Wood surmises that several Irish bishops 
were brought up here 'circa tempora Henrici VII 3 .' These Irish 
students were numerous enough to form one of the most important 
southern ' nations,' and in the frequent street brawls pars magna 
fuerunt. A number of Irish clerks were slain in the great fray of 
St. Scholastica. By a statute of 1 Henry V (14 13) it was enacted 
that ' all Iryshmen and Irysh clerkes beggars be voyded out of the 
realm,' except religious and (on giving security) graduates ; and those 
left were not to take upon them the principality of any Hall. Oxford 
thereupon ceased to be ' gymnasium Hibernorum/ and the Halls for 
Irish scholars, together with ' Yrysshemanstrete,' went, a Wood sup- 
poses, to decay. In 1548 (April 10) the University granted to Henry 
Crosse, inferior bedell of Divinity, the house and garden called ' Byf 
hawle,' with Dunstan 4 . Wood says concerning Beef Hall that it ' con- 
tinued in its flourishing estate till the raigne of Henry VIII, and 
then (or in the beginning of Edward VI) demised to lay persons V 
It was let by the University with Dunstan Hall adjoining, in 161 2, 
to Dionysius Edwards for \os. iod., the old rent. Twyne, however, 

1 Oxford City Docionents, ed. Rogers, O. H. S., pp. 24, 44. 

2 Grey Friars in Oxford, ed. Little, O. H. S., pp. 10, 168; Gutch's Wood, iii. 
73- 

3 City, i. 590. * Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 121. 

5 City, i. 2ii. Standish, in the middle of the sixteenth century, places it among 
forty-one halls ' praeter aulas iam existentes.' He adds, 'Old Halls, Beffe Hall, 
Wlstan Hall.' 



4 6 



WYLDE' S ENTRY. 



mentions 1 Henry Milward's 1 lease of Beef Hall for forty years, dated 
26 Martij, 41 Eliz. anno 1599.' Langbaine (after 1646) adds a note: 
'This lease is expired and another in being/ Hutten (1626) says: 
' Beefe Hall, not inhabited by anie scholars, but become the Tenement 
of some private person V 

In or close to the extreme west corner of the Lane was a small plot 
of ground, a c habitation for clerks/ belonging afterwards to Magdalen, 
called Wylde s Entry. Wood says : ' All the mention of which is only 
(I have yet found) in the testament of one Richard Couper (1348), 
wherin he leaveth to Richard Seukworth, junior, a solar situated 
juxta Wylde's Entre ex parte australi in parochia S. Ebbae 3 . 
William le Wylde, who made his will March 9, 13 13, and was 
buried in St. Ebbe's Church, had two, or possibly three, properties in 
this corner. One is described in 136^ as having 'a hall called 
Brodejates in the parish of St. Ebbe's ' (Beef Hall ?) on the east and 
a place formerly belonging to Robert de Kidlington on the west. 
A third part of it was granted in that year by Nicholas Forester 
to Henry de Witteney, otherwise Sclatter 4 . By his will made on 
St. Mark's day, 1349 (23 Edw. Ill), John Peggy, alderman and 
cordwainer, bailiff 1338, 1342, 1347, and 1348, afterwards buried in 
St. Frideswyde's, bequeathed to the priory, besides four ' cottagia ' in 
a row in St. Ebbe's parish, and his tenement with corner shop just 
outside St. Michael's at South Gate, and other properties, 'j tene- 
mentum quod quondam fuit Willielmi Wilde, situatum in parochia 
S. Ebbe, inter tenementum quod quondam fuit Willielmi Wilde ex 
parte una et venellam que ducit ad Ecclesiam S. Aldathi Oxon' 
ex parte altera V He had the same month acquired this property 
from the executors of John de Brekhale 6 . The Wylde tenement to 
the south of Peggy's gift to the canons is, no doubt, the same as 
a cellar and solar in St. Ebbe's parish granted by Hugh le Wylde to 
John de Langrish and Sara his wife, situate between a tenement 
formerly belonging to Sir Roger de Bellofago, knight, on the south, 
and a tenement formerly belonging to William le Wylde on the 

1 He was University ' stationer ' (stationarius, or virgifer, some kind of marshal) 
and retired through old age April 11, 1597. ' Henry Milward, stationer, 5 occurs as 
early as 1552 {Register of the University, ed. Clark, O. H. S., II. part I. pp. 257, 
262). He was licensed to sell ale in 1596, and his widow in 1605 (P- 3 2 ^)- 

2 Elizabethan Oxford, ed. Plummer, O. H. S., p. 89. 

3 City, i. 210. He refers to 'liber testamentorum burgensium Oxon,' fol. 486; 
Twyne, xxiii. 147. Twyne gives the name William le Wylde. 

4 Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 224. 

5 Cartulary of St. Frideswyde, ed. Wigram, O. H. S., p. 305. 

6 Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 145. 



SITE OF THE COLLEGE—EXTREME WEST, 47 



north. John de Langrish granted it in 1350 to Henry Sclatter of 
Witney; and Henry de Witney, in his will made on the feast of 
Leonard the abbat, 1391, directed that after his wife's decease the 
tenement should be sold by the executors, and the money go to the 
repair of St. Ebbe's Church, where he was to be buried 1 . 

As the Wylde property on the west of ' Brodegate's Hall in St. 
Ebbe's ' had Robert de Kidlington's land on the other side of it, it 
cannot have been actually in the corner. There would not be much 
need of an Entry in a corner. Couper's land, again, was close to 
Wylde's Entry on the north. At Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 145, mention 
is made of a tenement of All Souls between Wylde's tenement and 
Beef Hall Lane. 

We have then : — 



Robt. de 
j Kidlington 
*■ • before 
136* 



Will. Wylde's land 
£ of it granted in 
1365 by Forester to 
Sclatter 



Br debates 

Hall in 
St. Ebbe's 



Lane leading to St. Aldate's 

2 Will. Wylde's land 
^* Brekhale's Exors grant to Peggy, 1349 
Peggy bequeaths to Priory, 1349 

Will. Wylde's land 



3* ^ 



Will. Wylde's land 



Cellar and solar granted by Hugh 
Wylde to Langrish, by Langrish 
(1350) to Sclatter, sold after 1391 



Sir Roger de Kellofago's land. 



4- 



Solar left by Couper to Seukworth, 1348 



Wylde's Entry 



Beef Hall Lane 
^ • All Souls Land 
Wylde's tenement. 



Can we combine them thus ?- 

Beef Hall Lane 



Couper 
Kidlington 
All Souls 


Wylde 
land 


Brodegates Hall 
in St. Ebbe's 
(Beef Hall?) 


Wylde's 
Entry 




Wylde 
land 


Bellofago's 
land 



1 Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 224. In 11 Ric. II (1387), ' Henry Wytteney, sclatter,' 
paid the town Js. for a solar and cellar at Little Gate towards the Friars 
Preachers {City Documents, O. H. S., p. 302). 



4 8 



DUN STAN II ALL 



Subsequently we find the land divided thus :■ 

Beef Hall Lane 



Magdalen 
land 

' two small 
pieces of 
ground ' 



Beef Hall 



[5 feet 



St. James + St. 
Michael Halls 



,3 (All Souls Land) 



Minote 
Hall 



(Magdalen 
Land) 



Cambey's 
Lodgings 



(Priory 
Land) 



Broadgates 
Hall 



Slaying Lane (Brewers Street) 

The Magdalen land was demised, temp. Elizabeth, to Henry Milward, 
gent. It is described in a lease of 1781 as ' two small pieces of ground 
on which formerly stood a tenement.' The ancient rent of 4J. and 
a groat acquittance was redeemed by Pembroke College, with that of 
Minote, Dec. 10, 1781, for £18. 

It only remains to describe Dunstan, Wolstan or Adulstan (' Adul- 
stan's/ Athelstan's, Atherton) Hall, situated ' on the west and south 
side of Beefe Hall */ and ' having its door or forefront butting on that 
street or lane that leadeth from St. Ebb's Church to Littlegate V 
Wood says this street was for that reason more properly styled 
Wolstan's Hall Street. ' Adulstan ' is very likely a corrupt variant 
of ' Wolstan.' The name Dunstan, or Dunster, remained till recent 
times. The land, like that of Beef Hall, was leased from the 
University, and measured 115 feet from east to west, and 98 feet from 
the Magdalen land southwards to the city wall. It was an academic 
hall at least as early as 1446, in which year, March 1, Robert 
Darry, Clerk, principal of ' Adulstane Halle, juxta Beefe Halle/ 
summoned one of his scholars, Roland Barrys, for non-payment of 
>]s. 6d., being three terms' rent of his chamber. Roland confessed, 
was condemned to pay within eight days, and took an oath to do so 
on the Gospels. It was ' allwaies till the decay of halls supplied by 
clerks.' Twyne (according to Wood) affirms it to have been f given 
to the University by Dr. Hall/ who was principal in 1458, 1463 
and 1469. He himself merely appends to the name the words, 
' S. Wolstan, Rob. Wolstan.' He thinks it may be the same as 
a hall of uncertain site called Minard's, or Maynard's (though this 
may be only a variant of Minote's), 'quia non inseritur 1501.' It 
would seem from these last words that Dunstan had disappeared 
1 City, i. 211. 2 Gutch's Wood. 



JOHN ROUS. 



49 



before 1501. But a Wood says, 'Hibernici illic studuerunt et in aliis 
aulis proximis (15 13).' Rowse gives it as a hall for legists in his 
day. Standish mentions ' Dunstan's ' or ' Wlstan ' among ' old halls ' 
no longer existing. A hall however is described in the catalogues as 
not ' existens ' when it had ceased to be used for academic purposes, 
though the building may have remained. In the Register of Congre- 
gation, April 10, 1548, ' a garden called Donstone Hawle vel Wolstone 
Hawle ' was let with Beef Hall to Henry Crosse, who was living near 
University College in 1552. The two properties were finally purchased 
by the College from the University in 1872 for £162 6s. \d. 

It is to be noticed that all the six halls, Broadgates, Polton, James, 
Michael, Beef and Dunstan, are joined together by Rowse, and 
described as being for legists, and ' near St. Aldate's Church,' though 
the last two were in St. Ebbe's parish, and almost touched St. Ebbe's 
Church. Dunstan's was a long way from St. Aldate's. The reason 
must be that these halls were connected with the civil law school in 
St. Aldate's Church, which however Standish speaks of a little later 
as no longer used for academic purposes. All of them are now part 
of Pembroke College. 

The list given in Mr. Anstey's Muniment a Academica (ii. 519) is dated 
Sept. 9, 1438, and enumerates seventy-three Halls then existing 'pro 
quibus expositae sunt cautiones.' Among them are (besides a ' Brode- 
gate') ' Latarum portarum,' ' Bovina,' and ' Sancti Jacobi.' 



Note on a Former Owner of the Master's House. 
John Rous, through whose hands Cambey's passed in becoming part of Pembroke, 
was fellow of Oriel, and from 1620 till his death in 1652 Bodley's librarian. It is to 
him that Milton wrote, on Jan. 23, 1646, the curious Latin ode in mixed metres 
beginning ' Gemelle cultu simplici gaudens liber.' He is almost certainly ' our 
common friend Mr. R.' mentioned by Wotton in a letter to Milton, who may have 
become intimate with Rous when, in 1635, he incorporated as M.A. at Oxford. 
The occasion of the ode c Ad Joannem Rousium ' was that at Rous's request his 
friend had, in 1645, sent him for the Library his Prose writings and Poems, but, the 
latter being lost on the way, Milton sent a second copy. In this volume, on an 
inserted MS. sheet, supposed to be the poet's autograph, is this ode, which is 
addressed to the little book. The Bodleian is sedes beatae, whence (in Cowper's 
translation) ' the coarse unlettered multitude ' which now censures his political 
writing ' shall babble far remote.' The Librarian is ' Aeternorum operum custos 
fidelis,' and 

'Si quid meremur sana posteritas sciet 
Roiisio favente.' 

Rous may have been a kinsman of Francis Rous, the Pembroke benefactor. His 
body lies in Oriel chapel. There is a three-quarters portrait of him, in a clerical 
dress, among the protobibliothecarii. His refusal to allow Charles I to borrow a 
volume from the Library, as contrary to the Statutes, is well known, and the King's 
kingly reply. 

E 



CHAPTER V. 



STREETS ROUND THE COLLEGE. 

St. Aldate's Street, or Grampound, which bounds the College on the 
east, is the cross-thoroughfare of the city of Oxford, the time-honoured 
road leading through the south port to the principal passage of the Thames 
and the country district beyond. The name Grandpont or Southbridge 
Street began from the Gate, and is older than the long causeway of 
above forty arches of stone 1 which crossed the numerous streamlets and 
the river. ' This street was in antient times meadow and plashy ground V 
There were halls (Water, Parmuncer, Littlemore, Rack, Pope, St. Mary's 
House, and others) on either side of it. Here the Abbot of Abingdon 
held his court, and the Justices in Eyre the assizes 3 . The upper part of 
the street was once called Southgate Street or, from the fish market held 
in it, Fish Street*. Here stood Fishmongers' Hall, and the traders in 
fish, like John de Doclinton, had their abodes in and near the street 5 . It 
was on Fish Street, opposite St. Aldate's Church, that Peter Martyr's 
rooms in Christ Church looked, until, his windows being frequently 
broken and his sleep and studies disturbed by 'opprobrious Language 
from the R. Catholicks, as well scholars as Laicks, 5 he removed to the 
Cloisters. Between Christ Church and Pembroke, just before reaching 
the South gate with its chapel of the Prince Archangel, and its towers on 
each side, the hill grew very steep, 'as may be seen,' writes Mr. Parker, 
' by the marks left of the former level both on the walls of Christ Church 
and the Almshouses, particularly from a blocked-up doorway in the 
latter.' The incline was made more gradual in 1834. This point of 
the road was called Tower Hill, and also Cutler's Hill 6 . Wood says in 
his account of the City : — 

' Wee come to the place where South Gate formerly stood. The signes and 
tokens therof though not apparent by ruinous buildings, yet it may be discerned by 
a fall or discent that parts Fish Street from Grandpont, and wheron those stately 
towers adjoyning therto were sometimes standing 7 .' 

Nothing remains of the gate. But the twelfth-century wall, obliterated 
for some distance on the Christ Church side till it comes out again in the 

1 Elizabethan Oxford, O. H. S. p. 83. They can still be traced. 
2 City, i. 296, n. 3. 3 Ibid. i. 305. 

4 In Agas (1578) 'South Streate,' in Peshall's map (1773) ' Fish St.' 
5 This lingered on till the establishment of the new market. 
6 City, i. 296. 7 Ibid. i. 164. 



REPAIRINGS OF THE TOWN WALL. 



Meadows, is perfect on the west side for the whole length of Pembroke 
College, the College standing on the wall and Brewers Street running 
under it. Its course may be plainly traced beyond, behind Church 
Street to the angle of the Castle, where some recently built houses now 
conceal the old masonry, and thence, more or less distinctly, by Bulwarks 
or Bullocks Alley, through the playground of the High School eastwards 
behind New Inn Hall Street to St. Michael's at North Gate. The bastions, 
hidden between Broad Street and Ship Street, begin again at New College, 
and so on to East Gate in the High Street and Merton Gardens. 

The wall has not stood since Henry I without many repairings, the 
cost of which fell, as we have seen, upon the owners of such mural 
mansions as Segrym's, though exemption was pleaded when these were 
used for academical purposes. 

' There were some schollers, I find, in King Henry III his time, when the 
University was thronged with students, who, having got into some of these 
u mansiones murales " and not suffering the mayor of the towne to levy this 
" muragium " of them when the king appoynted the walls to be repayred, caused the 
chancellor to doe it, though (as they then pleaded) they were " intalliabiles " 
because inhabited by clerks V 

Before the end of the twelfth century the wall, especially on the south 
side, was ' going much to ruine and the repair thereof neglected.' 

' What by the continuall warr in those times, and what for want of moneys due 
from the murall houses, the wall I find by King Henry [IIIJ's time was totally 
ruinated. Insomuch that he, having a naturall affection or rather compassion on 
this place of his (sometimes) abode, (aspecially as I find, towards our churches), 
did by his letters patent dated at Woodstock July 10, anno regni 21 [a. D. 1237] 
graunt to the Mayor and burgesses, for the helpe of building their wall as alsoe for 
the greater security of the country hereabout, that once every weeke for three years' 
space [they should] receive a halfpenny of every loaded cart that ' brought wares 
to sell here ; and of any cart of another county, a penny. Moreover he granted 
theion sumage, that is, every horse loaded with wares (except bushes, hay, or the 
like) a farthing,' with other tolls and assistances. ' And soe in good plight the 
wall did for a long time continue V 

After this reign, however, the wall came in parts of the south side to 
be levelled. In Edward IPs reign (1 307-1 327) the walls were re-edified, 
and a Wood notes a contribution of the mitred abbot of Oseney for 
repairs in the reign of Edward III (1 327-1 377). But Richard II found 
the fortifications again badly decayed and the moat stopped up. He 
issued a brief, Feb. 20, 1378, for their amendment. Thereafterward till his 
own time a Wood ' could never know when they were all totally againe 
repaired : only in some places where Colledges occupyed them.' Merton 
wall was rebuilt in the seventeenth century. Pembroke could hardly be 
inattentive to the masonry on which its buildings stood; but its wall 
is not so new. Twyne writes as though in the fifteenth century the 
southern defences of the city were uncared for : ' fossatum versus 
Merton Hall obstupatum tempore Henrici IV,' and those on the north 



1 City, i. 240. 



E 2 



2 Ibid. i. 241-2. 



52 



SLAUGHTER LANE. 



were also neglected, though Oxford is not on that side protected by 
a network of streams. From the time that the effective use of cannon 
in sieges became recognized, the walls must have seemed of slight utility. 
In the siege of Oxford during the Great Rebellion the assailants came 
nowhere near the old town wall. Henry VIII, however, soon after his 
accession had enjoined the citizens to repair their walls. In Wood's time 
it was ' ruinated and not owning the name or shew of a wall, or else levelled 
with the dust,' and so he describes its condition after the Restora- 
tion at the garden end of Pembroke : ' The ruins of the wall take in their 
walk [the walk of Pembroke] where somtimes Dunstan Hall and part 
of Beef Hall [that is, the garden and appurtenances of Beef Hall] were 
situated.' It can, however, only have been the upper portion which was 
totally ruinous, as appears from the great difference of levels between the 
ground within the wall and that outside it. Dunstan Hall stood at about 
the south end of the present dining hall. The wall at that point is at 
present in good condition. Below the Almshouse parts of it are older. 

Lying under the wall for the whole length of Pembroke College is 
Brewers Street or Lane, called in an Oseney rental of 1463, 'venella sub 
muro.' There appears to have been no moat at this part of the city 1 . 
Brewers Street has at different times borne the names of Lombard Lane, 
King Street, Pudding Lane, and Slaughter or Slaying-well Lane, 

' antiently called Lumbard Lane from one Lumbard a Jew that lived or els owned 
land therin, leading under the south wall behind Pembroke College from Great to 
Little South Gate. Afterwards it was called King Street ; but upon what account 
(whether because the King made it his private way from the south part of the 
towne to Beaumont) it is not now in readinesse to resolve. From that name it 
slipped to Slaughter or Slaying Lane because the butchers were commanded to 
build their slaughter houses and to kill their cattle therin. Which for severall ages 
they for that use employed them ; but upon their overcharging Trill-Mill Streame 
that runneth under it on the south side with the intralls of beasts and filth, they 
were forbidden their use of them and removed to Lambard Land V 

so called it would seem from the same Jew who gave his name to Lum- 
bard Lane. It appears that complaints from the University to Edward III, 
in 1339, had led to the butchers being prohibited by royal brief to kill 
any animal within the walls, ' but that they should select a place remote 
from the concourse of people and in the suburbs. Wherupon, as it 
should seeme, they made choice of Lumbard Lane in the south suburbs.' 
The nuisance, however, continued, and two centuries later ' they were at 
length [i.e. May 7, 1535] in King Henry VIII his raigne by the maior 
and comminalty commanded to remove to Lumbard Land,' and build 

1 ' The trench on the south side of the city also, long before the other on the north 
side, was stopped up and the cleansing not soe carefully praeserved because of the 
diversity of rivers that ran almost under the said wall.' City, i. 264. Mr. Clark 
thinks the evidence for its existence insufficient. Ibid. n. 2. So also a Wood 
himself, Life and Times, i. 97. Mr. Herbert Hurst, to whom I am much indebted 
in these investigations, writes : ' The signs of the fosse, as far as known, are some 
20 feet south of Brewers Street, where the new Cathedral School begins.' 

2 City, i. 307. See also Gutch, i. 436. 



OTHER OLD NAMES OF BREWERS STREET. 53 



their shambles ' on the voyde ground by the South [Folly] Bryge,' which 
bore that name 1 . 'But there neither continuing long, every Man at 
length killed at his oune home, soe that it was in y e Suburbs 2 .' The 
important craft or mistery of the butchers was regulated from time to 
time by ordinances, given in Turner's Ordinances of the City of Oxford. 
Peshall, speaking of Lumbard's Lane (p. 256), says :— 

4 By forfeiture of the Jews it came into the King's hand, who conveyed it to 
several persons ; a mediety of it is freehold, a part belongs to the Colleges. It 
was afterwards called Slaying Lane from a terrible slaughter of the gownsmen, 
and after Pudding Lane V 

The Jew Lumbard carried on his business here in the reign of King 
John. It is curious that the only shop in this street, an old-established 
mont depUt^ still exhibits the arms of Lombardy. 

The name ' King Street ' a Wood assigns to a date earlier than 
Edward III*. But another account makes this the designation it received 
after the ejection of the butchers under Henry VIII, from a family named 
King. In Agas's map it is called ' Kinges Street alias Slaying Lane.' 
In a will dated March 16, 1570, ' Sleying Lane also Slawter Lane.' It 
was also styled Slaying-well Lane from a well under the College wall. 
The slaughter-houses having been turned into a great brew-house, this 
well, in 1672, was diverted to its use 5 . The well supplied the old College 
kitchen with excellent water. But the conduit from Hinxey to Carfax 
had its first outlet here. Wood says : ' Out of that main pipe is a branch 
taken into Pembrook sellars : which if it should be suffered to runne, 
neither the Universitie nor Cittie can have any water.' (Was this inter- 
esting circumstance known to the intelligent undergraduate ?) ' Pembrok 
College payes rent to the towne for that, I think, or else for theire 
building standing on the towne wall, viz. is. $d. per an. 6 Of this ask 
Mr. Grenway 7 .' For the keeping up of the wall the corporation was 
allowed the rents of a strip of land both outside and inside the fortifica- 
tion. This they came to let as building sites, ' and latterly they let out 
the site of the wall itself, which is now in most places rooted up and 
altogether removed V 

1 ' Lamberds Lande,' Coll. II. p. 30 ; Lamberd's Lay, City, i. 306. 

2 City, i. 480; and Wood MS. in Collectanea, II. p. 17. Yet by 1556 the new 
shambles in Slaughter Lane were in working order, for the Town Council imposed 
in that year a rent of 23^. a year on each of the butchers' shops in it {Collectanea, 
II. ed. Burrows, O. H. S., p. 31). 

3 In a deed of Edward VI's (?) time ' Sleying lane, also called Podding lane ' 
(Wood MS. D. 2, fol. 343). Perhaps 18 Edw. IV. 

4 King's Street by the New Schools is also part of the Via Regia. Is the name 
merely a translation ? 

5 'Slaying Well stopped mense Aug. 1672 ; and the water is conveyed to a brew- 
house adjoyning.' City, i. 308, n. 4. See pp. 439, 576, 7. 

6 City,i. 577. 

7 ' Francis Greenway, milliner, Mayor of Oxon, 1670' (Wood's Life and Times, 
ed. Clark, O. H. S., ii. 310). He was 'of Allhallowes parish.' 

8 City, i. 243, n. 



54 



LITTLE OR WATER GATE. 



In this lane was 'the Stone House,' 'behind and southward from 
Pembroke Coll.,' in which, during the reign of the Saints, consumptive 
Jack Glendall, 'the witty Terrae-filius,' afterwards fellow of Brasenose, in 
whose company Anthony a Wood 1 delighted, acted plays and mimicries 
with other scholars 'by stealth 2 .' Wood records ' Mountjoy Blount, earl 
of Newport, gentleman of the bedchamber to his Majestie, died of a 
violent fit of the stone in the larg free-stone house in Slaying Lane in 
St. Aldate's parish, M., 12 Feb. i66|.' 3 He was buried in the Cathedral. 
Oliver Smith, the antiquary, was brought up in this street. ' Oliver 
Smith the yonger, son of Thomas Smith of Slaying Lane, sometimes 
alderman and Mayor of Oxon, died at his house in Grandpoole on Th., 
the 14 of March i66f ; and was the next day buried in St. Aldate's 
church by his ancestors, aet. 43 or therabouts, much in debt and impaired 
in his estate. He married . . . daughter of [Robert] Bohun, recorder of 
Oxon.' 4 The brewery which gave its later name to the lane was exist- 
ing till this century, being known latterly as Micklem's Brewery. 

From South Gate, a Wood writes : — 

' The wall had its cours where King's Stret alias Slaying Lane now is, and on 
which part of Christ Church Hospitall and the south side of Pembrok College is 
built. Then, going on,' under the ruined wall, ' at length wee come to a gate called 
antiently Luttel Gate, since Little South Gate otherwise Water Gate ; soe called 
from a common ford at Preacher's Bridg neare adjoyning and necessary for the 
inhabitants therabouts to water cattle.' 

Little Gate adjoined the extreme south-west corner of the College 5 . 

1 This gate, though it was called " Little," yet it was passable for a cart, and had 
another small doore adjoyning for foot-passengers ; both which was the rode that 
leaded from the city to the Black and Grey Friers. And though it was not soe 
larg and beautifull as South Gate, yet it was built after that mode (excepting the 
fortresses) ; and had a larg chamber over it and two below adjoyning to it. Which 
upper chamber was, in King Edward the II's time and a great while before, inhabited 
by schollers, as I have seen from severall of the chamberlains' accompts of this 
city, viz. in a rentall of the 17 yeare of Edward the II [1323], where I find these 
words: — "item de scolaribus ad parvam portam pro solario, 13J. 4^."; and in 
another of the 19 yeare of the said King thus : — " memorandum quod Petrus 
de Ewe, socius Thomae le ironmonger, recepit 8s. de principali de camera ad 

1 Life and Times, i. 336. 

2 ' They would not suffer any . . . scholars to act in privat but what they did by 
stelth — yet at Act times they would permit dancing the rope, drolles, or monstrous 
sights to be seen.' Life and Times, i. 299. For Glendall and his acting see Life 
and Times, i. 266, 322, 336. 

3 Life and Times, ii. 72. 4 Ibid. ii. 103. 

5 Wood does not seem quite clear about the conduit. He says, ' arriving first at 
the bridge and water called Preacher's Bridge without Little South Gate cumeth 
up Lumbard Lane on the south side of Pembroke College, then turning up at the 
east end of that lane commeth up Fish Street to Carfox ' {City, i. 62). But in a note 
he says, ' the pipe comes under the river by Ballow ham and up through Little Gate 
and turnes up through Beef Hall Lane and from thence through a narrow passage 
into Penyfarthing Street, and thence up to Carfax ' (p. 63 n.). See also City, i. 
447, 448 (where a diagram is given). 



ST. EBBE'S CHURCH. 



55 



parvam portam versus Fratres Praedicatores." ' The principal's name was Nicholas 
Daniel. ' This I did cheifly take occasion to insert becaus the reader may con- 
clude that the University was well filled with scollers at that time, when such 
a chamber [Note. Did not Roger Bacon take the hight of stars her ?] and that on 
a common rode and place of continuall disturbance was inhabited by them and 
they under a particular governor. From hence alsoe wee cannot think less of what 
is delivered by historians that about thes times, or a little before, Oxford contained 
thirty thousand students. But of these obscure places for schollers I have many 
others that would seeme more uncouth to the reader, if he knew them.' 

Skelton (1823) gives a print of Little Gate with the window of the solar 
over it, in ruins and covered with ivy. It was taken down about 1790. 
Joined to it on the east was perhaps Gamache (Gamage) Hall 1 . 

St. Ebbe's Church, close to this Gate, terminates the site of the College 
at the north-west corner. Before the Domesday Survey the monks of 
Eynsham had built it in honour of St. Aebba, daughter of Ethelfrith king 
of Northumbria and sister of St. Oswald, who died A.D. 683, or possibly 
in honour of the abbess of Coldingham of the same name in the ninth 
century. The only other dedications to St. Aebba that are known are Shels- 
well, Oxfordshire (now destroyed), and Ebbchester in Durham ' 2 . It was 
given by Remigius, Bishop of Dorchester, in 1091 to the Church of the 
most Glorious Mother of God at Stowe with ' Egnesham ' Abbey, being 
then described as ' quaedam ecclesiola S. Ebbae in urbe Oxenefordensi 
consita.' The site of the church belonged before the Conquest to the 
Earls of Cornwall, one of whom, Aethelmar the Fat, founded Eynsham 
Abbey and gave the monks this ground — ' curiam suam in Oxonia in qua 
ecclesia S. Ebbae sita erat V Skelton has a fine engraving of this church 
before it was rebuilt in 18 14. Besides the tower, only a Norman portal, 
built against the soath side, remains to testify that there was once here 
a beautiful and very ancient building. Part of the Early English tower 
fell down on Sept. 1, 1648, killing one Richard Ely. Wood enumerates 
the chantries, obits, and lights which once existed. There was naturally 
a close connexion with the Minorites whose convent adjoined the church- 
yard. Thus, in 1526, Richard Leke, 'late Bruer of Oxford, beying of hole 
and perfite mynde and sike of body,' bequeaths his soul 

' to almighty god to our blissed lady saint marye and to all the holy company of 
hevyn, my body to be buried w*in the graye ffreres in Oxford before the awter 
where the first masse is daily vsed to be saide . . . Item I will that my body be first 
brought to the Church of saint Ebbe, and there dirige and masse to be songe for me. 
Item I bequeth to two hundred prestes two hundred grotes to say dirige and masse 
at saint Ebbys and at the gray freres with other parish churches the day of my 
burying,' &c. 4 

St. Ebbe's was in former times vulgarly called St. Tabb's. Just south 
of the churchyard was, it would seem, John de Grey of Rotherfield's 

1 See City, i. 518. 

2 Beda, Hist. Eccl. iv. cap. 19. See Mr. Parker's Early History of Oxford, 
O. H. S., p. 295 n. 

3 City, ii. 53, 54. 4 Grey Friars in Oxford, O.H.S., p. 318. 



56 



PENN YEA R THING STREET. 



house which he bestowed on the Friars Minors in 1337, 'lying next their 
habitation on the east' within the town 1 . 

St. Ebbe's Street, which forms the western boundary of the College, 
went once, from the many dairymen who traded there, by the name 
of Milk Street, and also of Littlegate or Little Southgate Street. In 
the map in Peshall (1777) it is 'South Street.' There is some question 
how far these names extended northwards and southwards 2 . The road 
just outside the city is still called Littlegate. The present Pembroke 
Street has only been so styled in the present reign, having borne till then 
the name ' Pennyfarthing Street.' Hearne has preserved a note of 
a Wood's, ' Penyfarthing Streete within these 40 yeares call'd Crow 
Street 3 .' Perhaps there was a 'Crow' inn here. There was in High 
Street a 'Split Crow 4 .' Wood says, what is no doubt correct, that it 
assumed the name ' Penifarthing Street 5 from the wealthy family of the 
Penyverthinges 5 , of whom 'Willelmus Pinneferdbing ' was provost of 
Oxford with William de Winton in 1238 6 . At the Eyre of 1285, inquest 
was held on the body of Nicholas Penyfader, found at Osney slain by 
Henry of Arderne 7 . The murderer fled and was outlawed. In some 
records of the reigns of Henry VI and VII the street is called, a Wood 
says, Pynkeferthing Street 8 . There is a Pennyfarthing Street in Salisbury, 
connected by an idle tradition with a strike of the workmen engaged on 
the great Spire for five, in lieu of four, farthings per diem ; and a Wood 
mentions a Penyfarthing Lane in Cambridge, ' which Londinensis saith 
that it was soe called from poore people inhabiting therin.' The present 
Master tells me that the name was changed to Pembroke Street early 
in this century by the influence of a physician, a Dr. Ireland, who lived in 
it, and whose patients pretended to think that his fee was \\d. In this 
street were a number of academic halls : Bull or Bole Hall ' on the north 
side of this street and almost opposite to the place where now stands 
a fair house built of freestone and brick.' It was 'given by a Jew to 

1 Grey Friars in Oxford, ed. Little, O. H. S., p. 305. 

2 See City, i. 206, 308. 3 Ibid. 577. 

4 Life and Times, ii. 102, and City, i. 63, n. I. 

5 Mr. C. W. Bardsley in his work on ' English Surnames' has the following instances 
of similar additions : ' The Wills and Inventories furnish a " Thomas Fourpence," 
the Hundred Rolls a " John Fivepeni," the Cal. Rot. Originalium a "Thomas 
Sexpenne," the Yorkshire Wills and Inventories a " John Ninepennies," and the 
Hundred Rolls a 11 Fulco Twelpencs." " James Fyppound (Five pound) " is men- 
tioned in "Materials for a History of Henry VII." So early as 1342 we find 
" John Twenti-mark " to have been rector of Risingham, while " William Hunder- 
pound " was Mayor of Lynn Regis in 141 7.' He mentions the equivalent Norman- 
French ' Grace and Joseph Centlivri.' ' Thomas Thousandpound,' the last of this 
class, appears in the Wardrobe Accounts (Edward I). I may add a quotation 
from the Fortunes of Nigel: ' It is an ancient and honourable stock, the Mony- 
pennies,' said Sir Mungo Malagrowther ; 'the only loss is there are sae few of the 
name.' There was a ' Sir Tripennye' at Broadgates in 1572. 

6 Cartulary of St. Frideswyde, ed. Wigram, O. H. S., Charter 436. 

7 Oxford City Documents, ed. Rogers ; O. H. S., p. 198. 

8 City, i. 195. 



OLD HALLS IN PEMBROKE STREET. 57 



Merton College' (earlier than 1327), and was for legists. There is a list 
of principals in City, i. 600 \ Near it, a little further west, was Moyses 
Hall, from Moyses or Mossey a Jew. From him it came to the Jew 
Lumbard, and after passing through divers hands was conveyed by 
Thomas, son of Philip de Wormenhalle, in 1330, to Adam de Brome, 
being then situated between a tenement of Oseney on the west and an 
Abingdon property on the east. Finally, it came through various owners, 
in 1362, to Oriel. Another neighbouring hostel for lawyers was Eagle 
Hall, mentioned by Rowse. Further west, in St. Ebbe's parish, was 
Little Bedell Hall : ' whether not soe called from William Stokes, bedell.' 
* Mr. John Bergeveny gave caution for the hall commonly called Little 
Bedyll Hall situated in Pennyvirthin Street on the vigil of S. Mathew 
1461.' It was rented from the nuns of Studley. In the same part of the 
street was St. Paul's (vulgarly Powle) Hall, the principal of which paid 
33J-. rent to Oseney Abbey in 1446. It stood 'on the east side of the 
Nag's Head,' and was for legists. It seems also to have been called 
Hattermonger House. Grove or Greve Hall, 'neare Little Bedell Hall,' 
was also in St. Ebbe's. Mr. Clark, however, following Wood, seems to 
place it in his map, at the end of City, vol. i., on the St. Aldate's side of 
the boundary, next to Moyses, on the south side of the street, just west 
of the entry from Pembroke Street to the College. There is a list of 
principals in City, i. 592, 606. It belonged to Oseney. John Greve was 
yeoman bedell of divinity. Another owner was Walter Bolle, from whom 
it seems to have been also styled 'Bole Hall.' Perhaps Black Hall in 
St. Ebbe's was also in Pennyfarthing Street. 

The ale-house opposite the ancient entry from the street to the College, 
which bears the name of Leden, or Ledenporch, Hall, is an old building, 
but I do not know what authority there is for its present name. The 
'porch' is a recent addition or revival. 

The houses on the south side of Pembroke Street, abutting on the 
churchyard, stand, doubtless, within consecrated ground, as did formerly 
'a parcell of houses standing at the east end of St. Aldate's Church,' and, 
it would seem, on part of the present St. Aldate's Street, which were 
cleared away 183 1-4. They belonged to the feoffees of St. Aldate's 
Charities, and are shown in a number of old prints. As for the former, 

'Part of Penifarthing Street on the south side therof and soe far as a little 
entrance leading thence to Pembroke College was also anciently another parcell of 
the said churchyard ; but, by the increas of severall chantry preists belonging to 
the church of S. Aldate, was built upon as it should seem for their use V 

1 An inquest was held Feb. 6, 1297, on John Metescharp, who died in the house 
of Ralph ' le Cyrgien ' in St. Aldate's parish from an arrow wound inflicted by 
Michael manciple of the clerks dwelling at la Bolehalle in that parish. Michael 
with John de Skurf an English, and Madoc a Welsh clerk went through the streets 
about curfew with swords bows and arrows assaulting all they met. Hue being 
raised, J. M. went out to keep the peace of our lord the king, whereupon the 
manciple shot him. He and the others then fled, leaving no goods {Oxford 
City Documents, ed. Rogers, O. H. S., p. 150). 

2 Wood's City, i. 194. 



58 



A JEWRY. 



In a Wood's diagram the house just to the west of this entrance is 
marked as the Priest's House. This old building (which, with the two 
houses next it, belongs now to the College) is said to have once been 
occupied by Charles I. 

In Pennyfarthing Street lived, till his death in 1644, Brian Twyne, to 
whose antiquarian collections a Wood owed so much. Here, in 1648, 
William Percy, third son of the eighth Earl of Northumberland, 'died 
an aged bachelaur, after he had lived a melancholy and retired life many 
yeares. He was buried in the cathedrall of Ch. Church 1 .' The street 
often resounded with ' the best base voice in England,' that of James 
Quin (1621-59), M.A., senior student of Christ Church (son of Walter 
Quin of Dublin), who, in Oct. 1659, 

' died in a crazed condition in his bedmaker's house in Penyfarthing Street, 
and was buried in the cathedral of Ch. Ch. A[nthony] W[ood] had some 
acquaintance with him and hath several times heard him sing with great admiration. 
His voice was a bass, and he had a great command of it. Twas very strong and 
exceeding trouling, but he wanted skill, and could scarce sing in consort. He 
had been turn'd out of his student's place by the Visitors ; but being well acquainted 
with some great men of those times that loved musick, they introduced him into 
the company of Oliver Cromwel the protector, who loved a good voice and 
instrumental! musick well. He heard him sing with great delight, liquor'd him 
with sack, and in conclusion said : " Mr. Quin you have done very well, what 
shall I doe for you ? " To which Quin made answer with great complements, of 
which he had command with a great grace, that " his Highness would be pleased to 
restore him to his Student's place " ; which he did accordingly, and so kept it to his 
dying day V 

In Agas's map, Pennyfarthing Street is the name given also to the 
continuation of the street past St. Ebbe's Church, now Church Street. 
But the usual name was Freren or Friar's Street. 



Note: A Jews' Quarter. 

We have seen that several of the halls in this street once had Jewish owners. 
Oxford had one of the wealthiest of English Jewries, a source of much trade to the 
citizens. 'About the year 1075 tne Jews in great numbers began to settle in 
Oxford, and chiefly in the parishes of S. Martin, S. Edward, and S. Aldate ; the 
two last of which were afterwards called the Great and Little Jewries. In one of 
them they erected a synagogue or school, and expounded the opinions of the Rabbins 
to the Academians. Several of their houses were inhabited by Clerks.' Fuller 
says that in Henry the Third's reign ' Oxford flourished with a multitude of 

1 Life and Times, i. 145. 

2 Life and Times, i. 287, and Gutch's Colleges and Halls, p. 511. Wood, 
however, says that the Independents used to 'love and encourage instrumental 
musick; but did not care for vocall, because that was used in church by the 
prelaticall partie.' Life and Times, i. 298. 



JEWS MEDIAEVAL AND MODERN. 59 



students, the king conferring large favours upon them, and this among the rest 
that no Jews living at Oxford should receive of scholars above twopence a week 
interest for the loan of twenty shillings, that is eight shillings and eightpence for 
the interest of a pound in the year.' In 1244 a riotous mob of students 
attacked the Jews' houses. In 1268, during a solemn Holy Thursday procession in 
honour of St. Frideswyde, a Hebrew zealot tore the Cross from the proctors hands 
and trampled it under foot. The Jews were condemned to make for the University 
a heavy silver crucifix, to be carried in procession, and to erect a marble cross on 
the spot — as it seems nearly opposite Pembroke College — where the profanity 
had been committed. It was finally placed in an open plot by Merton chapel. 
Neither the Church however nor the Town had power over them ; they were 
Crown chattels without civic rights. Edward I finally banished the Jews. Wood 
says, 'The suddenness of their dismission obliged them for present subsistence to 
sell their moveable goods of all kinds, among which were large quantities of 
Rabbinical books. The monks in various parts availed themselves of the dis- 
tribution of these treasures. At Oxford great multitudes of them fell into the 
hands of Roger Bacon, or were bought by his brethren, the Franciscan friars, of 
that University.' So also Green. Professor Neubauer, however, thinks the Jews 
had little in the way of books or science to impart 1 . The principal Jewries were 
along Blue Boar Lane. Professor Thorold Rogers however considered that, Oxford 
having wide privileges of asylum, a dwindling Jewish settlement continued to exist 
even after the Expulsion till 1840 or thereabouts. 'Finally the remaining relics 
were scattered, when a calamitous fire occurred in their quarter, then called Penny- 
farthing Street, a name since altered by a stupid and ignorant local board to 
Pembroke Street V A number of Hebrew documents were in a house in St. Ebbe's 
Street destroyed by fire on Feb. 27, 1844. The Jews returned under Cromwell, 
and in 1650 one Jacob opened a coffee-house in Oxford. 

1 ' Notes on the Jews in Oxford' in Collectanea, II. pp. 287, 8. 

2 Athenaeum, Sept. 3, 1887, p. 311. 



CHAPTER VI. 



RELIGIOUS HOUSES ON THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE COLLEGE. 

Of the splendid conventual houses in the south and west quarters of 
Oxford, only St. Frideswyde's, the church of the Austin canons, now 
stands. But the students of Broadgates looked down from the City wall 
on the gardens and buildings of two great monasteries. One of these 
was the Dominican house of the Black or Preaching Friars, who in 1221 
had settled in the Great Jewry, for neighbourhood to the Schools and 
with a view to Jewish conversions. It is said the Mad Parliament met 
within their walls. But, in 1259, they moved to a site just south of the 
present Pembroke College, ' an obscure place without the walls and farre 
from the company of disciples, schollers, and auditors 1 .' At the end of 
Brewers Street is the Black Drummer public-house, and lower down, 
mixed up with Commercial Road and Gas Street, are Friars Street and 
Blackfriars Road. Preachers' Bridge, over Trill Mill stream, is obliterated; 
but beyond are Friars' Wharf and Preachers' Pool. This quarter is 
reached from St. Aldate's Street by Speedwell Street, which at one time 
was called Preachers' Entry and led to Blackfriars' Gate. All this is 
Dominican ground 2 . The convent and church, dedicated to St. Nicholas, 
stood on an islet in the midst, given to the Friars Preachers by Henry III. 
There were schools in which lectures on philosophy and theology were 
given, and the public acts or dissertations on theses of divinity took place 
in the church or chapter-house. One of the priors, Simon de Bovil, was 
Chancellor of the University. Among the teachers were such as Robert 
Fisacre, Robert Kilwarby, Cardinal and Archbishop of Canterbury, 
Walter Joyce, Primate of All Ireland, and his brother, Cardinal Thomas 
Joyce. The Black Friars obtained respect ' with the Grandies of the 
Universitie,' 'by reason of their learned parts in philosophy and divinity,' 
and with the citizens and clergy ' because of their simple and saint-like 
carriage.' Their library was ' large and full of books,' and among them 
were many famous canonists. 

* Being very skilful in the Canon Law they did erectea large Schoole wherin they 
openly read and discussed many points of the Canon Law before the University, 
and was commonly called " Schola Juris Canonici " Canon Law Schoole, or only 
Canon Schoole 3 .' 



1 City, ii. 330. 



2 See G oldie, A Bygone Oxford, p. 14. 
3 City, ii. 327. 



FRIARS BLACK AND GREY. 



61 



This was in their first quarters ; but beside the Trill Mill stream also, 
'having procured power from the University,' they erected a school, 
1 where the disputations called the Vespers as also the Bachelours' Deter- 
minations were in,severall ages amongst themselves performed V Because 
of their reputation as canonists they received powers from Boniface VIII 
to ' review and correct ' all writings treating of the Canon Law, before 
publication 2 . In the great Church of the Black Friars, a stone's throw 
from Pembroke, was interred the famous Piers or Peter de Gaveston 
after his beheadal. 

' At the first arrivall of his body here [in Oxford] the comonalty of Oxon 
togeather with these Fryers meet it at the town's end, and accompanied it to this 
place with great solemnity ; and had severall masses for the health of his soule 
performed by them V 

After three years, however, the favourite's body was removed, and 

* by the king himselfe and many of the bishops and clergy (the nobles then 
absenting themselves) attended from thence to Kinges Langley in Hertfordshire, 
where with all ceremonies pompe and signes of honour was reburied in the church 
of the Preaching Fryers there V 

In 1224, three years after their arrival in Oxford, the Dominicans 
welcomed there a band of Franciscan or Grey Friars. The new-comers 
rented a house from Robert le Mercer at the west extremity of what is 
now Pembroke College, that is between St. Ebbe's and Littlegate, but 
presently moved just outside the wall 'about a stone's cast from their first 
hired house,' to 'the place where Muliner's [i.e. Richard le Miller's] 
house stood.' Here they were joined by many graduates and persons 
of good birth belonging to the University. Starting from very humble 
beginnings, the monastery grew and gathered gifts. To them as to the 
Black Friars King Henry gave, in 1245, an eyot of five acres 5 , across the 
Trill Mill stream, where they made a pleasaunce. The king, wearied 
with State cares, came often from his palace at Beaumont to find repose 
among the Grey Brothers. In this retired spot, a little south and west of 
St. Ebbe's, sprang up a school of learning famous through Europe ; for 
the Friars, in order to screen their novices from the temptations and 
turbulence of the public schools, brought in teachers from without ; and 
among these or among the students were such as Grostete or Grouthead 
(the Doctor Mirabilis), Adam Marsh or de Marisco (the Doctor Illustris), 
Roger Bacon, Duns Scotus, Nicholas de Lyra, William Occham, Peter 
Philardo (the Doctor Refulgens, afterwards Pope Alexander V), Friar 
Bungay, John Peckham, afterwards Lord Primate, together with others 
of 'the greatest clerks in Christendome.' It was Grostete who turned 
the Grey Friars from speculative to legal studies. 

' Though he never smelt of an academy or scarse tasted of humane learning, yet 
he constrained these his brethren to the studying and reading of the decretalls 6 ,' 

1 City, ii. 330. 2 Ibid. ii. 336. 3 Ibid. ii. 339. 

4 Ibid. ii. 322. 

5 ' Now belonging to Sir William Moorton, Kt., Judge of the King's Bench.' 
Ibid. ii. 36 r. * Ibid. ii. 362. 



62 



GOWN OR COWL. 



k laying aside their sophisms/ — about the being of God and the like. 
The Friary possessed two notable libraries, erected, it is said, by Grostcte 
and enriched by a number of Hebrew Bibles bought by Adam Marsh at 
the time of the Expulsion. In later times the Oxford Franciscans forgot 
their learning, neglected their library, ' once the choicest of any of this 
nation,' and allowed their books to be ' tore in peices or else condemned 
to eternall silence l ,' giving some excuse to those under Henry VIII, who 
called them a gang of lazy and fat-headed friars. Antony a Wood cries, 

' I professe, so often as I think of the great dammage posterity doth suffer 
by the destruction of these " recondita " I am readie to burst out with greif V 

In the Conventual Church, 316 feet in length and 180 feet wide, with 
twelve side chapels richly wrought, many noble persons were laid to rest 
shrouded in the coarse frock of the Grey Friars ; in particular Beatrice 
de Falkeston queen of Richard ' King of the Romaines and Almaine,' 
brother of Henry III. She, dying 

'on the vigills of St. Luke the Evangelist anno 1275/ was laid before the high 
altar, where afterwards was placed the heart of her husband 3 , ' sub sumptuosa et 
mirandi operis pyramide.' ' Great comfort people did take if upon their death 
bed they were assured their bodyes would be buried here V 

Here also was buried, in 1292, the greatest light of mediaeval thought, 
Brother Roger Bacon. Wood thinks that his study was here and not at 
Folly Bridge. 

£ It hath bin delivered to me from eminent persons of this University and to them 
formerly by others of the same, both well seen in astronomy and antiquityes, that 
Roger Bacon, a Franciscan fryer of Oxon, knowne to be a great astronomer, did 
sometimes use in the night season to ascend this place invironed with waters and 
there to take the altitude and distance of starrs, and make use of it for his owne con- 
venience in that respect, it being very necessary, situated for its vicinity to his 
covent, by conveying himself through a backway over Trillmill into Grandpont V 

He adds, however, in a note, 1 But I believe all this was at Little Gate.' 
His tomb-stone, a Wood had heard, was dug up at the end of the sixteenth 
century. There was left at Little Gate in the historian's time ' a little old 
decrepit building,' of which the lower windows touched the ground, 
'which, while wee were freshmen, tradition told us 'twas Roger Bacon's 
and Thomas Bongei's study 6 .' One of the three gates of the Convent was 
just opposite Beef Lane. 

Always the scholars of Broadgates and the neighbouring halls upon 
the City wall looked out on these stately houses of religious learning, and 
heard the bell ringing to prayers, or watched the Brothers walking in 
their peaceful garth or among their fields and orchards, and the sound of 
prayer and praise was at certain hours carried to their ears. No wonder 
if some among them felt a longing to put on the black or gray cowl. The 
Franciscans had the name of enticing them from their studies. In their 



1 City, ii. 383. 
1 Ibid. ii. 409. 



2 Ibid. ii. 380. 
5 Ibid. i. 425. 



3 Ibid. ii. 384. 
6 Ibid. ii. 411. 



PARADISE AND TRILL MILL. 



63 



cloister ' was trained up yong lads to be fitted for their covent. And 
in this they did soe transgress in cogging away yong novices from their 
severall halls in the University 1 ' that a statute was made to prevent it, 
and ' it was agreed they should not take any to their profession under the 
age of eighteen.' But this was annulled in 1366, six years later. In 1352, 
Fitzralph, Archbishop of Armagh, in his Defence of Curates or Apology 
against the Friars, preached before the Pope at Avignon, gave instances 
of young boys being got away from their studies. 

From the windows of Pembroke College one gazes down upon a 
wilderness of dingy brick boxes, mixed with public houses and gas works, 
where once, in grove and arbour and cloister, scholastic theses of realism 
and nominalism were debated by the sons of St. Dominick and St. Francis 
beneath the towers of their majestic fanes 2 . From below, in lieu of 
' solemn psalm and silver litany,' arise the shrieks of the corybantic 
religionists, who issuing from their adjacent barrack go nightly about the 
wall of our Jericho. 

A few yards from St. Ebbe's Church the unlovely street brings you to 
a squalid square, till lately surrounding a few shrubs and vegetables. 
Its name shows it to be the once nightingale-haunted paradise of the 
Grey Friars, given them by the Lady Agnes, ' uxor Guydonis ' ; and here 
stood anciently the churches of St. Bennett and St. Budoc, guarding the 
West Gate of the city. Paradise was divided formerly by a rivulet, which 
also encompassed it in part : — 

' A large plott of ground partly inclosed with the said rivelet and wheron was soe 
pleasant a grove of trees divided into severall walks ambits and recesses, as also a 
garden (and orchard adjoyning) V 

Wood, speaking of his own time, says, 'the place now is far from 
pleasure'; but in 1744 Salmon, in his Present State of the Universities, 
describes ' a pleasant Garden which goes by the name of Paradise, in 
which are Camomile and grass walks planted with evergreens and all 
manner of Fruit Trees and Flowers.' Thirty years later it supplied the 
Pembroke tables with cucumbers. 

The ' city pound at Paradice ' was taken down in 1781. Hereby flowed 
and flows (though now for the most part underground) 

' the little streame called Trill from the trull or mill theron, which commeth from 
the Weyr streame under the quondam habitation of the Grey Fryers ; then under 
Preachers' Bridge ; and soe on the south side of the houses in Lumbard Lane, 
where, parting into two, one part runneth under Trill-Myll-bow and soe on the 
east side of Grandpont, and the other on the west side by the place where som- 
times the Preaching Fryerys stood. Which stream is very advantagious (especially 
formerly when kept deep and cleer) for [brewers, dyers, tanners, and laundresses] ; 
and better would it be if greater care were taken against the rubbish often cast into 
it, and the houses of easement over it, which renders the water very unwholsome 
and unfit to be used by brewers as now it is V 

1 City, ii. 397. 

2 Savonarola taught his scholars under a rose-tree in the convent garden of 
St. Mark's, in 1490. 3 City, ii. 410. 4 Ibid. i. 398. 



64 



MORS ETIAM SAXIS. 



Twyne remarks 'Ropy ale brewed from these rivers 1 .' Trill passes 'by 
Bishop Howson's house,' the well-known timbered house just below the 
College, built by Bishop King, last Abbot of Oseney, about 1548 2 , and 
passes under St. Aldate's Street about seventy yards south of the Almshouse. 
In the thirteenth century deeds it is ' aqua extra portam australem.' Trill 
Mill was 'owned antiently by the Kepeharmes of Oxon, of whome 
Benedict Kepeharme being one gave it to S. Frideswyde's Priory, circ. 
an. 1 1 80V A series of charters refer to this mill, which was 'upon 
South bridge outside South Gate' (Wigram, 8-23, 191-198). The Bow, 
originally of wood, belonged to the Priory. The Franciscans had a 
' water-milne ' by this stream to grind their corn. It wound its way 
among the 'groves and privat meanders and recesses' beneath 'faire 
structures,' of which even in a Wood's time every vestige had dis- 
appeared 4 . 

' Methinks it cannot otherwise be but a bewailment to divers persons especially 
to such that have a respect for venerable antiquity to see such places that have been 
so much renowned among men, to have their names buried in their ashes, and 
their very mines suffer the death of a sepulcher and dye twice because they want 
a monument that they lived. But 'tis no great marvaile, seeing that 

Mors etiam saxis nominibusque venit 5 .' 

The isle of the Preaching Friars was in his day 

' a peice of ground desolate and naked, and yeilding nothing not so much as one 
stone to give testimony to the world that soe famous a place as the college of the 
Dominicans of Oxon was there once standing . . . Had their bin but the pittance 
of a monument left of each place from which wee retaine something of memory 
of our auncestors, wee should not have bin soe much at a losse as with Tully to 
seek the sepulcher of Archimedes at Syracusa which was by the inhabitants 
therof utterly forgotten V 

A few small ruins were left of 

' the college sometimes of the learned Franciscans. Which at this time scarce 
acknowledgeth a large and venerable structure to have bin once extant there 
and containing in severall centuries the learnedest heroes of our nation V 

The chief entrance had been just below Little South Gate, on the west 
side. The site of the monastery was mostly inhabited by tanners. And 
so in Peshall's time. 

The sites of the Black and Grey Friars were, in 1544, sold by Henry VIII, 
with other monastic lands, to private speculators for ,£1,094 3s. 2d., and 

1 City, i. 399, n. 4. 

2 The front was rebuilt in 1628. John Howson was Bishop of Oxford 1619- 
1627. Ibid. i. 415, n. 2. 

3 Ibid. i. 405. 

4 The stream however was as dirty as in a later age. In 1293 the use of the 
' corrupt water ' of Trill Mill stream was forbidden by royal edict to the bakers 
and brewers, as obnoxious to health. Collectanea, II. 27. For its course see 
Early History of Oxford, p. 299, n. 4 ; and City, i. 415, n. 3. 

5 City, ii. 389. 6 Ibid. i. 309. 7 Ibid. i. 310. 



THE PLACE THEREOF. 



65 



quickly axes and hammers were at work. 'The trees were soon cut 
down, all the greens trod under foot, the church thrown down, and the 
stones, with the images and monuments of the greatest value, scattered 
about V The ' pleasant groves and gardens/ the 4 private meanders and 
recesses ' — but it is a thrice-told tale. Johnson, viewing the decaying 
ruins of Oseney and Rewley, was so filled with indignation that for at 
least half an hour he could find no words. There were no ruins of the 
great buildings of the Dominicans and Franciscans for him to gaze upon, 
for wreck and pillage had left not one stone upon another. Their 
memory lives only in the names of a few miserable purlieus and dreary 
modern streets. 

What were the sins of that age that its beauty and honour could 
deserve the fate that has befallen them ? The words of Mr. Froude are 
well known : — 

' The heavenly graces had once descended on the monastic orders, making them 
ministers of mercy, patterns of celestial life, breathing witnesses of the power of 
the Spirit in renewing and sanctifying the heart. And then it was that art and 
wealth poured out their treasures to raise fitting tabernacles for the dwelling of so 
divine a soul. Alike in the village and in the city, amongst the unadorned walls 
and lowly roofs which closed in the humble dwellings of the laity, the majestic 
houses of the Father of mankind and of his especial servants rose up in sovereign 
beauty. And ever at the sacred gates sat Mercy, pouring out relief from a never 
failing store to the poor and the suffering ; ever within the sacred aisles the voices 
of holy men were pealing heavenwards in intercession for the sins of mankind ; and 
such blessed influences were thought to exhale around those mysterious precincts 
that even the poor outcasts of society — the debtor, the felon, and the outlaw — 
gathered round the walls as the sick men sought the shadow of the apostles, and 
lay there sheltered from the avenging hand till their sins were washed from off 
their souls. The abbeys of the middle ages floated through the storms of war 
and conquest, like the ark upon the waves of the flood, in the midst of violence 
remaining inviolate, through the awful reverence which surrounded them.' 

Golden ideals treasured in vessels, alas ! of earth and clay. 

The back way from the College to Oseney and the railway stations, 
along the line of the City wall, past the Norman keep and the ancient 
Castle mill, and so into High Street St. Thomas to the ivy-clad Church of 
St. Thomas of Canterbury, is about the pleasantest bit left of the old 
town, and has many almost Dutch glimpses of water and skyline. On 
the right in Castle Street are some remains of White Hall, which 
survived the fire of 1644. Dr. Ingram gives a picture of it as it was in 
1837. 

1 Dugdale, vi. c. 3. p. 1529. 



F 



CHAPTER VII. 



SCHOLARS OF BROADGATES HALL. 

No name of a Principal of Broadgates Hall is known certainly before 
1436 ; but it had produced some eminent canonists at an earlier date. 
A mediaeval soldier, writer, and ecclesiastic, whom Prince (Danmonii 
Orientates Illustres) assigns to this Hall *, was Nicholas Upton, author 
of the treatise in four books, De Studio Mill 'tar i, printed in 1654 by 
Bish. He served over seas under the Earl of Salisbury, and was 
before Orleans when it was relieved by the Maid. Duke Humphrey, 
styled by Fuller £ the Mecaenas- General of goodnesse and learning/ 

' observing the parts and vertues of Mr. Upton, who at that time was 
not meanly skilled in both the laws, perswaded him to lay aside the sword 
and to take up his books again and follow his studies ; withal encouraging 
him to take upon him holy orders. . . . Returning to the University he 
took the degree of bachelour of the canon and civil laws, and after that 
he proceeded doctor therein : a sort of learning much valued in those 
days.' 

He was made canon of Wells, 1431, being then rector of Cheadsey, 
which he exchanged, Oct. 12, 1434, for Stapleford, Wilts. He became 
prebendary of Sarum May 14, 1446, and succeeded Edward Prents as 
chantor. He was also prebendary of St. Paul's. Upton built one of 
the houses in Sarum Close for the chantors. In 1452 he went to 
Rome to obtain the canonization by Nicholas V of Bishop Osmund. 
Fuller ( Worthies of Devon), says that in expression of his gratitude to 
the Duke of Gloucester he ' presented his Patron with a Book (the 
first of that kind) of Heraldry.' He was himself ' of an Ancient family ' 
in the west country. 

1 Prince was supplied with his information by Wood, who says : ' I am almost 
persuaded that Nicholas de Upton was borne in Sumersetshire fat Upton so 
called); that also, from our registers, he was bred in the famous hostle for 
Civilians and Canonists called Broadgates Hall (now Pembroke College) which 
was a noted receptacle in his time, and other times that followed, for Somersetshire 
men. But of these matters I will not be confident.' {Life and Times, iii. 467 n.) 



CARDINAL REPYNGDON. 



67 



A still earlier student at the Hall 1 was Cardinal Repyngdon, 
Chancellor of the University in 1397, 1401, and 1402. 

Philip Repyngdon, a canon regular of the Austin priory of Sta. Maria 
de Pratis at Leicester, and afterwards abbot, a man of 'great and notable 
dexterity of wit,' had shown anti-transubstantiationist leanings in a sermon 
at Brackley, but ' while he was Bachelaur of Divinity he appeared an 
humble and benign person, insomuch that he was by all accounted 
a good man; but when he was doctorated in the summer of [1382], he 
began in his first Lecture to magnify Wycleve and his doctrine, and said 
he would defend it " in materia morali," and for that time keep silence 
till the Lord would enlighten the hearts of the Clergy concerning the 
Sacrament of the Altar, on which he was to preach on Corpus Christi 
Day next V Mr. Green writes : 'In an English sermon at St. Frides- 
wyde's 3 , Nicholas Herford had asserted the truth of Wyclif's doctrines, 
and Archbishop Courtenay ordered the Chancellor [Robert Rugge] to 
silence him and his adherents on pain of being himself treated as a 
heretic. The Chancellor fell back on the liberties of the University, and 
appointed as preacher another Wycliffite, who [i.e. on Corpus Christi 
Day, 1382] did not hesitate to style the Lollards "holy priests," and to 
affirm that they were protected by John of Gaunt. Party spirit mean- 
while ran high among the students ; the bulk of them sided with the 
Lollard leaders, and the Carmelite, Peter Stokes, who had procured 
the Archbishop's letters, cowered panic-stricken in his chamber, while 
the Chancellor, protected by an escort of a hundred townsmen, listened 
approvingly to Repyngdon's defiance. " I dare go no further," wrote the 
poor friar to the Archbishop, " for fear of death " ; but he soon mustered 
courage to descend into the schools, where Repyngdon was now 
maintaining that the clerical order was "better when it was but nine 
year old than now that it has grown to a thousand years and more."' 
The harangue contained incitements to the people to pillage churches. 
Repyngdon did not show much more courage in this defiant utterance 
than in his subsequent recantation, for he had close at hand a band of 
men 'privily weaponed under their garments.' 'There was not a little 
joy throughout the whole University for that sermon,' says Foxe. 
The scholars threatened the friars with death. Courtenay however acted 
with much vigour. He procured royal breves ordering the instant 
banishment from Oxford of all who should receive into their Houses or 
Inns Wyclif, Herford, Repyngdon, or Ashton, and the destruction of all 
Lollardite tracts on pain of forfeiture by the University of its privileges. 
Herford and Repyngdon, now suspended from all academical acts, 
appealed in vain to John of Gaunt and then to Convocation. The duke 

1 Wood points it out as one of the errors of Gabriel Powell's book De Anti- 
christo that Repyngdon is assigned in it to Merton College ; ' whereas it appears 
from Record that he was of Broadgates Hall, now Pembroke College.' (Ath. Ox.) 

2 Gutch's Wood, i. 503. 

8 In Lent, Herford argued that no religious should be admitted to any degree. 
The sermon was in the open air at St. Frideswyde's Cross. 



F 2 



68 



'HOME OF LOST CAUSES.' 



himself denounced them as laics, devilish people, having nothing of God 
in them, and both were at Canterbury declared heretical and excommuni- 
cate. A few months later the Archbishop held a Synod at St. Frides- 
wyde's, and after much evasion Repyngdon made a formal submission. 
His abilities were now transferred to the other side. In an Oxford 
Statute of 1400 he is styled 'clericus specialissimus illustrissimi Principis 
D. Regis Henrici.' In 1405 he was consecrated Bishop of Lincoln, and in 
1408 received from Gregory XII the cardinal's hat of SS. Nereus and 
Achilles, being now looked on by the Lollards as one of their severest 
repressors. Thorpe said to the Archbishop, 'See now how Philip 
Rampington pursueth Christ's people,' and Arundel answered, ' No 
bishoppe of this lande pursueth now more sharplie them that holde thy 
waie than he doth V However he disregarded the order of the Council 
of Constance in 141 5, for the exhumation and burning of his former 
master's bones — Lutterworth being in his diocese — and it was not till 
1428 that the Swift received Wyclif's ashes. Repyngdon resigned the 
Lincoln bishopric in 1420. 'Vir potens et Deum timens amans veri- 
tatem et detestans avaritiam,' an Oxford Statute describes him. He was 
a benefactor of Cobham's Library. 

In 141 2 the University decreed that the name of Philip Repyntone, 
Bishop of Lincoln, should be remembered specially for ever in the 
masses, with the names of King Henry IV, Henry Prince of Wales 
and his brothers Thomas, John, and Humphrey, Thomas Arundel 
Bishop of Canterbury, Edmund Earl of March, and Master Richard 
Courtenay. 

The espousing by Oxford of the cause of the Simple Priests lent 
great moment to Wycliffite teachings in the rest of England. But 
when Repyngdon and Herford were silenced, it was as though a seed- 
laden plant were cut at the root. The University drooped. The 
religious movement had diverted attention from the schools, and now 
both theological speculation and philosophical interest died down. 
The academic population dwindled to a shrunken remnant of literary 
mendicants, and for more than a century Oxford languished with 
a feeble life, until the revival of classical learning brought back to it 
some of its old energy and renown. But it was never again, great and 
splendid as its influence has since been, to recover the lofty position 
which it held during the greater part of the twelfth, thirteenth, and four- 
teenth centuries, when it ' exerted a weight and authority in England and 
Europe generally, to which no existing institution furnishes the slightest 
parallel or analogon 2 / when it could be spoken of as the ' sun, eye, and 

1 Foxe's account of Repingdon follows Walden's Fasciculus Zizaniorum 
Wiclevi. 

2 Kirkpatrick's The University, p. 7. 



LESSENED INFLUENCE OF OXFORD. 69 



soul' of the kingdom, or, as by Matthew of Paris in 1256, as the 
' fundamental base/ second only to Paris itself, of the Western Church, 
then in the highest ascendancy of spiritual and temporal dominion, of 
vigorous intellect and material splendour ; or, as by Grostete, as 
actually * secunda Ecclesia/ Other causes contributed to the Uni- 
versity's decline from that pre-eminence. Knowledge, more widely 
diffused, was no longer the monopoly of clerks, nor was the clerisy any 
longer the only profession. The authority of the Church was waning. 
The assertion of nationalism and the break up of Christendom in the 
1 6th century caused Oxford and Cambridge to become insular 
corporations, cutting them off more and more from other European 
centres of learning, and dissolving the commonwealth of letters. The 
New Learning gave an impulse to scholarship and speculation that 
outweighed this disintegrating cause. But in the fifteenth century the 
old tide was nearly run out and the new tide had not begun to come in. 
Constantinople was still in the hands of the Turks, and its treasure 
houses of learning locked to the world. The false dawn of Church 
Reformation had died away at Oxford with the extinguishing of the 
crude doctrines of which Repyngdon made himself the mouthpiece. 
It was especially the case, as Huber remarks, that ' after the suppres- 
sion of the Lollard Movement canon law more and more lost scientific 
interest, and became a mere scholastic ritual V The revival of learning 
under Colet, Linacre, Grocyn and Erasmus favoured literary and physical 
rather than legal studies. Early in the fifteenth century however 
the jurists and medical students had a combined, independent organ- 
ization, and in 1396 they had proctors of their own. Civilians now 
obtained the privilege of becoming doctors in their faculty without 
proceeding first in arts, and yet keeping their seats in Congregation 
and Convocation. No one however to this day may ordinarily 
practise in the Chancellor's Court who is not a master in arts. 

The Oxford monks (who had sided with their old enemies the 
beneficed parsons to put down the new intruders into parishes) aimed 
at asserting for the tonsure a complete independence of the jurisdiction 
of the University. In this they were not successful. At a later date, 
on Sept. 30, 1530, a grey friar, ' Dompnus ' Robert Beste, was 
summoned before the Chancellor together with a scholar of Broadgates 
Hall on grave suspicion of incontinence and disturbance of the peace, 
and was temporarily committed to ' Le Bocardo V The Broadgates 

1 Vol. i. § 81. 

3 He was afterwards vicar of St. Martin in the Fields, and took the side of the 
Reformation. See Grey Friars in Oxford, ed. Little, O. H. S., p. 286. 



7o WATCH AND WARD. 

scholar was warned to keep clear of a certain Joanna, wife of William 
Cooper, of St. Ebbe's, who laid traps for Minorites and then defamed 
them. Another Broadgates clerk, Richard Roberts, sued Robert 
Puller a Friar Minor, about 1534, for 25.?. due to him 'ex causa 
emptionis et vendicionis.' 

Friar Beste was also about to be ' arrayd ' by the Mayor and 
Commonalty, for some offence, at the Sessions ; but ' Mr. Secretarie 
Catly ' forbad them to indict any privileged person. The cause of 
this intervention was the indictment of felony brought against the 
Proctors. The Town complained to Wolsey of the Chancellor and 
Scholars of the University that 

'they doe vse watchinge by night without any of the kinges officers, 
and enter into any man's house and make search in the same house and 
disturbe and disquiet the same persons : and also in the nighttime when 
men should take their rest they will Carry Carts about the stretes and 
beat at men's dores and balkes to their great inquietnesse.' 

In particular, William Grethedde had sworn that 

'the Procters with others came and puld open in the night th e do ores 
of the sayd W. G. and came to his house where he was goeing to his bedd 
in his chamber which seeinge his doores broken vp came downe with 
a poker in his hande for his defence and asked them, what they did in 
his house ? They sayd, knaue thou shalt knowe what, and then they 
struke hime and fell hime downe and tooke his purse with ijj. 4^. in it 
with other thinges and brought hime to prison for the which vnlawfull 
acts the Procter was indited.' 

The Corporation also complain that ' whereas they were comaunded 
by the Judges for to keepe the King's waich, they were chardged that 
they should not waich without the Justice, the Constable, and diuers 
other were in theire company/ &c. 1 

This question of Watch and Ward was a constant cause of dispute 
between the academic and the civic 'universities.' A papal brief of 
1207 na d permitted the town watch to arrest a scholar under certain 
circumstances ; but he was to be forthwith handed over to the Spiritual 
Court. To prevent the recurring conflicts between the burghers and 
the students, the Chancellor and Regent Masters, in 1252, forbade the 
Nations to assemble for the keeping any saint's day with solemnity, 
heading any band of dancers with masks and clamour in the churches 
or streets, or going in procession with wreaths and garlands on their 
heads. Watch and Ward, together with Hue and Cry, were assigned 
to the University by royal privilege in 1356. But in 1518 the 
1 Oxford City Documents, ed. Rogers, O. H. S., pp. 270, 282. 



TOWN AND GOWN 



It 



University surrendered its privileges into the hands of Wolsey, and for 
the next few years brawls between the town and the charterless gowns- 
men were frequent. One of the most notable of these conflicts was 
the fatal encounter on June 4, 1520, between the students of Broad- 
gates Hall and the town patrol : — 

1520, June 5. Coroner's Inquisition upon the Death of Hugh Todde, 
in an affray between the Scholars of Broadyates and the Citizens. 

Inquisition indented taken in the town of Oxford in the county of 
Oxford, 5th day of June, 12th year of Henry VIII, before John Hedde, 
one of the Coroners of our lord the King, upon view of the body of Hugh 
Todde, there killed and found dead. [The jury] say upon their oathes 
that Thomas Bisley, late of Oxford, scholar ; Thomas Houghton, of 
Oxford aforesaid, scholar ; Maurice Canop, of the same town, scholar ; 
and Thomas Wykiswey, of the same town and county, clerk, with many 
other malefactors and disturbers of the King's peace assembled with 
them armed in a warlike manner, by force and arms, viz. sticks, swords, 
bows and arrows, the 4th day of June, 12 Henry VIII, about the hour of 
11 at night of the same day in which Hugh Todd, John Godestowe, etc., 
then being the Kinges wachemen, were insulted, beaten and badly 
wounded, so that they despaired of their lives, and the same Hugh Todd 
was then and there feloniusly killed and murdered against the peace of 
our lord the King ; and upon this the said Thomas Bisley, etc., after the 
said felony and murder done and perpetrated the said fifth of June, took 
to flyght \ 

On August 1st the King's breve was issued to Thomas Englefield, 
Sheriff of Oxford, for an inquiry concerning the death of Todd and the 
arrest of the rioters. 

'Inquiratur pro domino Rege si Thomas Bisley nuper de Oxon scholaris 
Thomas Houghton de Oxon predict' in Com' predict' scholaris Mauritius 
Cannope de eisdem villa et Com' scholaris et Thomas Wyckyswey nuper 
de eisdem villa et Com' clericus aggregatis sibi quam pluribus aliis male- 
factoribus et pacis domini Regis perturbatoribus . . . modo guerino araiat' 
et armat' vi et armis viz baculis gladiis arcubus et sagittis 4 0 die Junii 
anno regni regis Henr' 8 1 12 0 circa hora xj am in nocte ejusdem diei in 
quosdam Hugonem Todde, Johannem Godstowe et alios ad tunc existen' 
y e kynges watchmen riotose insultum fecerunt et ipsos Hugonem Todde 
et Johannem Godstowe ac alios p r dict' ad tunc et ibidem verberaverunt 
vulneraverunt et male tractaverunt sic quod de vita sua desperabant ac 
eundem Hugonem Todde ad tunc et ibidem inventum riotose et felonice 
interfecerunt et murdraverunt contra pacem Domini Regis V 

It seems that the offenders had been banished by the University on 
June 16, together with John Wayat, a civilian. 

The relations of Town and Gown were easy at Oxford as compared 
with Paris, where, if a riotous student were slain, the Provost-Marshal 



1 Twyne, xxiii. 



2 Ibid. v. 199. 



72 



RIXAE LATEPORTENSES. 



or other Magistrate risked perpetual imprisonment, and, if he hanged 
one or two to make an example, was liable to be compelled some 
weeks later to take down the corpses from the gallows with his own 
hands and kiss their lips. But even at Oxford a citizen's life was 
cheap, as appears by the sequel : — 

I5f£, Jan. 17. Inquest on Hugh Todde. 

'Thomas Wynknyslay [alias Whem], scholar of canon law, who was 
banished when the scholars of Brodeyates fought against the townsmen 
because he did not appear before the Chancellor, petitioned that he might 
return to this University, which was granted upon these terms, that he 
pay to, the University 6s. &d., for the reparation of the staff of the inferior 
bedel of arts, xxd., and say three masses for the good estate of the said 
regents, and for the soul of the defunct in that fight V 

The question between the Dogberries and the 1 bull-dogs ' of that age 
was still unsettled in Laud's time. See Gutch's Wood's Annals,- ii. 
422, n. 

The clerks of this quarter seem always to have been quarrelsome, 
to judge by a murderous assault made in St. Aldate's churchyard, 
Jan. 27, 1306, on three unoffending citizens 2 . The legists were 
especially prominent when brawls were afoot. On May 4, 1449, 
certain scholars of ' the hall commonly called Brodeyates in the parish 
of St. Aldate' entered with force and arms, during the night, the 
house of Richard Wyntryngham, a butcher, and assaulted him. Their 
names were Master Haywode, John Foxe, John Man, William Dicson, 
Thomas Blakeman, William Layberne, and — Hewode 3 . 

Three years before this the scholars of ' Lata Porta ' were at 
variance with those of Pauline Hall. John Scelott and John Snawdone 
on behalf of the principal and fellows of the former, and Richard Pede 
and Thomas Ashfeld on behalf of the principal and fellows of the 
latter, arbitrated and composed the quarrel. The principals were to 
entreat reconciliation either of other on behalf of their respective 
parties. Owyn Lloyde, principal of Pauline, was to say to the 
principal of Broadgates that if he had done him or his any wrong he 
humbly asks pardon. Further Sir John Olney, presbyter, and Owyn 
were to exchange the kiss of peace, and take a corporal oath, touching 
the Holy Gospels, that they will maintain brotherly love, and bind 
themselves thereto under their hand by a bond of 100 shillings, the 
bond to be lodged with the Chancellor. And all the fellows were to 

1 Twyne, xxiv. 406. Oxford City Records. 

2 Oxford City Documents, ed. Rogers, O. H. S.,p. 177. 

3 Anstey's Munimenta, p. 590. 



RECONCILED BEFORE GOD'S ALTAR. 73 

keep the peace. One, David Philipe, who was alleged to have struck 
John OIney, was to kneel, and ask and receive pardon. This ' laudum 
sive arbitrium' was declared, July 7, 1446, in St. Frideswyde's 
church, by the altar of the saint, in the presence of the parties, who 
confirmed the same \ 

In 1503 a more than usually deadly pest emptied the hostels and 
inns, so that of fifty-five halls only thirty-three were inhabited, 
and that slenderly. 

1 Munimenta, pp. 552-4. In 1451 Owyn-y-floide was Principal of Edmund 
Hall (p. 621). 



CHAPTER VIII. 



SIXTEENTH CENTURY LAWYERS AND CANONISTS. 

While Broadgates Hall (now comprising at least New College and 
Abingdon Chambers, Broadgates itself, Cambey's and Mine) was 
extending its borders to right and left, the long-gathering storm of 
ecclesiastical reformation broke over the land, shaking especially the 
Universities. The unendowed Halls were affected by the course of 
events even more than the Colleges, since the confiscation of the 
monastic revenues deprived the poorer clerks of their exhibitions and 
means of support, and the University was 'almost destitute of 
scholars.' At the beginning of Elizabeth's reign only nine Halls, 
the number of the Muses, were left, viz. Alban, Broadgates, Hart, 
Gloucester, White, New Inn, Edmund, St. Mary, and Magdalen. 
Three of these are mentioned by Nicholas Robinson 1 as still devoted 
to legal studies — 

Candida, Lata, Nova, studiis civilibus apta, 
Porta patet Musis, Justiniane, tuis. 

The times were not favourable to the Civil Law. Not only were 
men's minds engrossed with theological speculation, but the tide was 
flowing strongly away from Roman, and towards a national juris- 
prudence. The spirit of the Reformation was Germanic and northern. 
Moreover the lawyers were being drawn more and more to London, 
where their practice lay, and the establishment of Inns of Court was 
inevitable, constituting (Huber remarks 2 ) a third University, Oxford 
and Cambridge retaining little more than the power of conferring 
degrees in law, for which a mechanical exercise sufficed. So scarce 
were civilians becoming even before the Reformation that the Kings 

1 Queen Elizabeth in Oxford, 1566. Wood however, under date 1551, says that 
' the present Halls ' (those i. e. that were halls in his day), ' especially those of 
Edmund and New Inn, were void of Students' (Gutch, ii. 110). 

2 English Universities, i. § 81. 



THE REFORMATION AND CIVIL LAW. 



75 



sought permission from the Pope for ecclesiastics to study the Civil 
Law, that they might have counsellors. There was, it is true, a strongly 
Caesarean feeling in Henry VIII and his son. The jurists having 
been encouraged to exclude the 1 artists ' from the Convocation which 
met on April 8, 1530, to consider the Divorce, the King next forbade 
the granting by Oxford of degrees in Canon Law, but endowed a Civil 
Law Professorship, with a salary of £40, together with chairs of 
Theology, Greek, Hebrew, and Medicine. Edward VPs Letters 
Patents of 1549 recite that 'it hath been shewn us that the study of 
the Civil Law is almost extinct. We therefore impose care and 
solicitude on you ut quibus poteritis viis et modis illud excitetis et 
amplificetis.' The king prescribed that the Law Reader should 
lecture on the Pandects, the Code, or the Ecclesiastical Laws of the 
Realm. Pie seems to have purposed to gather all the civilians into one 
College \ the physicians into another. During Elizabeth's reign the 
Universities, so violently handled, were gathering anew their scattered 
force. Whereas in 1551, of 1015 names on the Oxford buttery books, 
' the greater part were absent and had taken their last farewell,' the 
students now began to return. The Schools of Arts were no longer 
used by laundresses to dry their clothes in. The Puritan idea that 
the old exercises were ridiculous and degrees anti-Christian was 
weakened, and the 'barbarous insolencies upon treasures of good 
letters ' stopped. But the graduates in jurisprudence were still few. 
Nevertheless Broadgates Hall was presided over by a succession of 
able lawyers, some of whom were men of eminence in an eminent age. 
It did more perhaps than any English institution to keep the Law of 
Nations alive. When in 1603 the dissolution of the faculty was feared, 
the Chancellor declared that ' this Academy possesses four heads or 
ornaments, upon which as its firmest foundations the whole structure 
of the University has been placed, that is the faculties of Theology, 
Jurisprudence, Medicine, and Artes Humaniores; of which if one 
were taken away the fall of the whole edifice would ensue.' And 
James I gave the University the right to elect two burgesses who 
should be grave and learned men professing the Civil Law. 

The first Principal of note was Wolsey's friend, Brian Higden 
(1505-1508), B.C.L. 1500, LL.D. 1506, May 28 2 . 

1 Doctors' Commons, incorporated in 1768 as ' the College of Doctors of Law 
exercent in the Ecclesiastical and Admiralty Courts,' was founded by Dr. Hervie, 
Dean of Arches, in 1568. It was demolished in 1894. Trinity Hall was founded 
chiefly for civilians. There is said to have been a college for professors of civil 
and canon law in London as early as the eighth century ! 

a See Reghtriim Univ. vol. i. ed. Boase, O. H. S., p. 290. 



76 SOME PRINCIPALS — IIJGDEN, ARCHE. 



On giving up his principality he became parson successively of 
Buchenhall (1508), of Kirkby (151 1), and of Nettleton (1513). In 1508 
Higclcn was preferred to a stall at Lincoln, becoming sub-dean in 15 11. 
In 1 5 1 5 he was made archdeacon of the West Riding of York, the next 
year (June 20) canon of York, with the prebend of Ulleskelf — where 
Leland says he built 'a pleasant house' — and a week later Dean of York. 
He was also canon of St. Paul's. He may have owed his preferments 
in part to his having been on the council of Henry VI I's natural son, the 
Duke of Richmond ; but he appears to have been a man of striking 
ability. In 1526, Dean Higden was a Commissioner with Ralph Fane, 
Earl of Westmoreland, for the signing a treaty of peace with the King of 
Scots, which they effected with great quickness and success. The next 
year we find him writing to Wolsey complaining of the transference of 
ecclesiastical causes from his court to London. After the Cardinal's fall, 
however, he continued on a friendly footing with Cromwell. As he grew 
old his intellects seem to have given way. Colyns, treasurer of York, 
writes to Cromwell, Jan. 12, 153I, that the Dean was 'a crasytt.' There 
was some design of pensioning him off, but he died in his office on 
June 5, 1539, and was buried in the south cross aisle of the Minster. 
The brass and epitaph have disappeared. He presented the church with 
a fine cope. He is styled by Wood a ' Benefactor to Learning,' and 
a fellowship at Brasenose was founded by him. In 1508 his name 
appears as a 'judex ad inquirendum de pace' between Allhallows Church 
and St. Martin's \ Brian's brother, John Higden, was President of 
Magdalen and the first Dean of King Henry the Eighth's College. 

Richard Arche, or Archer, LL.B., Principal 1526, was vicar of 
Ramsbury, 1518, and of Avebury, 1520. He supplicated for D.C.L., 
Jan. 18, 153^, but was not then admitted. 

Richard Wolman dying at that time, Cromwell succeeded him in the 
deanery of Windsor, and Arche stepped into his prebendal stall. At 
the same time the King made him one of his chaplains. He was vicar 
of Hanney, near Wantage, 1543, and rector of Clewer, 1554. In that 
year he became canon of Sarum, having already, on Innocents' Day, 
1 551, succeeded Matthew Wootton as treasurer there. 

On the walls of a cell in the Beauchamp Tower are rudely cut the 
words : ' 15*70: ihon-store . doctor/ They were carved during his 
last imprisonment by John Story, who has been diversely regarded as 
'a harmless old man,' and as the worst, next to Bonner, of the 
persecutors of the reformed beliefs. Strype says that he was at 
Broadgates with Bonner, but the dates refute this. Story was first at 
Henxey Hall in St. Aldate's parish, whence he proceeded D.C.L. 
July 29, 1538 (B.C.L. May 8, 1531). In 1537 he was elected 



1 Reg. Univ. vol. i. p. 296. 



STORY. 



77 



Principal of Broadgates, being ' a most noted Civilian and Canonist of 
his time.' When Henry VIII's Commissioners established the 
Civil Law Lecture, Story, who already, it appears, had some kind of 
salary from the King, was appointed chief Moderator. ' Afterwards 
performing excellent service at the Siege of Bologne in Picardie, in the 
administration of the Civil Law under the Lord- Mar shall there, the 
King, in consideration thereof, did renew his former grant of the said 
Lecture in form of Letters Patent for the term of life of the said John, 
in the Year 1546 or thereabouts, joyning with him for his ease 
Mr. Rob. Weston, Fellow of All Souls College,' and afterwards 
Principal of Broadgates. 

He was also an advocate of Doctors' Commons. The Puritan historians 
accuse him of very irregular conduct while at Oxford. At Mary's 
accession his patent was renewed, but Story resigned the Regius 
Professor's chair to Aubrey, and became Chancellor of the dioceses of 
London and Oxford, and dean of the Arches. He sate in Parliament 
for Hindon, 1547-52, for East Grinstead, 1553, for Bramber, 1554, for 
Ludgershall, 1554, 1555, for Downton, 1558. In Edward's first Parlia- 
ment Story, speaking against the Prayer Book, boldly cited the text 
'Woe to thee, O land, when thy king is a child' (Eccl. x. 16). He then 
retired into Flanders till Mary's accession. Story was Queen's Proctor 
at the trial of Archbishop Cranmer in St. Mary's, being ' a furious zealot 
for the religion of Boner ' (Coote). At the trial of Philpots he said : ' I tell 
thee that there hath never yet been any one burnt but I have spoken 
with him and have been a cause of his despatch.' Philpots : ' You have 
the more to answer for, master doctor, as you shall find in another world.' 
Philpots avowed however that Joan Bocher had deserved her burning, 
'because she stood against one of the manifest articles of the faith, 
contrary to the Scriptures.' Story was employed to restore the roods and 
images. He made a bold and passionate speech, openly in Parliament, 
against the princess Elizabeth, affirming the folly of lopping branches 
from the tree of Heresy when the root was suffered to remain. He could 
hardly hope at her accession to escape the axe and cord, if once trapped. 
Thrown into hold he broke out and escaped overseas to Antwerp, 
' where he continued a most bloody persecutor, still raging against God's 
saints with fire and sword. Insomuch as he, growing to be familiar and 
right dear to the Duke of Alva, received special commission from him to 
search the ships for goods forfeited and for English books' (Foxe). For 
this office he was recommended by his knowledge of civil law. The 
hatred with which he was held by his countrymen rested less on religious 
grounds, it has been thought, than on commercial resentment. 'At 
length being invited under hand to search the Ship of one Parker, an 
English Man, went unwarily therein : Whereupon Parker causing the 
hatches to be shut when Storie was searching under deck, he hoised sail 
and brought him Prisoner into England about the beginning of Decemb. 
1570. So that being clap'd up close Prisoner within the Tower of London 



78 



ARCHBISHOP YOUNG. 



did undergo several examinations 1 .' He repeatedly refused the oath of 
the Supremacy, and declined even to plead, audaciously declaring him- 
self no subject of the Queen's. He would only say, ' I wish for my part 
that I had done more than I did.' He was accused of treasonable 
correspondence with the Nevilles and Nortons. After being prayed for 
and animated in his' faith by John Fekenham, Abbot of Westminster, 
a fellow-prisoner, the old man was drawn on a hurdle to Tyburn, June I, 
1 57 1. The scene on the scaffold, after he had delivered a 'grave and 
becoming' address, was one of revolting and indescribable horror. After 
death, his head was set on London bridge and his quarters on four gates 
of the City. He had wished to be buried within the Grey Friars of 
Louvain, to which convent he had left '20 florens' for his funeral 
exequie^s. He had been a lay brother of that order and a signal bene- 
factor. Together with More, Fisher, and others of that bloody time, 
John Story has been beatified by the papal see. Strype describes him 
as 'worse than Boner. Yet notwithstanding Story is made a saint at 
Rome, and his martyrdom printed and set up in the English College 
there 2 .' He was the son of Nicholas and Joan Story. 

Several other Principals were persons of eminence. One, Thomas 
Yonge, became Archbishop of York and Lord President of the 
North. Wood writes : — 

' Thomas Yong a learned Civilian, Son of John [son of Brian] Yong of 
Pembrokshire by Elianor his Wife, was born in that County, became a 
Student in the Univ. of Oxon (in Broadgates hall as it seems) about the year 
1528 [B.A. 1529, M.A. 1534], where applying his muse to the study of the 
Civil Law took a degree in that faculty nine years after [1538], being then 
in sacred Orders.' D.C.L. 1565. He held various Welsh preferments. 
' In 1542 he was made principal of the said hall, and soon after Chantor 
and Canon of S. Davids ; where, being much scandalized at the unworthy- 
actions 3 of Rob. Ferrar Bishop of that place, did, with others, draw up 
articles against him ; which being proved before the Kings Commis- 
sioners, the said Bishop was imprison'd in the time of K. Ed. 6. In the 
reign of Q. Mary, Th. Yong fled from the nation for religion sake, and 
remained in Germany 4 in an obscure condition during her time. But 
when Q. Elizabeth came to the Crown, and H. Morgan, another accuser 
of Rob. Ferrar had been depriv'd of his Bishoprick of S. Davids, the said 
Yong was design'd to succeed him.' He was Spital preacher in 1557, 
was consecrated in January, 1559, but a year later by Parker's advice was 

1 Ath. i. 132. 

2 Annals, I. (ii) 297. 

3 Strype (Annals, I. (i) 370) blames Yonge, though he 'was charactered to be 
a virtuous and godly man.' Farrar would not visit his cathedral. He suffered by 
burning under Mary. 

* He was one of six who had the courage to avow reformed opinions in the first 
Convocation of Mary's reign. The place of his exile was Wesel. Scory and 
about a hundred others shared it. These refugees did not scruple the use of the 
Common Prayer. 



LORD CHANCELLOR WESTON. 



79 



f translated to York, and about the same time was made President of the 
Queens Council in the north parts of England' He was also President 
of the Marches of Wales. 4 In Feb. 1 564 he was actually created Doctor of 
the Civil Law, and dying [at Sheffield] on the 26 June, in fifteen hundred 
sixty and eight, was buried at the east end of the Choire of his Cath. Ch. 
at York. Over his grave was soon after laid a marble stone, with this 
Epitaph on it. Thomas Yongus nuper Eboracensis Archiepiscopus^ 
Civilis Juris Doctor peritissimus, quern propter gravitatem, summum 
ingeniwn, eximia7n prudentiam, excellentemqj rertmi politicarujn scien- 
tiam, illustrissima Regina septentrionalibits hujus regni partibus 
Praesidem constituit, quo viagistratu quinq; annos perfunctus est. 
Sedit Archiepiscopus annos sept em et sex menses. Obiit Vicesimo sexto 
die mensis Junii, an. 1568. He had taken to Wife in his elderly years 
one Jane daughter of Thorn. Kynaston of Estwick in Shropshire, by 
whom he had issue George Yong, afterwards a knight living in York 
1612, for whose sake the father, being covetous of wealth, pulled down 
a goodly hall belonging to him as Archbishop, for the greediness of the 
lead (as 'tis said) that covered it. Concerning which matter there is 
a large story extant, related by an author [Sir John Harrington in his 
Brief View oj the State of the Church of England, p. 171] who was no 
friend to married Bishops 1 .' 

Robert Weston, of Weeford, Staffordshire, was Principal from 
1546 to 1549, Fellow of All Souls, 1536, B.C.L. Feb. 17, 153& 
D.C.L. July 28, 1556, — a considerable interval. He was the only 
doctor admitted in Civil Law that year, and, there being too few 
resident D.C.L.'s to do so, Thomas Darbyshere, afterwards Principal, 
inceptor in Civil Law, was admitted to depone for him 2 . In 1556 he 
was an advocate of Doctors' Commons. Before this, while Principal 
of Broadgates, being then Chancellor of Exeter (Gutch's Wood, ii. 
856), Weston was appointed Deputy Regius Professor of Civil Law 
for Story. 

In Mary's reign he was made Dean of Arches, and sate in Parliament 
for Exeter, 1553, and after her death for Lichfield, 1558-9 (being then 
LL,D.). Dean of Wells, 1570. Elizabeth made him one of the Lords 
Justices for Ireland, and from 1567 to his death Weston was Lord High 
Chancellor of Ireland, being 'eminent in that place,' and Dean of St. 
Patrick's. He appears however never to have been in Holy Orders. It 
is stated on his noble monument in St. Patrick's that 'he was so learned, 
judicious, and upright in the Court of Judicature, all the time that he was 
Lord Chancellour, that no Order or Decree that he made was ever 

1 Athenae, i. 595. For papers relating to this lady's inheritance from her 
husband, see Strype, Annals, I. (ii) 300. Yonge took little or no part in the 
vestments controversy. But there was a conspiracy to take his life in 1565. 

2 Reg. Univ. ed. Clark, O. H. S., II. i. 117 ; and Gutch, ii. 133. 



8o 



RANDOLPH. 



questioned or reversed.' He died May 20, 1573. There is a bronze 
bust of him at All Souls. On the monument in Christ Church of his 
only son, Dr. John Weston — who 'forum pro suggesto mutavit ut animas 
Christo lucrifaceret,' being ' Ciceroniana eloquentia praeclarus' — Robert 
Weston is described as ' Hyberniae quondam Cancellarius, et Elizabethae 
Reginae praecharissimus ; qui rebelles ibi perfidos non tarn potentia 
quam sanctitate domuit.' He bore Ermine, a martlet gules ; on a chief 
azure five bezants. John Weston's wife, Ann, died in Christ Church in 
1663, aged a hundred. 

Jewel told Martyr, 'I can do nothing without Randolph.' This 
principal played a great part in state affairs under Elizabeth. Sir 
Thomas Randolph, son of Avery Randolph or Randall, was born at 
Baddlesmere, Kent, in 1523. After being taught by George Buchanan, 
he was chosen one of the first Students of Christ Church; B.C.L. 1547. 
In 1549 he succeeded Weston at Broadgates, but the accession of 
Mary in 1553 made his 'existence' there, though shared with Jewel, 
a ' wretchedness,' and he retired to France. 

With Elizabeth Randolph was in high favour, and was singled out for 
various important embassies — thrice to the Scots Queen, seven times to 
James VI — carrying out Cecil's policy. An adverse writer describes him 
as ' of a dark, intriguing spirit, full of cunning and void of conscience.' 
Prof. Froude, however, paints a plain, blunt, stout-hearted Englishman, 
one who after a famous interview with Darnley 'turned on his heel "with- 
out reverence or farewell.'" He needed something more than address 
to execute, disguised as a merchant, the secret conveyance of the Earl 
of Arran from his hostage-captivity at Chastelherault to Switzerland and 
thence to Scotland. Randolph (in Jewel's Letters called Pamphilus 1 ) 
promoted Arran's courtship of Elizabeth, for whom Henry VIII had 
intended him. This was in 1560. In the northern kingdom he urged 
Mary to wed Leicester, and to conform to presbyterianism. She would 
not, she replied, ' make merchandize of her conscience.' At one time he 
suffered imprisonment in Edinburgh ; at another a harquebus was shot 
in at his window. He was finally outed from the realm in February, 
1566. It is from Randolph's correspondence with Cecil, with Bedford, 
with the Council of State, and with Elizabeth, that we have the clearest 
picture of the unhappy reign of the Queen of Scots, and the most cir- 
cumstantial account of Rizzio's murder 2 . In the Lansdowne, Cotton, and 
Scots MSS. are numberless papers drawn up by him. Randolph was 
also on several occasions Elizabeth's trusted envoy 3 to the courts of 

1 'Pamphilus the presiding angel and companion of our friend Crito' (Arran). 
' Your guest Crito and his friend Pamphilus are not idle. The saucy youth came to 
Athens and won the good graces of Glycerium' (Elizabeth). 

2 ' He was not slayne in the quenes presence as was saide, but going doun the 
stayres oute of the chamber of presence.' 

3 In an appendix to the life of Mede (p. 76) the writer says : ' Queen Elizabeth 
gave a strict charge and command to both the Chancellors of both Universities 



INTERNAL DISPUTES. 



81 



Russia and France. The Russia Company was established in con- 
sequence of a commercial treaty brought about by his diplomacy. On 
that embassy his secretary was Turbervile the poet. In 1571, while 
ambassador at the Court of Scotland, he challenged the French envoy, 
Virac, who had taken liberties with Queen Elizabeth's name and 
Randolph's own. He did not indeed receive more tokens of favour from 
his sovereign than knighthood and some minor posts. But his nature 
was unambitious. 'At length after he had painfully spent his time in 
continual service of his Prince and Country, at home and abroad, he 
quietly surrendred up his last breath in his house at St. Peter's hill near 
to Pauls Wharf in London on the 8 of June in Fifteen hundred and 
ninety, aged 67 (leaving then behind him several Children that he had 
by two Wives), whereupon his body, accompanied by one or two Heralds 
of armes, was buried 6 of July following in the Church of St. Peter.' 
One of his wives was sister to Sir Francis Walsingham. 

In the 1583 edition of Jewel's Treatise of the Sacraments are these 
verses prefixed : — 

4 Ornatissimo viro Thomae Randolph armigero serenissimo ad Scotos 
legato integerrimo. 

Quis te junxit amor docto, Randolphe, Juello, 

Oxonia, exilium, musa, laborque notant. 
Et quod ad exequias defuncti ducere plectrum 

Triste, Buchananos Patriciosque facis : 
(Quis tibi gratus erit pro tali munere ?) certe 

Auctior hoc studio gratia facta tua est. 
Nec nihil ex illo referes. Sacra signa Redemptor, 

Essent ut fidei tessera fida, dedit. 
Haec tuus exposuit sancte, tibi dedico : ne sit 

Tarn rarae et fidei tessera nulla piae. 

Tuae dignitatis studiosus Johan. Garbrandus.' 

Jewel's papers were all left to Garbrand. 

Besides his troubles from without in Mary's reign, Randolph's 
principalship of Broadgates had not been undisturbed, under 
Edward VI, from within. On June 9, 1550, Thomas Darbishire 
and ten other ' scholares ' of the Hall appeared before the Vice- 
Chancellor with a statement of their complaints against their Principal, 
Mr. Thomas Randoll. One of three ' scholares ' who had presented 
him six months before to the Vice-Chancellor on his election was 

to bring her a just true and impartial account of all the eminent and hopeful 
students (that were graduates) in each University. . . . The use she made of it was 
that if she had an Ambassador to send abroad then she of herself would 
nominate such a man of such an House to be his Chaplain, and another of 
another House to be his Secretary, etc. When she had any places to dispose of 
fit for persons of an academical education, she would herself consign such persons 
as she judged to be pares negotiis? 

G 



82 



SUMMASTER. 



William Tyndale. Wood 1 evidently supposes this to have been the 
famous translator of the Scriptures ; who however was strangled in 
1536. Of course it is possible that, as a Canon of Cardinal College, 
he may have had, while it was being built, his chamber in Broadgates. 
But I know no evidence for this. 

George Summaster 2 while Principal (1575-16 19) added to the 
accommodation for his students. At his death these numbered seven 
Masters, ten Bachelors, and sixteen Commoners. To this Principal 
was dedicated the first edition of Hooker's two Sermons on St. Jude 
by Henry Jackson of C. C. C, the original editor, under Spenser, of 
Hooker's remains, and the ' polisher ' and arranger of the disputable 
Book VIII, ' a me plane vitae restitutum. Tulit alter honores.' The 
two Sermons are dedicated thus : — 

'To the Worshipful M. George Summaster, Principal of Broad- 
Gates Hall, in Oxford, Henry Jackson wisheth all happiness— Sir, 
Your kind acceptance of a former 3 testification of that respect I owe you, 
hath made me venture to shew the world these godly sermons under 
your name.' The dedication defends Latimer's ' King of Clubs ' sermon 
against the railing of Parsons and concludes, 'You shall read nothing 
here but what I persuade myself you have long practised in the constant 
course of your life. It remaineth only that you accept of these labours 
tendered to you by him who wisheth you the long joys of this world and 
the eternal of that which is to come. — Oxon, from Corpus Christi college, 
this 13 of January, 1613 (1614).' 

The penultimate Principal of Broadgates was the eminent jurist 
Dr. John 4 Budden, who disputed in 1605 in Civil Law before James I, 
and of whom Wood gives the following account : — 

' Son of Joh. Budden of Canford in Dorsetshire, was born in that 
County, entered into Merton coll. in Mich. Term, 1582 [Dec. 14, plebeii 

1 City, i. 563, n. 2. 

2 Of the family of Somaster, of Widecombe in Devon, eight descents are 
described in the Visitation of 1620. The co-heiresses of the elder branch married 
Trefry and Kent. Thomas, a younger brother of George Somaster (Fellow of All 
Souls, 1578), was archdeacon of Cornwall, and continued the main line. The 
representative of this branch married a co-heiress of Arundell of Trerice, and was 
of Painsford in Ashsprington (which had belonged to the Somasters since 
Henry VII) in 1620. John Somaster, esqre., the last of this branch, died at Stoken- 
ham in 1681. Arms : Arg. a castle triple-towered, within an orle of fleur de 
lis, sa. Crest, a portcullis, arg. [Lysons, ccxvi). 

s I do not know what this was. Jackson had in 161 2 printed at the University 
Press the Sermon on Justification, and probably some smaller treatises of Hooker, 
and also Wyclif's Wicket. But none of these is dedicated to Summaster. Izaak 
Walton's Life of Hooker was dedicated to a benefactor of this College, Bishop 
Morley, under whose roof it was written. 

* Godwin calls him ' William ' : see Hearne, ed. Doble, O. H. S., ii. 245. 



BUDDEN ; BONNER. 



filius], aged 16, admitted Scholar of Trinity coll. 30 of May following, 
took the degree of Bach, of Arts [Oct. 19, 1586], and soon after [June 27, 
1589] was translated to Glouc. hall, for the sake, and at the request, of 
Mr. Tho. Allen, where being mostly taken up with the study of the 
Civil Law, yet he took the degree of M. of Arts, as a Member thereof. 
[He responded in Comitiis, July 14, 1595.J At length he was made 
Philosophy Reader of Magd. coll., proceeded in the Civil Law 1602, made 
Principal of New Inn 1609 \ the Kings Professor of the Civil Law soon 
after [161 1], and Principal of Broadgates hall [April 10, 1611]. He was 
a person of great Eloquence, an excellent Rhetorician, Philosopher, 
and a most noted Civilian.' He was also eminent in ' astronomy and 
geometry.' 'This Dr. Budden died in Broadgates hall on the eleventh 
of June in sixteen hundred and twenty. From which place his body 
being carried to the Divinity School, Rich. Gardiner of Ch. Ch. the 
Deputy-Orator delivered an eloquent Speech in praise of him, before 
the Doctors, Masters, and Scholars of the University. Which being 
done, the body was conveyed thence to St. Aldatds Church near to the 
hall of Broadgates, and there in the Chancel was interred on the 14 of 
the same month.' 

He wrote in Latin a rhetorical Life of Waynflete (1602), and a Life 
of Archbishop Morton (1607); translated into Latin Sir Thos. 
Bodley's Statutes of the Publick Library, and Sir Thos. Smith's 
Commonwealth of England) and did out of French into English 
A Discourse for Parents' Honour and Authority over their Children, 
written by Peter Frodius, a renowned French civilian. 

Of Canonists who were not Principals, the most famous name is 
Edmund Bonner, 'the Spunge of Blood/ Wood adopts the tale 
that he ' was the natural son of George Savage, Priest, Parson of 
Davenham in Cheshire, natural son of Sir foh. Savage of Clifton in 
the said County, Knight of the Garter, and one of the counsel to 
K. Hen. 7/ His mother, Elizabeth Frodsham, was, it was said, 
married after his birth to Edmund Bonner, a Worcestershire sawyer. 
' So,' says Strype, ' I have read in some good MSS.' 

* Yet to do him and history as much right as things will bear, I shall 
relate what the late honourable baron Lechmere hath asserted to me. . . . 
He was as certainly legitimately begotten as himself or any other : that 
he was born at Hanly of one Bonner, an honest poor man, in a house 
called Bonner's place to this day, a little cottage of about five pounds 
a year. . . . He added that there was an extraordinary friendship 
between Bonner and his great grandfather. . . . And that he had been 
told by some of their family that Bonner shewed this kindness to this 

1 For an account of this election without electors, see Reg. Univ. ed. Clark, 
O. H. S., II. i. 289. 

G 2 



8 4 



BONNER. 



gentleman out of gratitude, his father or some of the relations putting 
him out to school, and giving him his education 1 .' 

Fuller however affirms that Bonner 

' enjoyed a great temporal! estate left him by his Father ... a Priest 
richly beneficed and landed in Cheshire 2 .' 'In 1512 or thereabouts he 
became a Student of Broadgates Hall (now Pembroke Coll.), being then 
a noted nursery for Civilians and Canonists. Soon after, having made 
a sufficient progress in Philosophy and the Laws, he was on the 12 June 
admitted Bach, of the Canon, and on the 13 of July following, an. 
1 5 19, Bach, of the Civil Law. About that time he entered into 
Holy Orders and performed many matters relating to his faculty in the 
Dioc. of Worcester. In 1525 he was licensed to proceed in the Civil Law, 
and about that time obtained the Rectories of Ripple, Bledon, Dereham, 
Cheswick, and Cherriburton (in Yorks.) z ? In 1529 he was Wolsey's 
chaplain and commissary for the faculties, acting as intermediary in 
important transactions between the Cardinal on the one side and the 
King and Gardiner on the other, and he was with Wolsey when he was 
arrested for high treason. After the cardinal's death however his 
eminence as a canonist and also his dexterity in the management of 
affairs brought him into the good graces of King Henry, who made him 
his chaplain. Like Gardiner and others who afterwards joined the party 
of reaction, Bonner was at this time willing to help cut the papal comb. 
He was in much favour with Cromwell, was Master of the Faculties 
under Cranmer, and a promoter of the Divorce, though assigned as 
counsel to the much wronged Queen. 

£ You have here, Lady, 
(And of your choice) these reverend fathers, men 
Of singular integrity and learning, 
Yea, the elect of the land, who are assembled 
To plead your cause.' 

Bonner was made prebendary of St. Paul's and archdeacon of Leicester, 
became in 1538 elect of Hereford and in 1539 bishop of London. Before 
this he had been employed as ambassador to the King of Denmark, the 
King of France, the Emperor of Germany, and the Pope, to whose court 
he had been sent in 1523 (though but a stripling) to protest against the 
King of England being cited to Rome; while in 1533 he had conveyed 
to Clement Henry's appeal to a General Council. In these embassies he 
was adroit, plain-spoken, and overbearing. Professor Froude describes 
Bonner as a rough, coarse, vulgar Englishman, with a downright honesty 
and a broad, not ungenial humour. Coote says, that he resembled 
Henry VIII in his rough and boisterous character. The courteous 
Francis I was so provoked by his audacity that he told him that if it had 
not been for love of his master he would have ordered him a hundred 

1 Annals, II. (ii.) 300. 

8 Worthies. Were this so, would Bishop Ridley have treated £ My Mother 
Bonner' with so much respect— ill requited by her son ? 
3 Wood's Athenae, i. 125. 



BONNER. 



85 



strokes of a halberd, and Pope Clement VII wished he could throw him 
into a cauldron of boiling lead. In promoting the printing of the Great 
Bible Bonner showed much zeal, and set up six copies in the crypt of 
St. Paul's. Fuller says : 'All this time Bonner was not Bonner, being as 
yet meek, merciful, and a great Cromwellite.' Thomas Cromwell had 
that mark of the meek where it is written of them ' possidebunt terram.' 
Meekness was not in Bonner, a man not greedy of parks and messuages. 
Alarmed like others at the lengths to which innovation was running, he 
threw himself, under Edward VI, into opposition, was committed to the 
Fleet and deprived. At Mary's accession he was made President of 
the Convocation in Cranmer's room. The part he took in the relentless 
repression of the new doctrines has made Bonner's name to be, to this 
day, more execrated than any other in English history. Yet, after 
allowing for the present fashion with historians of reversing traditional 
judgments, it is satisfactory to members of this House to find not merely 
Maitland but such writers as Gairdner saying much to exculpate his 
memory. Doubtless an iron-nerved lawyer, in an age accustomed to 
blood and pain. But Bonner had a rough good-nature and some feeling : 
'naturally a good-humoured and merciful man,' Mr. Green says. 'Not 
only not unkind, but long-suffering, considerate, and generous ' is Canon 
Dixon's judgment. He interposed on Ann Askew's behalf. The invective 
of the writers on the other side did not disturb Bonner's temper. Bale, 
for instance, called him ' a very fearce furious angell of the bottomlesse 
pytt,' and 'that execrable Anti-christ.' Another writes to him, 'Oh! 
thou bloudy Boner and most filthy bastard born ; oh ! thou most cruel 
tyrant of Sodoma and proud painted prelate of Gomorra. Thou art 
become the common slaughter slave to all thy fellow bitesheeps [bishops].' 
He was ' Ignivomus Bonerus.' Though Coote says that ' interest was his 
chief religion,' when Elizabeth succeeded Bonner refused to take the 
oath of the supremacy and was again deprived and committed to the 
Marshalsea, in which prison he ' continued in a cheerful and contented 
condition till the time of his death ; which therefore made those that did 
not care for him say that he was like Dionysius the Tyrant of Syracuse, 
who, being cruel and peremptory in prosperity, was both patient and 
pleasant in adversity. . . . He gave way to fate in the aforesaid Prison 
5 Sept. in Fifteen hundred sixty and nine, and was at midnight buried 
near to the bodies of other Prisoners in the Cemitery belonging to 
St. Georges Church in Southiuark, in which parish the Marshalsea is 
situated ' : — too mild a fate, says Coote, for this monster of barbarity. 
Fuller says : ' He was buried, saith Bishop Godwin, in Barking Church- 
yard, among the theeves and murderers, being surely a mistake in the 
Printer, Allhallows Barking being on the other side of the Thames, 
nothing relating to the Marshalsea. . . . But so long as Bonner is dead 
let him choose his own grave.' He was a round, corpulent man, and 
Foxe's picture of him in the Book of Martyrs may be supposed a good 
likeness, since, when one showed it him to vex him, ' he merrily laugh'd 
and said, "A vengeance on the fool, how could he get my picture drawn so 
right ? " ' Harington tells us that ' he was so hated that men would say 



86 



DA RB Y SI URIC. 



of any ill-favoured fat fellow in the street, " That was Bonner." ' Fuller 
says : ' He had Sesqui-Corpus, a Body and Halfe, and towards his old 
age he was overgrown with fat.' This was ascribed to gluttony. 

An adverse biographer describes him as ' a great master of the 
Canon Law, being excelled in that faculty by very few of his time.' 
Coote observes that he did not disgrace Broadgate Hall by want of 
learning. Tonstal speaks of his excellent gifts and virtues. Wood 
says, ' He had caused formerly two of his Nephews (Sons of one 
of his Sisters) to be educated in Broadgates Hall, one of which 
was named Will. Darbyshire, who by his Uncles favour became 
Prebendary of St. Pauls Cathedral, and, dying in Broadgates, was 
buried in St. Aldaies Church adjoyning, 3. July 1552. The other 
was Tho. Darbyshire, who proceeded Doctor of Laws, as a member 
of Broadgates, in 1555.' Strype, of course, says they were Bonner's 
sons \ 

It was in Oxford that the memorable sitting of Bonner in judgment 
upon Cranmer, who had once sate in judgment upon him, took place. 
By accusing of heresy the first non-royal English subject, the 
Queen and Bonner thought to strike awe into the semi-Zwinglian 
party. On St. Valentine's day, 1555, Bonner, under a commission 
from the Pope, degraded the Archbishop, putting on him a threadbare 
yeoman bedell's gown and a poor townsman's cap, in which he 
returned to prison. 

One of the nephews of Bonner, mentioned above, Thomas Darby- 
shire, became Principal of Broadgates in 1556. His abilities and 
zeal for the papal cause advanced him to a stall in St. Paul's, the 
archdeaconry of Essex, and the Chancellorship of the London diocese. 
In the last capacity he helped his uncle, whose chaplain he was, to 
deal with the persons accused of heresy. 

' In the beginning of Qu. Elizabeth, being deprived of his Spiritualities, 
he went beyond the Seas, and at length entered himself into the Society 
of Jesus, and became a noted person among the Rom. Catholicks. He 
had great skill in the Scriptures, and was profound in Divinity: he 
catechized also many years publickly at Paris in the Latin Tongue, with 
great concourse and approbation of the most learned of that City. 
Whether he wrot anything I find not as yet, only that he died in a good 
old Age at Pont ci Mousson in Loraine, an. 1604 (2 Jac. I) 2 . 

He was half a century later quoted as a chief authority for the 
Nag's Head fable 3 . 

1 Eat. Mem. vol. iii. (i.) p. 173. 2 Athenae, i. 712. 

3 Strype, Life of Parker, i. 118. 



TREGONWELL. 



87 



Another near relative of Bishop Bonner's, said to be his baseborn 
brother, George Wymysley (Wemsley, in the Cheshire Visitation 
Winslow), became Principal of Broadgates 1532, B.CX. 1533. He 
was canon of St. Paul's 1542, archdeacon of London 1543, vicar of 
Castleton 1546, rector of Tarporley 1553, archdeacon of Middlesex 
1554, rector of Uppingham 1554, canon of Chester 1554-6. 

A Cromwellian agent was Sir John Tregonwell, ' sometimes of 
Broadgates, afterwards Principal of Vine hall ' — £ dear to Erasmus.' 
D.C.L. 1552. Wolsey admitted him as an inmate into his family. 
As an experienced canonist he was employed in Cranmer's embassy 
about the Divorce, and also as King's Proctor in the cause itself 1 . 
Wood says that for his diligent service Henry VIII knighted him, 
but it was at Mary's coronation that he was dubbed Knight of the 
Carpet 2 . Tregonwell sate on a committee appointed by Convocation 
to investigate Henry's marriage with Anne of Cleves. He officially 
witnessed Cranmer's consecration. In 1536 he was a Privy Councillor 
with Cromwell, in 1539 a Master in Chancery. In that year the 
mitred Benedictine abbey of Milton, Dorsetshire, was surrendered, and 
conferred by Henry with other rich demesnes on the successful lawyer, 
whom we find serving as sheriff of Dorset and Somerset in 1554. 
In that year he was placed on the Commission of the Great Seal. 
He was also chief Admiralty Judge, and Chancellor of Bath and 
Wells. In Mary's reign he came out as a zealous papist, and while 
Nowell, as a prebendary of Westminster, was unseated by the House 
of Commons, Tregonwell, who also held a stall there, was suffered to 
remain a member of Parliament. He was then representing Scar- 
borough. The Queen allowed him to have thirty retainers. He presided 
in the commission for the restitution of Bonner, and was present at 
Bishop Hooper's trial. Dying in 1565 he was interred in Milton 
abbey church under an altar tomb of grey marble. The place has 
changed hands many times since then, the doom of sacrilege taking 
the form there of no heir being ever born to it. Curiously enough 
the local tradition connects the rightful ownership with the Tregon- 
wells rather than the Benedictines : — 

' No heir to Milton shall there be, 
Till there come back the old Tre.' 

A portrait of Sir John, ascribed to Holbein, is at Cranborne Lodge, 

1 Burgo, an Italian Minorite, for his forwardness in unqueening the injured 
Catherine, was stoned by the women of Oxford, thirty of whom were committed 
to the Bokardo lock-up. {Athenae, i. 667.) 

2 Athenae, i. 666. But see Strype's Memorials , III. ii. 181. 



88 



JUDGE DYER. 



Dorset, where the daughter of the last of this name, Mrs. Mary 
Harkness, now lives. There is more about Tregonwell in Dom 
Gasquet's English Monasteries. 

Sir James Dyer's Reports are well known to lawyers. The son 
of Richard Dyer, of Wincanton, Esquire, he was born about 151 2 at 
Roundhill, Somerset, where the family had been long established. 
Tradition says that he was at sixteen years a commoner of Broadgates. 
Leaving Oxford about 1530, 

' without the honor of a Degree, he went to the Middle Temple [to the 
Strand Inn], where making great proficiency in the Municipal Laws, was 
after he had continued for some time in the Degree of Barrester elected 
Autumn, or Summer, Reader of that house 6. Ed. 6., and about the same 
time was by writ called to the Degree of Serjeant at Law. In the Reigne 
of Qu. Marie he was made a Justice of the Common pleas (being about 
that time a Knight and Recorder of Cambridge) and in the beginning of 
Qu. Elizabeth Lord Chief Justice of that Court. ... At length this great 
Lawyer, having arrived to a good old age, paid his last debt to nature 
at Stowton in Huntingdonshire (where he had purchased an estate) on 
the 24. March in Fifteen hundred eighty and one, whereupon his body 
was buried in the Parish Church of Much Stowton in the said County 
near to that of his Wife, on the 9 day of Apr. 1582. His said Wife was 
named Margaret dau. of Sir Maurice Abarrow of Hampshire, Knight, 
Widow of Sir Tho. Eliot of Carleton in Cambridgeshire' He left no 
issue, and the estate went to his nephews, whose posterity were at 
a later date baronets in Somerset. The Sir Thomas Elyot mentioned 
is the author of the celebrated ' Boke of the Governour' The hand- 
some monument placed over Dyer's ashes in Great Stoughton Church 
still exists. Wood does not record that Dyer was elected Knight 
of . the Shire in 1547 for Cambridgeshire, and again in 1553 x , in which 
short-lived parliament he was Speaker of the Lower House. 'On 
Thursday 1° Martii was chosen to be Speaker first nominate by 
Mr. Treasurer of the King's House, the Right Worshipful Mr. James 
Dyer, one of the King's Majestie's servients 2 at the Law, and set in the 
chair.' As Capital Justiciar he took part in several famous political 
trials, enjoying a high reputation among the men of that time for 
incorruptible integrity, learning, and acumen. The justices of Warwick- 
shire complained of him to the Privy Council, because he had forced 
them to give her rights to a poor widow. Dyer's Reports*, written in 

1 ' Elegerunt Edwardum North militem et Jacobum Dyer S'vientem ad legem 
milites gladiis cinctos.' 

2 Lord Campbell, overlooking this entry, denies that Dyer was then serjeant. 

3 ' Les reports des divers matters et Resolutions des Reverend Judges et 
Sages del LEY touchant et concernant mults principal points occurrent estre 
debate entre eux : en le several Regnes de les tres-hault et excellent Princes, le 
Roys Hen. VIII et Edw. VI and le Roignes Mar. et Eliz. Collect et Report per 
tres-reverend Judge S r Jaques Dyer chivaler : Jades Chief Justice del Common 
Banke en le temps du Roigne Elisabeth.' 



JUDGE DYER. 



89 



law-French, have been said by a modern writer to be models of lucidity. 
In a long poetical lament in which, ' moaved with the passion of a 
common sorrow,' he sang ' the pretious vertues which governed the good 
Lord Dyer,' Whetstone describes him as — 

' Settled to heare, but very slowe to speake. 
The deapth of Lawe he searcht with painfull toyle, 
Not cunning quirks, the simple man to spoyle.' 

Again : — 

' For publique good when care had cloid his minde, 
The only joye, for to repose his spright, 
Was musique sweet, which show'd him wel inclin'd : 
For he that dooth in musique much delight 
A conscience hath disposed to most right : 
The reason is, her sounde within our eare, 
A sympathie of heaven we think we heare,' 

In an epitaph on him it is said : — 

' Et semper bonus ille bonis fuit ; ergo bonorum 
Sunt illi demum pectora sarcophagus.' 

Sir Edward Coke, to whom Great Stoughton passed, describes the 
Reports as ' the summary and fruitful observations of that famous and 
most reverend judge and sage of the law, Sir James Dyer.' Camden 
speaks of his fellow collegian thus : — 

'Jacobus Dierus, in communi placitorum tribunali justiciarius primarius, qui 
animo semper placido et sereno omnes judicis aequissimi partes implevit et juris 
nostri prudentiam commentariis illustravit.' 

Without time-serving, he appears to have enjoyed the favour and respect 
of successive Tudor sovereigns. 

The Rev. C. A. Mayo, M.A., author of Bibliotheca Dorsetiensis, a 
collateral descendant, has at Long Burton vicarage, near Sherborne, the 
only authentic painting of Dyer. Another portrait, taken at an earlier 
age, was burnt in the fire which destroyed the Wincanton Town Hall in 
1877. Like Mr. Mayo's fine picture, which has in the corner Dyer's 
arms (or, a chief indented gu. 1 ), it represented him in his robes and collar 
of SS. He has a long, thin, and very striking face, with sharp aquiline 
nose and dark piercing eyes. He has no direct descendants, but a grand- 
nephew, George Dyer, was living in 1623 at Heytesbury, Wilts, being 
then aged thirty-four. An interesting memoir of Chief Justice Dyer has 
appeared in the Proceedings of the Somerset Archaeological Society, from 
the pen of Mr. W. A. Jones, F.G.S. (vol. xvi. 1870). 

Strype records, as a ' strange and rare ' event, the restoration by Dyer 
to the Church of the impropriation of Staple-Grove-y^r/a-Taunton, in 
1575 2 - 

1 But on an old engraving of Dyer by Drapentier the coat is sa. 3 goats arg., 
and the Hunts Visitation of 1613 shows these arms to have been granted to Sir 
James Deyer by Dethick, Garter King. 

a Annals, II. i. 579. 



9 o 



JUDGE OWEN. 



Thomas Owen, born at Condovcr, Salop, the son of Richard, 
a Shrewsbury merchant of old descent, was i for some time conversant 
among the Muses either in Broadgates Hall or in Ch. Church. From 
thence (having first taken a degree in Arts, as it seems [B.A. April 17, 1559]) 
he retired to Lincohis Inn, where by his unwearied industry, advanced 
by a good natural genie and judgment, he became a noted Councellour 
and much resorted to for his advice. In 25. Elizab. dom. 1583. he was 
elected Lent-Reader of that house [Treasurer 1 589-1598], in 1590 he 
was by Writ called to the degree of Serjeant at Law, and about that 
time [1594] made the Queen's Serjeant, and at length one of the Justices 
of the Common Pleas [1594], which last place he executed for 5 years 
with great integrity, equity, and prudence. He was a learned man, and 
a great lover of learning and those that professed it. He dying 21. 
Decemb. in fifteen hundred ninety and eight, was buried on the S. side 
of the Choire 1 of St. Peter's Church in Westminster. Over his grave 
was soon after erected a noble monument of Alabaster, Marble, and divers 
coloured stones, adorned with Arms, and gilt with Gold, with his Image 
in scarlet robes lying thereon which remains to this day. He left behind 
him a Son named Roger, who was a Knight, and [Camden writes] for his 
manifold learning, a right Worthy Son of so Good a Father. This Sir 
Roger" 1 , who had been a great Friend to the Clergy, by vindicating them 
when aspersed in open Parliament, 11 Jac. 1. dyed in a distracted 
condition to their great reluctancy, 29. May, being Holy Thtirsday, in 
1617.' Nothing is extant of Thomas Owen's but his Reports in the 
Co7nmon Pleas. 

1 West of the transept, next the bust of Pasquale da Paoli. The inscription is 
as follows : — 

Deo Trino et Vni Sacrum. 

Secundum Christi Redemptoris adventu sub hoc tumulo expectat Thomas 
Owen, Arm. films Richardi Owen ex Maria altera filia et haerede Thomae 
Oteley de comitatu Salopiae arm. Qui ab adolescentia studiis juris municipalis 
Angliae innutritus ita industria ingenio et judicio claruit ut primum electus fuerit 
Dfiae Reginae Elizab. serviens ad legem inde in consessum Justiciariorum Com- 
munium placitorum co-optatus, inter quos cum quinq; annos singulari integritatis 
aequitatis et prudentiae laude sedisset, et ex Sara uxore charissima filia et una 
haeredum Humfredi Baskerville quinq; filios et totidem filias suscepisset, Alicia 
fideli uxore secunda superstite, pie in Christo obdormivit xvi die Decemb. Ano 
Salutis M. D. xcviii. 

Rogerus Owen filius maestissimus patri optimo et charissimo officiosae pietatis 
et memoriae ergo hoc monumentum posuit. 

Below on either side : ' Justorum animae in manu Dei sunt ' and ' Spes vermis 
et ego.' 

Owen married twice, (1) Sarah, sister of Sir Humphrey Baskerville, (2) Alice, 
widow of Mr. Elks, mercer and alderman of London. She endowed a hospital at 
Islington for ten poor women, and a school for thirty boys, in grateful remem- 
brance of her escape in childhood, when an arrow pierced her hat. To Bodley's 
library in 1606 she gave £100. The estate of Condover is still in the Owen 
family. 

2 He was M.P. for Shrewsbury and for Shropshire, and sheriff. Another son, 
Richard, was also a lawyer. 



FLEETWOOD ; MARTYN. 



91 



A noted Broadgates jurist was William Fleetwood, natural son of 
Robert, of Hesketh, who, leaving Oxford without a degree, 

'retired to the Middle Temple, where by continual industry, advanced 
by good natural parts, he attained to the name of an eminent Lawyer. 
In 5. of Eliz. he was elected Autumn or Summer-Reader of that house.' 
Some years later (1 571-91) he became Recorder of London, in 1580 
Serjeant at Law, and in 1592 Queen's Serjeant. 'He was a learned Man 
and a good Antiquary ; but of a marvelous, merry, and pleasant conceit : 
And as touching his Learning, Justice, and Eloquence I cannot better 
describe them than a Poet 1 of those days hath done in certain Verses.' 
He left a number of legal writings. He died Feb. 28, 1598, and his body 
lies (a Wood believes) in the Church of Great Missenden, Bucks, where 
he had purchased an estate. ' He left behind him two Sons, whereof 
Sir Will. Fleetwood, Knight [M.P. for Poole and for Bucks], was one, and 
the other was Sir Thomas of the Middle- Temple, afterwards Attorney to 
Prince Henry. He had also divers Daughters, one whereof was married 
to Sir David Foulis, Knight and Baronet, and another to Sir Tho. 
Chaloner, Tutor to the said Prince, Son of the learned Sir Tho. Chaloner 
Knight.' 

William Martyn (son and heir of Nicholas), was ' born and 
educated in Grammar learning within the City of Exeter. Where 
making early advances towards Academical learning, was sent to 
Broadgates hall (now Pemb. Coll.) an. 1579 [circa 1581, Foster], 
aged 17. In which place falling under the tuition of a noted Master, 
laid an excellent foundation in logick and philosophy. 

' Afterwards going to the Inns of Court he became a Barester, and in 
1605 was elected Recorder of Exeter in the place of John Hele Serjeant 
at Law. But his delight being much conversant in the reading of English 
Histories, he composed a book of the Kings of England, as I shall tell you 
anon. Upon the publication of which K. James (as 'tis said) taking 
some exceptions at a passage therein, either to the derogation of his 
family or of the Realm of Scotland, he was thereupon brought into some 
trouble, which shortned his days. . . . He was buried in the Church of 
S. Petrock in the City of Exeter 12 Apr. in sixteen hundred and 
seventeen.' Wood says that Martyn was a severe puritan. One of his 
books is called Youth's Instruction (161 2), and seems to have been 
dedicated to his son Nicholas, then a Broadgates Student, afterwards 
knighted, sheriff of Devon 1639, and a member of the Long Parliament, 
till secluded in 1648. He died on Lady Day in 1653. 

His cousin Richard (great-grandson of Sir William) Martyn, 
born at Otterton, Devon, entered Broadgates in 1585, 

' where by natural parts and some industry he proved a noted disputant. 
But he, leaving the said house before he was honoured with a degree, 

1 Tho. Newton in Illustrium Aliquot Anglorum Encomia , Lond. 1589, p. 121. 



9 2 



MARTYN ; SWINBURNE. 



went to the Middle Temple, where, after he had continued in the state 
of Inner Barrester for some years, was elected a Burgess to serve in 
Parliament [for Barnstaple 1604, Christchurch 1604-11], was constituted 
Lent Reader of the said Temple, 13. Jac. I. and upon the death of 
Sir Anth. Benn [also of Broadgates, B.A. 1587], was made Recorder 
of the City of London in Sept. 161 8. There was no person in his time 
more celebrated for ingenuity than R. Martin, none more admired by 
Selden, Serjeant Hoskins, Ben. Johnson, etc. than he ; the last of which 
dedicated his Comedy to him called The Poetaster. K. James was much 
delighted with his facetiousness, and had so great respect for him that 
he commended him to the Citizens of London to be their Recorder. He 
was worthily characterized by the vertuous and learned Men of his time 
to be Princeps amorum l , Principum amor, legum lingua, lexque dicendi, 
Anglorum alumnus, Praeco Virginiae ac Parens, etc. Magnae [sic] orbis 
os, orbis minoris corculum. Bono suorum natus, Extinctus suo, etc. He 
was a plausible Linguist, and eminent for several Speeches spoken in 
Parliaments, for his Poems also and witty discourses. ... He died to the 
great grief of all learned and good men, on the last day of Octob. in 
sixteen hundred and eighteen, and was buried in the Church belonging 
to the Temples. Over his grave was soon after a neat Alabaster 
Monument erected, with the Effigies of the Defunct kneeling in his Gown, 
with 4 verses engraved thereon, under him, made by his dear Friend 
Serjeant Hoskins. This Monument was repaired in 1683 when the 
Choire and Isles adjoyning, belonging to the Temple Church, were new 
wainscoted and furnished with seats V Aubrey however says he died of 
excess of drinking. There is a scarce portrait of Martin by Simon Pass, 
engraved 1620. An Epistle from him to Sir Henry Wotton is in Coryat's 
Crudities, p. 237. Fuller styles him ' one of the highest Witts of our Age 
and his Nation.' 

Thomas Sanderson (brother of Viscount Castleton and cousin of 
Bishop Sanderson), who entered in 1587, was treasurer of Lincoln's 
Inn 1628 and 1633. Thomas Barker, entered 1581, was treasurer 
of the Middle Temple 1623. 

Henry Swinburne, son of Thomas Swinburne of York, where he 
was born, 

' spent some years in the quality of a Commoner in Hart hall, whence 
translating himself to that of Broadgates, took the Degree of Bach, of the 
Civil Law, married Helena daughter of Barthelm. Lant of Oxon, and at 
length retiring to his native place, became a Proctor in the Archbishops 
Court there, Commissary of the Exchequer, and Judge of the Prerogative 
Court at York. He hath written : — Brief Treatise of Testaments and 

1 Athenae, i. 374. Martyn had been 1 Prince D" 1 Amour of the Middle Temple 
in time of Christmas? 

2 It seems since the last ' restoration ' of that once noble church to have 
vanished. 



OTHER LAWYERS. 



93 



last Wills. In 7 parts. Lond. 1590 etc. Treatise of Spousals, or Matri- 
monial Contracts, etc. Lond. 1686. qu. In which two books the author 
shews himself an able Civilian and excellently well read in authors of his 
Faculty. He paid his last debt to nature at York, and was buried in the 
North Isle of the Cathedral there. Soon after was a comely Monument 
fastened to the wall near to his grave, with his Effigies in a Civilians 
Gown kneeling before a deske, with a book thereon, and these verses 
under : — 

" Non Viduae caruere viris, non Patre Pupillus, 
Dum stetit hie Patriae virque paterque suae. 
Ast quod Swinburnus viduarum scripsit in usum, 

Longius aeterno marmore vivet opus. 
Scribere sUpremas hinc discat quisque tabellas, 
Et cupiat, qui sic vixit, ut ille mori." ' 

(Ath. Ox. i. 386.) 

The handsome gilded and painted monument, in excellent preservation, 
bears several coats of arms. Dr. Tobias Swinburne, his son, was an 
eminent advocate. 

Robert Hale, father of Sir Matthew Hale, the great Chief Justice, 
entered Broadgates in 1580. He retired from Lincoln's Inn through 
' tenderness of conscience/ holding for immoral the barrister's duty of 
making the ' worse cause appear the better/ Lord Keeper Littleton's 
brothers, William Littleton (1609 ; serjeant at law), James Little- 
ton (B.A. 161 8; a master in Chancery, chancellor of Worcester), 
and John Littleton (M.A. 1624 ; Master of the Temple ; ejected in 
1644 for being in the King's army), were, with others of the same 
name, members of this House. 



CHAPTER IX. 



POETS AND DRAMATISTS. 

One result of the dissolution of the Religious Houses upon the 
fortunes of Broadgates Hall was its transference to royal ownership. 
In 1522 Wolsey persuaded the priory to surrender their house and 
its belongings into the hands of the King, who gave it to the 
Archbishop himself. Clement VIII had issued a bull for the sup- 
pression of Frideswyde's on condition that Wolsey should establish 
in room, of it a college of secular canons. In 1525, out of the priory 
revenues (less than £300 a year) and those of other of the smaller 
monasteries, was begun the ' Collegium Thomae Wolsey Cardinalis 
Eboracensis.' But before the foundation was actually in law com- 
pleted the Cardinal fell. All the revenues he had collected passed to 
Henry, who in 1532 refounded Cardinal College as 'King Henry 
the Eighth's College,' dedicated to the praise and honour of the Holy 
and Undivided Trinity, the most blessed Virgin St. Mary, and the 
holy virgin St. Frideswyde. In 1545 however, the King, having 
formed an entirely new plan, required the surrender of the College 
once more into his hands, and finally founded the mixed cathedral 
and academic House known as ' the Cathedral Church of Christ in 
Oxford of the foundation of King Henry the Eighth.' 

To this noble establishment were granted the following parts of the 
present Pembroke College : — ' A house called the Almes House with 
the appurtenaunces in the p'she of saincte Aldat/ ' certene chamberes 
within Brodyats latlie belonginge to the late monasterye of Abendon,' 
and ' a parcelle of lands within Brodyats, parcelle of the possessione 
of the late colledge of Frideswids V 

Without being actually an annexe of the magnificent foundation 
across the road 2 , it is probable that Broadgates was found a con- 

1 Dugdale's Monasticon, ii. p. 167. 

2 Fitzherbert (1602) says of the existing Halls: 'hae singulae a singulis fere 



'A SCHOLAR AND A GENTLEMAN/ 



95 



venient receptacle for many young men of position who could not be 
received at Christ Church. This appears from the number of names 
assigned either to Broadgates Hall or Christ Church or to both. The 
matriculations vary greatly from year to year. But it is noticeable 
that in 1583 there were as many entries (38) at Broadgates as at 
Christ Church and Exeter put together. In 1581, when all the 
numbers were much larger, there were forty-eight. At the close of the 
sixteenth century a new class of undergraduate was largely attracted 
to Oxford. Residence in a University was becoming the mark of 
a gentleman, and the attainment of a degree was made easier to men 
of birth by special statutes. Huber considers that the Elizabethan 
and Stuart connexion with the gentry class did the Universities no 
good. The young squires had little taste for learning, and the poorer 
scholars became a dependent race of tutors and trencher-chaplains, 
a class described by Bishop Hall in his second Satire. The Inns of 
Court were surrounded by a nebula of unpractising lawyers from 
Oxford and Cambridge, whose spirit and doings lent to life in London 
some of its boldest features, its gayest colours, its most lusty intel- 
lectual movement. On the other hand the capital influenced the 
academies, and lettered tastes, for which no midnight wick burned, 
usurped the place of paler and severer studies. Youths liberally 
nurtured, and more likely to play a part in the world than the old- 
fashioned poor scholar of the middle ages, now received the benefit 
of University life and training. These would especially be drawn 
to the Halls, for the Colleges were still chiefly eleemosynary, dis- 
ciplinary, and religious. Halls have alternately served, it would seem, 
as the refuge of the luxurious and of the economical. The threadbare 
' clerk of Oxenforde ' passed away to a great extent with the Old 
Learning. The twenty books at the bed's head, clothed in black 
and red, of Aristotle and his philosophy, were by the Elizabethan 
student no longer always more prized than garments rich, fiddle and 
psaltery, nor, if money was ' of his frendes hent,' was it laid out on 
nothing but learning. Sir Vincentio in the Taming of the Shrew, 
beating his student son's man, Biondello, cries, ' O immortal gods ! 
O fine villain ! A silken doublet ! A velvet hose ! A scarlet cloak ! 
And a copatain hat ! O, I am undone ! I am undone ! While I play 
the good husband at home, my son and my servant spend all at the 

collegiis pendent & ad earum exemplum se plane comparant : in eo solum dissi- 
miles, quod hae, quam ilia, legibus disciplinae laxioribus paulo liberioribusque 
teneantur' (Nicolai Fierberti Oxoniensis Academiae Descriptio, Romae. Eliza- 
bethan Oxford, O. H. S., p. 16). 



9 6 



IIEYWOODE. 



university 1 / Even the Colleges now had young men of fortune 
domiciled in them. The Halls, Fitzherbert notes, were full of them— 
' divitum nobiliumque plerumque filiis, qui propriis vivunt sumptibus, 
assignatae/ These affected Ovid rather than Justinian or the Stagi- 
rite. At Broadgates in particular the able race of civilians was suc- 
ceeded by a brilliant list of scholar-poets and statesmen, men of 
action and of letters. The West-country was the quarter from 
which this Hall now drew most of its students. 

The catalogue of writers of the great Tudor age who were bred 
at BroarJgates begins somewhat earlier with John Heywoode, 'the 
old English Epigrammatist/ styled by Mr. J. A. Symonds ' a prose 
Chaucer/ He was the first, says Wharton, ' to draw the Bible from 
the stage, and introduce representations of familiar life and popular 
manners/ Of the merry Mixed Plays or Interludes which succeeded 
the older Mysteries, Miracle Plays, and dull Moralities, and in which 
allegorical and real characters were combined, he was the most 
noted composer. Dr. A. W. Ward calls Heywoode a lineal descendant 
of the mediaeval minstrels. 

In his Interludes personal types superseded personified abstractions. 
Though familiar on the Continent, they were the earliest of their kind in 
England. ' Nothing so good of the same kind was afterwards produced. 
The bridge to English comedy was thus built, and Heywoode, whose 
name to Ben Jonson meant uncouth antiquity, deserves the chief credit 
for its building. . . . Though his humour is bold and broad, it is whole- 
some and compatible with unaffected piety/ As he died about 1580, 
there are but a few years between Heywoode and the consummate art of 
Shakspeare. The ' Mery Play between the Pardoner and the Frere, the 
Curate and Neybour Pratte,' written probably before 1 521, was produced 
in 1533, in the same year as 'A Play between Johan the Husband, Tyb 
the Wife, and Sir Johan the Priest.' Later came 1 The Four P's. A newe 
and a very mery Interlude of a Palmer, a Pardoner, a Potycary, and a 
Pedlar/ Strachey speaks of Heywoode's ' innocent and artless transcripts 
from real life.' There is spirit and humour in his comedies, but not much 
story or dramatic characterization. His longest work, or ' Parable,' is 
trifling and tedious. Holinshed says of it : ' One also hath made a booke 
of the Spider and the Flie, wherein he dealeth so profoundlie and beyond 
all measure of skill, that neither he himselfe that made it nor anie one 
that readeth it can reach unto the meaning thereof/ The work was three 
and a half centuries too early. 

Heywoode was born at North Mims, near St. Alban's. Bale 
(p. no) calls him 1 civis Londinensis/ He studied at Oxford 'in that 

1 But Ford describes the poor student too : ' I have been fain to heel my 
tutors stockings at least seven years.' 



HEYWOODE. 



97 



ancient hostle called Broadgates in St. A Mate's Parish. But, the 
crabbedness of Logick not suiting with his airie genie, 

'he retired to [London], and became noted to all witty men, especially 
to Sir Tho. More (with whom he was very familiar), wrot several matters 
of Poetry, and was the first, some say (but I think false 1 ) that wrot 
English plays, taking opportunity thence to make notable work with the 
Clergy. He had admirable skill also in instrumental and vocal Musick. 
He was in much esteem with K. H. 8. for the mirth and quickness of his 
conceits, and tho he had little learning in him, yet he was by that King 
well rewarded 2 .' Heywoode wrote of himself to Burleigh on April 18, 
1575, as an old man of seventy-eight. He was therefore born in 1497. 
His ' 'Nature of the iiij Elements] probably written in 15 17, alludes to the 
discovery of the New World by Amerigo Vespucci. Two years earlier, 
in 15 1 5, he appears in the King's Book of Payments as receiving 8d. 
a day. In 15 19 he is called a ' singer,' and in 1526 ' player of the king's 
virginals,' receiving quarterly £6 13s. 4a 7 ., but in 1538 his quarter shot 
was but 50s. In that year 'Hans Holbein, Paynter' was receiving 
£8 10s. yd. a quarter. An earlier entry in 1529 shows that 'John 
Haywood, player at virginalles ' or 'of thinstrumentes,' was granted 
a pension of 49. yearly for life, and in 2 and 3 Edw. VI this sum is 
entered as paid to 'John Heiwood plaier on the Virginalles 3 .' More, 
his neighbour — 'whom he much resembled in quickness of parts, both 
undervaluing their friend to their jest, and having ingeitium non eden- 
tulum sed mordax' (says Fuller) — helped him with his Epigrams, and 
wrote the Utopia at North Mims. He introduced his friend to the notice 
of the young Princess Mary, a woman of culture. In 1538 Heywoode 
received 40J. for playing before her an interlude with his ' children ' — 
those boy actors for whom Shakspeare had a professional dislike. While 
Mary was in disgrace, he wrote his pleasing Description of a Most 
Noble Ladye. After she came to the throne, Heywoode 'was much 
valued by her, often had the honor to wait on and exercise his fancy 
before her : which he did even to the time that she lay languishing upon 
her death bed.' In his allegory already mentioned the spiders are the 
Zwinglians, the flies the Catholics, and Queen Mary is a maid executing 
with her broom (the civil sword) the commands of her Master and of her 
Mistress (Holy Church). In spite of his satires on freres and pardoners, 
he was a convinced adherent of the old order. Harington says that under 
Edward VI Heywoode narrowly escaped hanging and the 'jerke of the 
six-string'd whip.' Probably he means under Henry VIII; but it was 
for denying the Supremacy, not the Six Articles, that Heywoode was 
arraigned. He was allowed to make a public recantation at Paul's Cross 
on July 6, 1544. By Edward, Puttenham states, he was 'well benefited' 
for the ' myrth and quicknesse of his conceits.' The King thought that 

1 Palsgrave, whose play Acolatus was printed in 1529, is sometimes called the 
first dramatist. 

2 Ath. Ox. i. 116. ' Butter would not melt in her mouth' is first found in his 
Epigrams. 3 Trevelyan Papers. 

H 



9 8 



HEYWOODE. 



the writer of such ' harmless verses ' could not be dangerous, and he was 
ever a welcome guest at the board of Northumberland. But his fortunes 
were brightest under Mary. At her coronation, Stow says, he sate in 
St. Paul's churchyard, ' in a pageant under a vine, and made to her an 
oration in Latine.' A ballad from his pen celebrated her marriage with 
Philip. Before her death she gave him the lease of the Manor of Bolmer 
and other lands in Yorkshire. He had enjoyed the favour of the princess 
Elizabeth also ; but at her accession ' he left the Nation for Religion sake 
and setled at Mechlin in Brabant, which is a wonder to some, who will 
allow no Religion in poets, that this Person should above all of his 
Profession be a voluntary exile for it 1 .' There he died, a Wood says 
mistakenly, 'about 1565 2 .' In his letter to Burleigh from Mechlin he 
wrote, ' I have been despoiled by Spanish and German soldiers of the 
little I had.' He is included in a return of Romanist fugitives of Jan. 29, 
1577, at which time he owned lands in Kent and elsewhere. There is 
a full length presentment of Heywoode in the Spider and the Fly — one of 
the first printed English books with a number of cuts— in academical 
gown and round cap, with dagger at his girdle. Chin and lips are close 
shaved. The face has been thought melancholy, though Camden, who 
dwells somewhat partially on the 'golden gift 'of 'the great Epigram- 
matist,' speaks of his 'mad, merry wit.' He had taken part, it would 
seem, in the Coventry plays, for he says of a friend, — 

' For as goode happe wolde have it chaunce 
Thys devyll and I were of olde acquaintaunce ; 
For oft in the play of Corpus Christi 
He hath played the devyll at Coventry.' 

Fuller says, ' I may safely write of him what he pleasantly writes of 
himself, that he " applied mirth more than thrift, made many mad plays 
and did few good works." . . . His Monumenta literaria are said to be 
non tarn labore condita qtiam lefiore conditai' By his wife Eliza he had 
Ellis, Jasper, and Elizabeth. The sons were Oxonians and seminary 
priests. Jasper, born in 1535, was expelled from Merton, of which 
College he was the last ' Christmas King,' Lord of Misrule or Rex ! 
Fabarum, and elected fellow of All Souls. At Elizabeth's accession the 
converted rake retired to St. Omer, and became a learned controversialist 
in the Society of Jesus. Gregory XIII appointed him to the perilous 
post of first Provincial of the Jesuits in England, which he filled with 
great dignity. He was not, as Fuller states, hanged and quartered, but \ 
was shipped out of the realm. He translated Seneca when at Oxford. 

A notable Elizabethan, Sir Edward Dyer, poet and courtier, 
cousin of Judge Dyer, is claimed for Broadgates Hall. 

He was born about 1540 at Sharpham Park, Fielding's birthplace, 
which had been granted to his father Sir Thomas Dyer 3 by Henry VIII, 

1 ' It is much that one so Fancyful should be so conscientious.' Fuller. 

2 Ath. Ox. i. 117. 

3 Associated with the Bishop of Bath and Wells, Sir Hugh Paulet, and Sir John 



SIR EDWARD DYER; FULKE GREVILLE. 



99 



after the hanging of Abbot Whiting of Glastonbury. Leaving Oxford 
without a degree he travelled abroad, and on his return was taken into 
the service of the Court of Elizabeth. He obtained great influence over 
Leicester, then Chancellor of Oxford, and was employed by the Queen 
in several embassies, particularly to the Low Countries in 1584 and to 
Denmark in 1 589. On his return Dyer was knighted and made Chancellor 
of the Most Noble Order of the Garter. Leicester is said to have intrigued 
to replace Hatton by Dyer in the post of personal favourite to Elizabeth, 
who, however, suddenly withdrew her favour from the poet. Under- 
standing that he was sinking to the grave under the weight of her 
displeasure, she relented, and gave a substantial token of friendship by 
estating him with large lands, though, Oldys says, Dyer would never 
fawn and cringe even to his royal mistress. His chiefest friend was 
Sir Philip Sidney. Gabriel Harvey, in a letter to Edmund Spenser, 1580, 
styles them 'the two very diamonds of her majesties courte for many speciall 
and rare qualities.' Spenser published some of Harvey's poems with 
a dedication 'to the right worshipfull Gentleman and famous Courtier 
Master Edvvarde Diar, in a manner oure only Inglisshe poett.' Sidney 
left his books to be divided between Dyer and Sir Fulke Greville, whom 
he calls his worthy friends and fellow poets. Dyer wrote pastoral odes 
and madrigals. Puttenham in 1589 pronounced him to be 'for elegie 
most sweet, most solempe and of high conceit.' His most famous poem, 
5 My mind to me a kingdom is,' was set to music by Byrd. Dyer's later 
life seems to have been passed in retirement. John Davies, in the 
preface to the Microcosmus, 1603, addresses him thus : — 

' Thou virgin knight, that dost thyself obscure 
From world's unequal eyes.' 

Other poets too wrote verses to him. Aubrey says, ' he laboured much 
in chyinistry and was esteemed by some a Rosie-Crucian, and a great 
devotee to Dr. John Dee and Edward Kelly.' He died in 1607, and lies 
in St. Mary Overy, Southwark. His verse not being collected, his fame 
decayed till recent times of renewal of all things. 

Richard Carew I will mention among historical writers. A courtier 
scholar, who, either before or after studying at Cambridge, is thought 
to have resided for a time at Broadgates Hall as a gentleman 
commoner, is Sir Fulke Greville, Lord Brooke, companion, kins- 
man, and biographer of Sir Philip Sidney, patron of Overall and 
Egerton, fosterer of the child Davenant's budding genius, enlightened 
master of Jonson and Shakspeare, friend of Bruno and Bacon. 
Greville had a long life and a tragical death. 

He was born in 1554 at Milcot in Warwickshire, of descent from the 
great baronial houses of Beauchamp of Powick and Willoughby de Broke 
(his mother was Anne daughter of Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland), 

St. Loo in a precept issued by Edward VI for the support of the foreign weavers 
brought to Glastonbury by the Duke of Somerset. 

H 2 



lOO 



FULKE GREVILLE. 



and was at school with Sidney in Shrewsbury. His studies at Cambridge 
and Oxford ended, he travelled, and on his return, ' in his youth or prime, 
for that is the time or never' (writes Naunton), was introduced to the 
court by his Uncle Robert Greville, ' where he was esteemed a most 
ingenious person, and had in favour by all such that were lovers of Arts 
and Sciences.' After one or two romantic escapades and a little soldiering, 
from which the kind jealousy of the Queen snatched her young scholar, 
he settled down, in various lucrative offices, as one of Elizabeth's 
favourites, 'which he held,' Naunton says, 'for no short term, but had 
the longest lease of any, and the smoothest time without rub.' When the 
envoys from the King of France came with a splendid retinue in 1581 
to tfeat of the Queen's marriage with the Duke of Anjou, Sidney and 
Greville distinguished themselves in that magnificent throng by their 
brilliancy in the tourney 1 and in less dangerous pomps. In 1588, 
April 11, being at Oxford in the train of his kinsman Essex, he 'among 
other persons of honour and quality was actually created Master of Arts.' 
In 1599 Greville was designated as rear-admiral of the fleet to be sent 
against the Spaniards. During this reign he frequently sate in Parliament 
for his county with Sir Thomas Lacy, a member of Broadgates. In 1603, 
at the coronation of James I, he was created Knight of the Bath, and 
was granted soon after the ruined Castle of Warwick, on repairing which 
he spent £20,000. He was, however, not in Cecil's good graces. Cecil 
being dead, Greville became Chancellor of the Exchequer, and in 1621 
was created Baron Brooke of Beauchamp's Court, and made a Lord of 
the Bedchamber. He was of the Privy Council to Charles I, by whose 
encouragement probably he founded a history praelectorship at Cambridge. 
' He was always esteemed a brave Gentleman and honourably descended, 
as being sprung from the family of Willonghby . Lord Brook was 
favoured by Qu. Elizabeth and such that knew he had interest in the 
Muses. His life was always single, and though he lived and died a 
constant Courtier of the Ladies, yet he prosecuted his studies in History 
and Poetry. In which, consider him as a Gentleman of noble birth and 
great Estate, he was most excellent in his time.' Southey says that I 
Dryden appeared to have formed his tragic style more on Lord Brooke \ 
than on any one else. Two of Greville's tragedies, Alaham and Mustaftha, 
were after the ancient Greek fashion, with choruses and the like, but were \ 
not acted. Among his works are treatises, travels, tragedies, and sonnets, 
biography and contemporary history, the titles of which are given by 
Wood, who proceeds : ' At length our author, neglecting to reward one 
Haywood, who had spent the greatest and chiefest part of his time in 
his personal service, for which he expostulated the matter with his Master, 
but was sharply rebuked for it, the said Hay vood thereupon gave him 
a mortal stab on his Back 2 (they two being then only together) in the 

1 Peele, the Broadgates Hall poet, celebrates him in the lists : — 

' Fair man at arms, the Muse's favourite, 
Lover of learning and of chivalry, 
Sage in his saws, sound judge of poesy.' 

2 Rous (1628) says: 'Did in his privy chamber stabbe him about the brest 



HIS MURDER. 



101 



Bedchamber at Brook house in Holbourne near London, of which wound 
he died 30. Sept. in sixteen hundred twenty and eight, aged 74. Which 
being done, the Assassianate discerning his own condition desperate, 
went into another room, and lock'd the dore, murdered himself with his 
own Sword. On the 29 of Oct. following he the said Lord Brook was 
buried in a Vault, situate on the north side of the collegiat Church at 
Warwick, which formerly had been a chapter house belonging thereunto : 
wherein he had, in his lifetime, erected a fair Tomb, with this Epitaph 
thereon : Fidke Grevil Servant to Queen Elizabeth, Counselloicr to King 
James, and friend to Sir Philip Sidney 1 .'' He was succeeded by his 
adopted heir, Robert Greville, the Roundhead commander slain before 
Lichfield by the deaf and dumb Dyott. 

Greville's literary work is described by Mr. Saintsbury as 'curious,' 
his principal production in verse being Poems of Monarchy, ethical and 
political in character. He has been recently edited by Dr. Grosart. Two 
vignettes in his lines have caught modern fancy, one the description in 
Caelia of Myra, 

' Washing the waters with her beauties white ' ; 

the other the couplet, 

' O'er enamelled meads they went, 
Silent she, he passion rent.' 

The two persons in the whole range of English literature whom Charles 
Lamb, according to Hazlitt, would most desire to have seen in the flesh, 
were Sir Thomas Browne and Sir Fulke Greville. Among other 
encouragements to learning, he obtained the office of Clarencieux at Arms 
for a Broadgates worthy, William Camden, and raised John Speed from 
the position of a mechanic to that of an historiographer. Bacon sub- 
mitted his Life of Henry VII to Greville's criticism. Together with Sir 
Edward Dyer, he was pall-bearer at Sidney's obsequies. The three had 
been intimates from boyhood. Sidney writing to ' dearest Dyer ' says : — 

' Join hands and hearts, so let it be, 
Make but one mind in bodies three. 
"Welcome my two to me, 
The number best beloved ; 
Within my heart you be 
In friendship unremoved.' 

He wrote in the margin, ' E. D.; F. G.; P. S.' 

Greville, a man 'of almost universal study,' has been called 'a mysterious, 
confused, and affected writer, whose ambition it is to confine in the golden 

with a knife, but by some rib mist his aime and then stabbed him in the belly. 
The lord crying out he ranne into the next roome and locked the dore, and then 
ranne upon his own rapier against the wall; but fayling, he took the former 
knife that lay by his dead maister and stabbed himself therwith, and so died ere 
any could breake in.' 
1 Athenae, i. 444, 5. 



102 



THE DRY DEN FAMILY. 



fetters of verse subjects unsuitable for the simplicity of prose.' His 
reputation stands on higher ground as patron and lover of letters than 
as writer. 

Two uncles of ' glorious John ' Dryden were at the Hall : Sir 
John Dryden (Dreidon), second baronet, matr. Oct. 29, 1596, aged 
fifteen years; of the Middle Temple, 1602 ; married Rebecca, 
daughter of Sir Robert Bevile; Sheriff of Northants, 1635; M.P. 
1640-53, 1654-55; ob. 1658 (his elder son, Sir Robert, was Sheriff 
of Northants 1667, ob. 1708, aet. 76, unmarried; the other, Sir John 
was, M.P. for Hunts 1690 and 1 699-1 708), and William Dryden, 
entered March 20, i6of, aet. 15 ; buried at Farndon in Woodford on 
Christmas Eve, 1660. 

Their sire, Sir Erasmus, of Canons Ashby, godson of the great Erasmus, 
had a third son Erasmus Dryden (ob. 1654), father of the poet (1631-1700), 
whose third son, Sir Erasmus Henry (1669-17 10), inherited the title in 
1708. The last was sub-prior of the Convent of the Holy Cross at 
Bornheim, and attached to the mission in Northamptonshire. The 
family had been convinced puritans. Sir John, the elder of the Broad- 
gates brothers, is accused of having turned the church at Ashby into 
a corn-barn. His father, Sir Erasmus, was imprisoned in old age for 
refusing to pay a benevolence to Charles I ; and his grandfather (who 
married Sir John Cope's daughter and heiress) was a stout Calvinist, 
though Erasmus was his friend. Sir John Pickering the regicide, ' Clerk 
to Noll's Lord Chamberlain,' was a grandson of the first Sir Erasmus, 
and one of Pickering's sons caused a mutiny in his regiment by insisting 
on preaching them an over- long sermon. The poet maintained an intimacy 
with the elder branch. The carefully finished Epistle beginning ' How 
blest is he that leads a country life,' is addressed ' To my honoured 
kinsman, John Driden, of Chesterton.' He had inherited Chesterton 
from his mother — ' You, like Jacob, are Rebecca's heir.' 

An orb of almost the first rank in the Shakspearian galaxy was 
George Peele, ' the English Ovid ' (Warton), a Devonian, born 
about 1558. Mr. Collier thinks his father was Stephen Peele, a I 
ballad-writing bookseller, two of whose productions are printed by 
the Percy Society. But in the MS. Depositions in the University 
Court he writes himself in 1583 (being witness in a case) as ' civitatis 
Londinensis, generosus.' Together with Marlowe, Lyly, Nash, 
Greene and Lodge, Peele headed the important and interesting group 
of university wits. These, says Mr. Saintsbury, ' made the blank 
verse live for dramatic purposes, dismissed — cultivated as they were — 
the cultivation of classical models, and gave English Tragedy its 
Magna Charta of freedom and submission to the restrictions of actual 



PEELE. 



103 



life only.' Peele entered Broadgates from Christ's Hospital, aged 
about twelve, in March, 15 71, passing thence, like many others, to 
Christ Church, where he was elected student in 1574- 'Going 
through the several forms of Logic and Philosophy he took the 
degrees of Arts,' viz. B.A. June 12, 1577 (the term of Hooker's 
magistration), and M.A. 1579. In Oxford he was 'esteemed a most 
noted poet.' There he wrote the Tale of Troy. 

Nash, even after Marlowe had made his voice heard, spoke of Peele 
as ' the chiefe supporter of pleasance now living, the Atlas of poetrie, and 
fitimus verborum artifex? ' Unless we make allowance,' writes Campbell, 
'for his antiquity, the expression will appear hyperbolical; but with that 
allowance we may justly cherish the memory of Peele as the oldest 
genuine dramatic poet of our language. His David and Bethsabe is the 
earliest fountain of pathos and harmony that can be traced in our dramatic 
poetry. His fancy is rich and his feeling tender. . . . There is no such 
sweetness of versification and imagery to be found in our blank verse 
anterior to Shakspeare V Principal Ward speaks of Peele's 'fearlessly 
affected' diction. 'Scattered through his plays and pastorals are more 
than one lyric of imperishable charm. The growth of his powers 
had been stimulated by a University training, and his works abound 
in classical allusions.' It was his blank verse— most tantalizingly easy 
of all forms of metrification, but one whose delicate secret has been 
whispered in the ear of only two in a former age and few in ours — 
which especially attracted the admiration of his Oxford contemporaries. 
Leaving the groves of Oxford after nine years' stay, in 1 581, for 
London, he lodged on the Bankside over against the Blackfriars 
Theatre, in which he was part shareholder and fellow actor with 
Shakspeare, as one of the Lord Chamberlain's servants. His voice, we 
are told, ' was more woman's than man's.' He withdrew later to the rival 
company of the Lord Admiral, probably piqued by the rising importance 
of the Warwickshire poet, his junior and not college-bred. Greene, 
addressing Peele, Marlowe, and Lodge, calls ' Shakscene,' 'an upstart 
crow beautified with our feathers ' — that is, probably, historical plays, of 
which Peele's Edward the First is the earliest example. Greene and Nash 
were indignant that the plays of non-academic workmen were at first 
preferred by the managers to those of Peele. We read, however, that his 
tragedies and comedies had their full share of applause, and Peele was 
made City Poet, with the ordering of the pageants. ' He knew what 
belonged to the stage part as well as any in the Metropolis.' In 1583, 
being then five and twenty, he was manager of two Latin plays, Dido and 
Rivales, by Gager, presented at Oxford before the Polish prince, Albertus 
Alasco, among the charges of whose entertainment in an old accompt- 
book are these entries : ' To Mr. Peele for provision for the playes at 
Christchurche, xviij 11 .' ' The Charges of a Comedie and a Tragedie and 
a shewe of fire worke, as appeareth by the particular bills of Mr. Vice- 



1 Spemhim of British Poets , i. 140. 



PEELE. 



chancelor, Mr. Howson, Mr. Maxie and Mr. Peele, 86 1 '. iZs. 2d.' 1 The 
next year with the help of the Queen's quiristers he represented his 
Arraignment of Paris, a court-show, before Elizabeth, and was received 
under the patronage of the Earl of Northumberland, to whom he dedicated 
his Honour of the Garter. Peele became the friend of Drake and 
Norreys, whom he speeds on their way 

' to lofty Rome 
There to deface the pride of anti-Christ, 
And pull his paper walls and popery down, 
To steel your swords on Avarice triple crown, 
And cleanse Augeas' stalls in Italy.' 

After his death there was printed in 1627 a book of ' Clinches, 3 called 
the Merrie conceited Jests of George Peele, Gent., sometime a student 
in Oxford j wherein is shewed the course of his life how he lived, &c. 
Such a narration told in full would be a sorry tale — a fine intellect dragged 
down in stews and taverns till a miserable death of nameless disease 
closed his brief career about 1598. Greene, in his Groatsworth of Wit, 
appeals to his boon comrade, as one driven, like himself, 'to extreme 
shifts,' to avoid a life of vice. In January, 1 595, amid sickness and want, 
Peele penned a supplication from 'a scholler' to Lord Burleigh. It is 
endorsed : ' Goorg. Peele M r of Arts Presents the tale of Troy in 500 
Verses by his Eldest daughter, necessities servaunte.' He had annexed 
the Tale of Troy, he tells us, to the Farewell, in the hope of rousing his 
countrymen to emulate the example of their glorious and renowned 
predecessors the Trojans. Very unlike his own ' exquisite bower,' ' seated 
in hearing of a hundred streams,' was the noisome garret where his wife 
and daughter tended his last hours. ' When or where he dyed,' writes 
a Wood, ' I cannot tell ; for so it is, and always hath been, that most 
Poets dye poor and consequently obscurely, and a hard matter it is to 
trace them to their graves.' 'Peek's songs,' Mr. Bullen writes, 'are as 
fresh as the flowers in May.' 'A rogue and a sharper, according to 
tradition ; but surely the author of the Arraignment of Paris and of the 
noble song in Polyhymnia must have been a man of gentle and chivalrous 
character.' ' Peele at his best,' says Mr. Morley, ' writes English into 
music' His friend Nash speaks of 'his pregnant dexterity of wit and 
manifold varietie of inuention, wherein (me judice) he goeth a steppe 
beyond all that write.' A modern critic says, however, ' His work is 
graceful and elegant, but it has neither sinew nor majesty. ... His was 
an adroit, subtle, versatile mind, without massiveness or passionate 
intensity.' Peele left some charming pastoral verse. Spenser perhaps 
alludes to him in Colin Clout under the name Palin. Steevens supposes 
that he is the George Pyeboard of The Puritan, by Wentworth Smith, 
but ascribed to Shakspeare, and acted by the children of St. Paul's. 
A 'peel' is a long-handled board used by bakers. Dyce thinks that 
Comus owes its idea to Peele's Old Wives' Tale, ' a highly imaginative 

1 An ordinance of 1593 forbade the acting of interludes and plays by the 
common players, whose resort to Oxford bred many mischiefs. 



FRANCIS BEAUMONT. 105 

drama.' His BetJisahe is an example of the conjunction of Holy Scripture 
with dramatic show, Mr. Bullen has lately edited Peele's works. 

The most probable account of his parentage is that his father was 
James Peele, citizen and salter of London, and clerk of Christ's Hospital, 
the first to introduce the Italian system of book-keeping. He published 
''The Pat hew aye to perfectnes in the Accomptes of Debt our and Creditour, 
in manner of a dialogue, very pleasaunte and profitable for Marchauntes 
and all that mind to frequent the same.' The governors, on Sept. 19, 
1 579, bound him over 'to discharge his house of his son George,' then 
an M.A. 

Had there not been a Shakspeare, the splendid roll of English 
dramatists would have been headed by that ' mysterious double 
personality' — 

' Beaumont and Fletcher, those twin stars that run 
Their glorious course round Shakespere's golden sun.' 

(Colman.) 

Always excepting his astonishing universality of range, ' such a total 
of work/ says Mr. Saintsbury, 1 so varied in character, and so full of 
excellences in all its variety, has not been set to the credit of any 
name or names in English literature/ Yet both Beaumont and 
Fletcher were men of gentle lineage and sufficient means, and had 
no inducement to work for money. Francis Beaumont came of 
a family that had been for generations eminent in the law. His 
grandfather was Master of the Rolls, and his father, Francis, became 
in 1593 a J uc % e of tne Common Pleas. His mother was Anne, 
daughter of Sir George Pierrepoint of Holme-Pierrepoint, Notts. 
The Beaumont family had long been established at Grace Dieu in 
Leicestershire : — 

' Grace Dieu, that under Charnwood stand'st alone, 
That lately brought such noble Beaumonts forth, 
Whose brave heroick Muses might aspire 
To match the anthems of the heavenly quire.' 

(T. Bancroft, 1739.) 

Wordsworth also apostrophises it : — 

' Haunt of that famous youth, full soon removed 
From earth, perhaps by Shakespere's self approved, 
Fletcher's Associate, Jonson's Friend beloved.' 

Francis, third son of the judge, was, with his two brothers, John and 
Henry, admitted a gentleman commoner of Broadgates Hall in Lent 
Term, 1597. The entry is, ' 1596(7), Feb. 4. Francisc. Beaumont. 
Baron, fil. aetat. 12.' He was not born therefore in 1586. Wood 
[Ath. i. 447) says he was educated in Cambridge, mistaking him for 



io6 



FRANCIS BEAUMONT. 



his cousin Francis, Master of the Charterhouse. There is no doubt 
whatever that the dramatist was at Broadgates. Here he remained 
nearly three years. His biographers speak of his ' acquirements in 
classical learning.' When he left the Hall with his brothers somewhat 
suddenly in consequence of his father's death, and without a degree, 
he was entered (Nov. 3, 1600) of the Inner Temple. 

But legal studies did not long detain him from the drama. The boy 
became one of the ' charmed circle ' of the Mermaid, founded by Raleigh, 
where the wit combats between Jorison and Shakspere are described by 
Fuller as like combats between a Spanish great galleon and an English 
man-of-war. Jonson had a tender affection for his 'dear Companions, 5 
John and Francis Beaumont, who also were intimate with Drayton and 
Chapman. Salmacis and Hermaphroditus was put forth in 1602 when 
the author was but eighteen. When he linked himself to Fletcher is not 
known, but their first play seems to have been acted before 1607. The 
next few years were crowded with magnificent effort, but his body was 
unequal to his spirit, and worn out, it would seem, by his strenuous mind 
he sank suddenly into an early grave, dying March 9, 161%. He had 
married Ursula, daughter of Henry Isley of Sundridge, by whom he 
had two daughters. Beaumont was buried in the Abbey Church at 
Westminster, at the entrance of St. Benedict's Chapel, but no inscription 
marks the grave, not even ' a garland on my hearse, Of the dismal Yew.' 
His own verses on the Tombs in Westminster Abbey are well known :— 

'Here's an acre sown indeed, 
With the richest royall'st seed 
That the earth did e'er suck in 
Since the first man died for sin. 
Here are sands, ignoble things, 
Dropt from the ruin'd side of kings ; 
Here's a world of pomp and state, 
Burned in dust, once dead by fate.' 

His untimely death wrung from Jonson the fine lines beginning, — 

' How I do love thee, Beaumont, and thy Muse.' 

And Fletcher probably is the author of the elegy, — 

' Oh, noble youth, to thy ne'er dying name, 
Oh, happy youth, to thy still growing fame, 
To thy long peace in earth this sacred knell 
Our last loves sing. Farewell, farewell, farewell ! 
Go, happy soul, to thy eternal birth, 
And press his body lightly, gentle earth.' 

Aubrey says, 'there was a wonderful consimility of fancy between 
Mr. Francis Beaumont and Mr. John Fletcher, which caused that dear- 
ness of friendship between them. I have heard Dr. John Earl, since 
Bishop of Sarum, say, who knew them, that his (Beaumont's) main 
business was to correct the super-overflowings of Mr. Fletcher's wit. 



SIR JOHN BEAUMONT. 



They lived together on the Bankside, not far from the Play house, both 
bachelors ; had one bench in the house between them, which they did 
so admire ; the same cloaths, cloke, etc., between them.' Beaumont, it 
is thought, had more of the elevated, sublime, and tragic genius. Dryden 
tells us that ' he was so accurate a judge of plays that Jonson, while he 
lived, submitted all his writings to his censure, and, 'tis thought, used his 
judgment in correcting, if not in contriving, all his plots.' 

Mr. Swinburne says : ' In the Olympian circle of the gods and giants 
of our own race who on earth were their contemporaries and corrivals ? 
They seem to move among the graver presences and figures of sedater 
fame like the two spoilt boys of heaven, lightest of foot and heart and 
head of all the brood of the deity.' 

It has been mentioned that with Francis Beaumont two of his 
brothers entered Broadgates on Feb. 4, 1597-. The eldest, Sir John 
Beaumont, was aged fourteen. His name is not unknown in literature. 
At Oxford he applied himself to poetry as well as law. 

On leaving, after three years' residence, he was entered 1 of the Middle 
Temple. In 1626 he was by King Charles I made a baronet. 'The 
former part of his life he successfully employed in Poetry, and the latter 
he as happily bestowed on serious and beneficial Studies. And had not 
death untimely cut him off in his middle age he might have proved 
a Patriot, being accounted at the time of his death a person of great 
knowledge, gravity, and worth V The Duke of Buckingham introduced 
his poems to the King. The best known is Bosworth Field, to which 
were prefixed commendatory verses by Jonson, Drayton, and others. 
It is in the heroic couplet and has some animated lines. He was a man 
of strong religious feeling and seriousness, and inclined in King James's 
time to the deeper and better side of puritanism, though his chivalrous 
devotion made him a Cavalier and Loyalist. Like Milton's earlier puritan 
feeling, his was not iconoclastic. His poems Of the Epiphany, Upon the 
Two Great Feasts of the Annunciation and Resurrection, The Crown of 
Thorns, and other sacred verses, reach a high literary level. The last, 
in eight books, has been lost; one was suppressed. Sir John died in 1628, 
aged forty-six, and was buried at Westminster, ' in the broad aisle on the 
south side.' He had espoused a lady of the famify of Fortescue, by 
whom he had seven sons and four daughters. One son, Sir John, himself 
a poet, fell at the siege of Gloucester on the King's side, in 1644. He 
' was of such uncommon strength that it was reputed by old men who 
knew him that he did leap sixteen feet at one leap, and would commonly 
at a stand leap and jump over a high long table in the hall, light on the 
settle beyond the table, and raise himself up 3 .' Another son, Francis, 

1 The Dictionary of National Biography says in Nov. 1547- What is this a 
misprint for ? 

2 Athenae, i. 446. 

3 Nichols, History of Leicestershire. 



io8 



FITZ GEFFREY. 



entered the Society of Jesus. On a third, who died aged seven years, 
the bereaved father wrote the affecting verses ' On my dear Son Gervase 
Beaumont ' : — 

' Can I, who have for others oft compiled 
The songs of death, forget my sweetest child, 
Which like a flower crush' d with a blast is dead, 
And ere full time hangs down his smiling head, 
Expecting with clear hope to live anew 
Among the angels, fed with heavenly dew? 

Dear Lord, receive my son, whose winning love 
To me was like a friendship, far above 
The course of nature, or his tender age, 
Whose looks could all my bitter griefs assuage. 
Let his pure soul — ordain'd seven years to be 
In that frail body which was part of me — 
Remain my pledge in heaven, sent to show 
How to this port at every step I go.' 

Sir John Beaumont is described as ' a gentleman of great learning, gravity, 
and worthiness.' Drayton sang his ' much-lamented death.' 

The ' history,' a popular companion poem to the chronicle play, is 
connected with the name of Charles FitzGeffrey, 'the poet of 
Broadgates Hall,' whence was dated, on Nov. 17, 1596, the Life and 
Death of 'Francis Drake - * [ , 'written in lofty verse when he was Bachelaur 
of Arts,' and dedicated to the Queen. It gained for him from Meres, 
in Wit's Commonwealth (1598), the name of 'young Charles Fitz 
Jeffrey, that high towring Falcon.' Commendatory verses were 
prefixed by Rous, Wheare, and other College friends. His father, 
Alexander FitzGeffrey, was priest of Fowey. Charles ' was born of 
a gentile family in the county of Cornwall, became a Commoner 
of Broadgates Hall in 1592 [1590, Diet. Nat. Biog., July 6, 1593, 
Foster], aged 17, took the degrees in Arts [B.A. Jan. 31, 159I-, M.A. 
July 4, 1600], entred into the Theological Function, and at length 
[1603] became Rector of S. Dominick in his own Country, where he 
was esteemed a grave and learned Divine, as before he was, while 
resident in the University, an excellent Latine Poet V 

Besides his Drake, called by Mr. Saintsbury a remarkable poem, he 
printed among other sermons The Blessed Birthday, Holy Transporta- 
tions, The Curse of Corn-Hoarders, and Elisha his Lamentations — at 
the funeral, in 1622, of the patron of his benefice, Sir Anthony Rous of 
Halton, in St. Dominick, father of Francis Rous (with whom and Degory 

1 Under whom served Edward Grenvill of Broadgates (1585). He was killed 
at Carthagena. Sir John Drake entered the Hall in 1607 ; Sir Lewis Stucley, vice- 
admiral of Devon, in 1589. Clyfforde of Chudleigh was another name on the 
books. 2 Athenae, i. 516. 



FITZGEFFREY ; CORBET. 



109 



Wheare FitzGeffrey took his B.A. degree) ; Death's Sermon unto the 
Living 2.X. the 'funerals,' in 1620, of Dame Philippa Rous, the second wife, 
daughter of Sir Rich. Carew, dedicated to her son 1 Jo. Pym Esq ;' and 
Compassion towards Captives (in Barbary). 'He hath also,' says a Wood, 
' made A Collection of choice Flowers and Descriptions, as well out of 
his, as the works of several others, the most renowned Poets of our 
Nation: collected about the beginning of the raign of K. James I, but 
this, tho' I have been many years in seeking after, yet, I cannot get 
a sight of, it.' He died in his parsonage, and was buried under the 
altar, Feb. 22, 163^. Robert Hayman, his familiar, styles him Bachelor 
of Divinity. Perhaps he received this degree at Cambridge, where he 
incorporated in 161 7. FitzGeffrey had two sons, Charles and John, at 
Gloucester Hall. He has an epitaph in his friend Robert Chamberlaine's 
Epigrams and Epitaphs, and John Dunbar wrote lines upon him. 
Davies penned an epigram ' to my deare freind Mr. C. Fitz Ieffrey.' 
Hayman in his Quodlibets styles him 'learned and witty' and 'a most 
excellent poet.' FitzGeffrey appears from Hayman's somewhat partial 
lines to have been blind of one eye : — 

' Blind poet Homer you do equalize 
Tho' he saw more with none than most with eyes. 
Our Geoffrey Chaucer, who wrote quaintly neat, 
In verse you match, equall him in conceit. 
Featur'd you are like Homer in one eye, 
Rightly surnam'd the sonne of Geoffery.' 

Dr. Grosart republished the Poems of Charles FitzGeoffrey in 1881. 

Richard Corbet, prelate, jester, and poet in an age of sour pre- 
cisianism, who carried on into a gloomy generation the lively, gay, 
and airy spirit of Ben Jonson, was born at Ewell, Surrey, his parents 
being Vincent and Benedicta Corbet, or Poynter 1 , of Salopian 
descent. 

After having his schooling at Westminster, he entered Broadgates 
April 7, 1598, aged fifteen. He was ' esteemed one of the most cele- 

1 Vincent was a gardener. Ben Jonson, who afterwards bandied many a joke 
with the son, wrote the following epitaph on the father : — 
4 Dear Vincent Corbet, who so long 

Hath wrestled with diseases strong, 

That though they did possess each limb, 

Yet he broke them ere they broke him, 

With the just canon of his life ; 

O life that knew not noise nor strife, 

But was, by sweetening so his will, 

All order and composure still; 

His mind as pure and neatly kept 

As were his nourseries, and swept 

So of uncleanness and offence 

That never came ill odours thence.' 
He bequeathed a considerable fortune to his son. 



no 



CORBET 



brated Wits in the University, as his Poems, Jests, Romantick fancies 
and exploits, which he made and perform'd extempore, shew'd 1 .' In 
1599 he became a student of Christ Church. In 1602, June 30, he 
was admitted B.A. together with Robert Burton, alias Democritus 
Junior. On June 9, 1605, he and Burton became Masters two days 
before Walter Raleigh of Magdalen took B.A. 

The same year he was ordained deacon. He ' became a most quaint 
Preacher and therefore much followed by ingenious men. At length 
being made one of the Chaplains to his Maj. K. Jam. I. (who highly 
valued him for his fine fancy and preaching) he was by his favour 
promoted to the Deanery of Ch. Ch. in Oxon, an. 1620 2 , being then 
D. of D. [161 7]. Senior Student of that house, Vicar of Cassington near 
to Woodstock and Prebendary of Beminster Secunda in the Church of 
Sarum 3 .' He was also at different times incumbent of Puttenham, 
of Stewkley, and of Brightwell Baldwin. As Deputy Orator and Proctor 
in 1 61 2, he pronounced a funeral oration in Latin on the death of Henry 
Prince of Wales : ' very oratorically speeched it in St. Maries church.' 
He calls the Prince in one of his poems ' the expectancy and rose of the 
fair State.' To a rival anniversarist on the same subject, Dr. Daniel 
Price, Corbet addressed the lines : — 

' Even so dead Hector thrice was triumph'd on 
The walls of Troy, thrice slain when fates had done, 
So did the barbarous Greekes before their hoast 
Torment his ashes and profane his ghost, 
As Henrye's vault, his peace, his sacred hearse, 
Are torne and batter'd by thine Anniverse.' 

In 1613 he came into conflict with the Abbotts. Gilchrist says: 
4 Preaching the Passion Sermon at Christ Church he insisted on the 
article of Christ's descending into hell, and therein grated upon Calvin's 
manifest perverting of the true sense and meaning of it ; for which (says 
Heylyn), he was so rattled up by the Repetitioner (Dr. Robert Abbott 4 , 
brother of the Archbishop), that if he had not been a man of very great 
courage it might have made him afraid of staying in the University 
This, it was generally conceived, was not done without the Archbishop's 
setting on.' B.D. and D.D. May 8, 1617. To the following period 
belong some of the raciest and least edifying anecdotes of this strange 
divine. 

Aubrey tells us : ' After he was doctor of divinity he sang ballads at the 
Crosse at Abingdon ; on a market day he and some of his comrades 

1 Ath. Ox. i. 511. 

2 Chalmers says 1627. 3 Athenae, i. 511. 

4 Wood (Gutch, ii. 315) omits the Repetitioner's name, and makes the encourage- 
ment to have proceeded from Robert Abbot. A Repetitioner repeated the Lent 
sermons from memory. So, e. g., Wood records, ' 1679, 27 Apr. Low-sunday, 
Rawlyns of Pembr. Coll., repeated at St. Marie's, very well.' 



CORBET. 



in 



were at the taverne by the Crosse, which by the way was then the finest 
of England. The ballad singer complayned that he had no custome — he 
could not put off his ballads. The jolly doctor puts off his gowne, and 
puts on the ballad-singer's leathern jacket, and being a handsome man, 
and a rare full voice, he presently vended a great many and had a great 
audience. 

' He had a good interest with great men, as you may find in his poems ; 
and that with the then duke of Bucks his excellent wit ever 'twas of 
recommendation to him. He was made dean of Christ Church after 
Dr. Goodwin's death against Dr. Fell. 

' His conversation was extreme pleasant. Dr. Stubbins was one of his 
cronies ; he was a jolly fat doctor, and a very good house-keeper. As 
Dr. Corbet and he were riding in Lob Lane in wet weather ('tis an 
extraordinary deepe dirty lane) the coach fell and Corbet said that Dr. S. 
was up to the elbows in mud, and he was up to the elbows in Stubbins. 

'a.d. 1628 [1629] he was made bishop of Oxford-, and I have heard 
that he had an admirable grave and venerable aspect.' The anecdotes 
which follow, however, are mere (SufioXoxLa. One piece of buffoonery 
must be ben, or mal, trovato : — 

'His chaplaine, Dr. Lushington, was a very learned and ingenious Man 
and they loved one another. The bishop would sometimes take the key 
of the wine-cellar and he and his chaplaine would lock themselves in and 
be merry : then first he layes down his episcopal hood, " There layes the 
doctor;" then he putts off his gowne, "There layes the bishop;" and then 
'twas " Here's to thee Corbet" and " Here's to thee Lushington."' 

It is hard to think that such clowning commended itself to the austere 
and fastidious king or the martinet Laud. Though we open our eyes at 
the description of him as ' poet and saint,' there must have been some- 
thing more solid in Corbet than the vivacity of a Friar Tuck to commend 
him for promotion, for which he had humorously sued Charles before 
his accession : — 

' For ever dear, for ever dreaded prince, 
You read some verse of mine a little since ; 
And so pronounced each word and every letter 
Your gratious reading made my verse the better. 
Since that your highness doth by gifte exceeding 
Make what you read the better for your reading, 
Let my poor Muse thus far your grace importune, 
To leave to read my verse, and read my fortune.' 

When he preached as chaplain before James at Oxford, in 1621, the 
King had given him a ring, which occasioned the following doggrel :— 

' The reverend dean, 
With his band starch'd clean, 
Did preach before the King ; 
A ring was his pride 
To his bandstrings tied. 
Was not this a pretty thing? 



I 12 



CORBET. 



4 The ring without doubt 
Was the thing put him out, 
And made him forget what was next. 
For every one there 
Will say, I dare swear, 
He handled it more than his text.' 

In Rous's Diary are some satirical verses from Dean Corbet £ to the 
Gentlewomen of the Newe Dresse,' with 'the ladies and gentlewomen's 
answer,' in which they allude to his tying the ring round his neck. 

It was Corbet's real literary merits and vigorous though rollicking 
muse that advanced his interest at Court. Headley says, ' Corbet 
appears' to have been at the head of that poetical party who, by inviting 
Ben Jonson to come to Oxford, rescued him from the arms of a sister 
University who has long treated the Muses with indignity.' Jonson 
said that he owed his degree of Master to the favour of the University, 
not to his study \ Mr. Saintsbury, while he calls Corbet a ' poet of no 
small power,' thinks he had too much of the flavour of the University wit. 
He has, however, ' both pathetic and imaginative touches on occasion.' 
' The " Exhortation to Mr. John Hammond," a ferocious satire on the 
Puritans, distinguishes itself from almost all precedent work of the kind 
by the force and directness of its attack, which almost anticipates Dryden.' 
Coleridge wished Corbet's poems, collected first in 1647, might be 
published for modern delectation, and was sure they would be popular. 

His opposition, genial but forcible, to the flowing tide of iconoclasm 
helped to commend him to King Charles. The following lines were 
written by him upon the Fairford windows : — 

' Tell me, you anti-saints, why brass 
W T ith you is shorter lived than glass ; 
And why the saints have scapt their falls 
Better from windows than from walles ? ' 

Aubrey declares he was ' apt to abuse and a coward.' Fuller, however, 
says, ' he was of a courteous carriage and no destructive nature to any 
who offended him, counting himself plentifully repaired with a jest upon 
him 2 .' A merry humour was a link between him and Laud, whose energy, 
however, and policy of Thorough were not to the mind of easy-going 
Corbet. In 1632 he left Oxford for Norwich, 'though in some respects,' 
says a Wood, ' unworthy of such an office.' In this year he was satirized 
with others in some Oxford verses called ' The Academicall Army of 
Epidemicall Arminians, to the Tune of the Soldier.' Two days after 
Corbet's translation Laud ascended the metropolitical throne and at once 
began to tighten the strings of discipline throughout the province. At 
Norwich Corbet, himself a new broom, but of less stiff twig, took a few 
gentle measures, and seems to have succeeded with a Mr. Ward of 

1 Aliter 1 studies ' ; that is, importunity. So in Henry VIII, sc. 1, ' To use our 
utmost studies in your service.' 

2 Worthies. 



CORBET. 



Ipswich (who had violently resented the Book of Sports), as we may 
gather from the following letter 1 . 

' Salutem in Christo. 

' My worthie friend 

' I thank God for your conformitie and you for your acknowledgment : stand 

upright to the church wherein you live ; be true of heart to her governours ; think 

well of her significant ceremonyes; and be you well assured I shall never displace 

you of that room which I have given you in my affection ; proove you a good 

tenant in my hart, and noe minister in my diocese hath a better landlord. 

Farewell ! God Almightie blesse you with your whole congregation. 

' From your faithful friend to serve you in Christ Jesus 

t T ' Rich. Norwich. 

' Ludham Hall, 

the 6 of Oct. 1633.' 

Laud was determined to effect a task in which Elizabeth and Parker 
had failed, and dislodge from consecrated buildings in London and 
Norwich the foreign Protestant congregations. Corbet's method of 
carrying out the Primate's injunctions is amusing. 

' To the minister and elders of the French Church 2 in Norwich, these: 
* Salutem in Christo. 

' You have promised me from time to time to restore my stolen bell and to 
glaze my lettice windows. After three yeares consultation i^bysides other pollu- 
tion) I see nothing mended. Your discipline I know care not much for a 
consecrated place, and anye other roome in Norwiche that hath but bredth and 
length may serve your turne as well as the chappel : wherefore I say unto you, 
without a miracle, Lazare prodi foras ! Depart, and hire some other place for 
your irregular meetings : you shall have time betwixte this and Whitsontide. 
And that you may not think I mean to deale with you as Felix dyd with St. Paul, 
that is to make you afraid, to get money, I shall keepe my word with you, which 
you did not with me, and as neer as I can be like you in nothinge. 

' Written by me, Richard Norwich, with myne own hand, Dec. 26, anno 1634.' 

Old St. Paul's standing in need of reparation, Corbet gave ^400 him- 
self and stirred up his clergy to contribute in the following letter. Wood 
says that he supplied some of them who were poor with money for the 
purpose, in order to encourage others. 

' Saint Paul's church ! One word in the behalf of Saint Paul ; he hath spoken 
many in ours : he hath raised our inward temples, let us help to requite him in 
his outward. Should I commend Paul's to you for the age, it were worth your 
thought and admiration. A thousand years, though it should fall now, were 
a pretty climacterical. See the bigness, and your eye never yet beheld such 
a goodly object. It's worth the reparation, though it were but for a landmark ; 
but, beloved, it is a church, and consecrated to God. . . . Are we not beholden 

1 Harl. MSS. No. 464, fol. 12. 

2 The Walloons at first used the quire and the Dutch the nave of the great 
Dominican church, now St. Andrew's Hall. Later, the latter were given a long 
lease of the quire, and the former were assigned the Bishop's chapel. A Dutch 
sermon is still preached once a year. Strype's Parker, ii. 77, 83, 84; iii. 185. 

I 



ii 4 



CORBET. 



to it, every man, either to the body or the choir : for a walk or a warbling note ; 
for a prayer or a thorough path ? It hath twice suffered Martyrdom : and both 
by fire. Saint Paul complained of Stoning twice ; his church of firing : stoning 
she wants indeed and a good stoning would repair her. Saint Faith holds her 
up, I confess. Oh that works were sainted to keep her upright ! . . . I am verily 
persuaded were it not for the pulpit and the pews (I do not now mean the altar 
and the font for the two Sacraments, but for the pulpit and the stools as you call 
them) many churches had been down that stand. Stately pews are now become 
tabernacles with rings and curtains to them. There wants nothing but beds to 
hear the word of God on ; we have casements, locks and keys, and cushions : 
I had almost said bolsters and pillows : and for these we love the Church.' 

He lies buried at the upper end of the quire of his cathedral church. 
A brass plate let into the stone has the words : — 

' Ricardus Corbet, Theologiae Doctor, Ecclesiae Cathedralis Christi Oxoniensis 
primum alumnus deinde decanus, exinde Episcopus, illinc hue translatus et hinc 
in caelum, Jul. 28, 1635.' 

Not, let us hope, a mistranslation. 'To laugh and make others laugh,' 
says Sanford, ' seems to have been the business of his life.' In days of 
ever-deepening shadows and foreboding this was not an office unworthy 
of a Christian ; and, if Corbet wore beils on his mitre, he lived to see, 
as he complains himself, his office even more out of fashion than his verse. 
He wrote this couplet on the birth of ' the New-Borne Prince ' (afterwards 
Charles II) :— 

' Thrice happy childe ! whom God thy father sent 
To make him rich without a parliament.' 

In his epitaph on Dr. Donne there is a good phrase about divinity 

bemg ' Not of the last edition but the best.' 

But this 'boon and jolly blade,' of whose tavern conviviality in youth 
with Jonson and other dramatists there are many stories, had neither 
politics nor divinity, only a mirth-loving soul. Here are some lines on 
the Re-casting of Great Tom of Oxford :— 

' Brave, constant spirit, none could make thee turn, 
Though hang'd drawn quarter'd, till they did thee burn. 
Yet not for this nor ten times more be sorry, 
Since thou wast martyr'd for the church's glory. 
But for thy meritorious suffering 
Thou shortly shalt to heaven in a string; 
And though we griev'd to see thee thump'd and bang'd, 
We'll all be glad, Great Tom, to see thee hanged.' 

Corbet's name and, possibly, appearance are referred to in John Taylor's 
lines 'upon my good Lord the Bishop of Norwiche' : — 

' Raven he was, yet was no gloomie fowle, 
Merrie at hearte though innocent of soule ; 
Where'er he perkt the birds that came anighe 
Constrayned caught the humour of his eye. 
Under that shade no spights and wrongs were sped, 
Care came not nigh with his uncomlie head.' 



A COLLEGE PRECISIAN. 



Aubrey, we saw, describes him as 'a very handsome man.' His portrait 
by Jansen hangs in Christ Church hall. Corbet built himself a ' pretty 
house' upon Folly Bridge. By his wife, Alice, daughter of Dr. Leonard 
Hutten, he had two children, Vincent and Alice. To the latter, aged three, 
he addressed some tender lines. The former (born 1627), at school at 
Westminster, is described by Aubrey as ' a very handsome youth ; but 
he is run out of all, and goes begging up and down to gentlemen.' 

Corbet's zeal for the fabrick of St. Paul's was not shared by every 
Pembrochian. ' Mr. John Burges, upon the proposal of the collection for 
the re-edyfying of St. Paul's Church in London, which was tendred to 
him among others 3 June 1632 in Pembroke College Hall, did speak 
foolishly and indiscretly many insufferable words, as particularly "that 
Churches were not simply necessary, because God might be served by us 
as well in caves and dens and woods," and also that he "would rather 
give 10 shillings towards the pulling down of that Church to build other 
Churches where they want them than 5 shillings towards the repairing of 
it "etc.; which passages being attested to his face before his Majesty's 
Commissioners Ecclesiastical, was by them ordered to make a recantation 
at Oxford as the Vicechancellor should appoint, which being by him 
performed in a Convocation held 14 of March, was in a capacity to obtain 
that preferment which he was in seeking 1 .' 

1 Gutch's Wood, ii. 393. 



I 2 



CHAPTER X. 



HISTORICAL WRITERS. 

An early historian who, a Wood thinks, was educated in 'the 
ancient hostle called Broadgates, wherein several of both his names 
and time have studied,' was Sir John Rhese, ap Rise, or Prise, ' born 
of a gentile and ancient family in Wales,' the same probably as a 
John Price admitted B.C.L. July 12, 1534. 

Being ' encouraged in his studies by William Earl of Pembroke, he 
made great advances therein, especially as to the Histories and Antiquities 
of his own Country. In 1 546(7], March 2. he, with many others, received 
the honor of Knighthood from the hands of Edward Lord Protector of 
England. About which time our Author observing the great and mani- 
fold errors which were made by Pol. Virgil in his Historiae Anglicae 
Libri 27, wherein many things redounded to the dishonor of the British 1 
nation, he thereupon published Fides Historiae Britannicae; Defensio Regis 
Arthuri. And wrot about the Year 1553 Historiae Britannicae Defensio' 
This was published after his death by his son Dr. Richard Prise in 1 573. 
There are also ascribed to him by a Wood A Description of Ca?nbria 
(1584 and 1663) and Tractatus de Eucharistia. He died in Mary's reign. 
Foster, however, says he was perhaps chancellor of St. Asaph diocese in 
1559, canon 1560 (as LL.B.), M.P. for co. Brecon 1547-52, for Hereford 
1553, for Ludlow 1554. 

William Salesbury, of ' an ancient and gentile family in 
Denbighshire,' 

after studying law at Thavies and Lincoln's Inn, 'applied his muse to 
the searching of Histories, especially those of his own Country.' He was 
' a most exact Critick in British antiquities,' and made a Welsh-English 
Dictionary (1547), 'thought by the Kings Majesty very meet to be set 
forth to the use of his gracious Subjects in Wales.' He also published 
The Laws of Howell Da and other antiquarian works. An excursion 
into theology produced the 1 Battery of the Pope's bottereulx, commonly 
called the High Aultar,' 1550. 



1 I. e. Welsh. 



CAREW, EARL OF TOTNES. 



117 



Several members of the famous Cornish family of Carew came to 
Broadgates. Dean George Carew (1500-1583) graduated from the 
Flail in 1522. 

His grandfather, Sir Nicholas, Baron Carew, died in 1470. His father, 
Sir Edmund, of Mohun's Ottery, relieved Exeter when invested by Perkin 
Warbeck, was knighted on Bosworth field, and fell before the walls of 
The'rouanne in 15 13. After leaving Broadgates George Carew, to cure 
a heart ache, travelled in foreign lands, then took Holy Orders, espoused 
Anne, daughter of Sir Nicholas Hervey, and was successively archdeacon 
of Totnes 1534, canon of Exeter 1535, canon of Wells 1545, precentor 
1549 and archdeacon of Exeter 1556-9, prebendary of Chichester 1555, 
prebendary and also precentor of Sarum 1555-83, precentor of Bath and 
Wells 1560 and 1565, canon and dean of Windsor 1560, dean of Exeter 
1571-83 (then being D.D.) ; in 1552 he was made dean of Bristol, in 
1553 ejected, in 1558 restored. He resigned and was again appointed 
in 1 581. He was also registrar of the Garter and master of the Savoy. 
From 1559 to 1561 he was dean of Christ Church. Mr. Foster enumerates 
nine minor cures of souls held by him at various times. He died June I, 
1583, and is buried in St. Giles'-in-the-Fields. It was the dean's pretty 
boy Peter Carew (afterwards B.A. from Exeter, 1572) who so delighted 
Elizabeth by his Latin oration, ending with a couple of Greek verses, that 
she made Cecil come in to hear the speech again, and who enacted the 
Lady Emilia in Edward's Palamon and Arcyte before her in Christ 
Church Hall. The child actor's sweet song after gathering flowers in the 
garden evoked the enthusiasm of the auditors, and the Queen rewarded 
him with embraces and eight gold angels. Sir Peter, knighted in Ireland, 
fell in battle there in early manhood. He lies under a fine monument 
'in or near the Lady Mary's Chappel,' in Exeter Cathedral. The Carews 
of Haccombe now represent Dean Carew's line. 

Sir Peter's younger brother, George Earl of Totnes, living 
longer achieved greater renown. He entered Broadgates as a gentle- 
man commoner in, he tells us himself, 1564, having been 'borne 
29 May, 1554/ He was ' taken from y e Universyty 'in 1573. Wood 
gives 1572 as the date of matriculation, misled perhaps by a list of 
members of the Hall in that year, which includes two Carewes. At 
Oxford he ' made a good proficiency in learning, particularly in the 
study of antiquities/ historical and legal ; but, ' being more delighted 
in Martial Affairs than in the solitary delights of a study/ he left 
without a degree, in spite of his long residence. 

Young Carew went to Ireland (where an ancestor, John Carew, who 
fought at Cressy, had been Lord Deputy), and served as a volunteer 
under Sir H. Sidney against Rory Oge O'More, Earl of Desmond, and 
other chiefs. His services attracting royal notice, he was made Lieutenant- 
Governor of County Carlow and Constable of Leighlin Castle. In 1578 



n8 



CARE IV, EARL OF TOTNES. 



we find him a navy captain, but next year he was again in Ireland, being 
created Governor of Askettan Castle and Master of the Ordnance, a post 
which he held afterwards in England also. He was sworn of the Council 
and knighted. In 1589 the University created him M.A. Carew took 
part in Essex's expeditions to Cadiz, in 1596, and to the Azores in 1597. 
Next year, accompanied by Sir Robert Cecil, he was sent as envoy to the 
King of France. In 1599, his presence being indispensable in Ireland, 
he was made successively Treasurer at War, Lord President of Munster, 
and Lord Justice, his vigorous support of Mountjoy enabling that lord 
to put down O'Neil's rebellion. Carew now desired to return to England, 
his health failing and anxieties crushing him, but the Queen would not 
suffer him to do so. His final achievement was the defeat of the Spanish 
descent upon Ireland in 1601. A gallant soldier in these wars was 
Henry Lord Folliott, knighted by Essex in 1599, and made Governor 
of Ballyshannon. He entered Broadgates in 1586 1 . 

A little before her death, Elizabeth wrote thus to Carew in her own 
hand : — 

' My faithful George, 
' If ever more services of worth were performed in shorter space than you have 
done, we are deceived among many witnesses. ... It shall neither be unremembered 
nor unrewarded. And in the mean while, believe, my help nor prayers shall ever 
fail you. 

( Your sovereign that best regards you, 

< e. r: 

James on his accession treated Carew with honour, made him Governor 
of Guernsey, and in 1605 created him Baron Carew of Clopton. As 
Captain Carew he had espoused Joyce, co-heiress of William Clopton of 
Clopton, who resented the match so much that he proposed to disinherit 
his daughter, but afterwards acknowledged his mistake. Lord Carew 
was made vice- chamberlain and treasurer to James's queen, together 
with other distinctions. On the accession of Charles in 1625 he received 
the Earldom of Totnes. He died, full of years and honours, at the Savoy, 
March 27, 1629, and lies in the Clopton Chapel in Stratford-on-Avon 
church, with his countess, under a noble monument 2 adorned with 
emblems of his warlike calling, erected by Ursula Neville. It is figured 
in Dugdale. Wood styles Carew ' a faithful Subject, a valiant and 
prudent Commander, an honest Counsellour, a gentile Scholar, a lover of 
Antiquities, and a great Patron of learning. 5 His chief historical work 
is Pacata Hibernia, a record of the Irish wars (published in 1633 by his 
natural son, Sir Tho. Stafford). There are in the Bodleian a number of 
his papers, maps, and monuments relating to Ireland, and Nicholson 
speaks of forty-two volumes, written by Carew, on the affairs of that 

1 I may here mention Sir James Blount (entered Broadgates 1597), standard- 
bearer to the Lord Mountjoy, and William Farringtoun (1585), made 
Constable of Lancaster Castle by Elizabeth, 1 599. 

2 He bore, Or, 3 lions passant, sa. ; the Crest, a lion passant, sa. ; the Supporters 
2 antelopes gu. armed, crined, and hoofed, or. 



RICHARD CARE MS 



119 



kingdom, at Lambeth, besides others elsewhere. Lodge says, 'the 
account transmitted to us of the extent of his compositions and collections 
is nearly incredible.' Granger observes, they are ' written with the 
unaffected openness and sincerity of a soldier.' He left a son Peter 
and a daughter Anna, married to Sir Allen Apsley. The best portrait 
of Carew is Geldorp's, now in the National Portrait Gallery. 

Richard Carew (1555-16 20), whose portrait by Evans appears in 
one edition of the Survey, was entered, aged eleven, as a gentleman 
commoner of Christ Church, but 'had his Chamber in Broadgates 
hall, much about the time that his kinsman George Carew (afterwards 
Earl of Totnes) and Will. Camden studied there.' Here, at the age 
of fourteen, he was required, as he modestly says, 'upon a wrong 
conceived opinion touching my sufficiency,' to dispute extempore — 
impar congressus Achilli — ' with the matchless Sir Philip Sidney, in 
the presence of the earls of Leicester, Warwick, and other Nobility, at 
what time they were lodged in Ch. Ch. to receive entertainment from 
the Muses.' It is said that the dispute ended in a drawn battle, 
probably through the chivalry of the older combatant. After three 
years in Oxford and three at the Middle Temple he 

'was sent with his Unkle in his Embassage unto the King of Poland.' 
He was afterwards sent into France ' with Sir Hen. JVevill, who was then 
Embassadour Leiger unto K. Hen. 4. that he might learn the French 
tongue.' In 1577 he wedded Juliana Arundel of Trerice. In 1586 he 
was pricked as high sheriff of Cornwall, and made Queen's deputy for the 
militia. He became in 1589 an active member of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, established by Archbishop Parker, and helped Camden in 
preparing the Britannia. Ben Jonson classes him with Cotton and 
Selden, and Dunbar, in two Latin epigrams, extols his attainments, 
styling him ' another Livie, another Maro, another Papinian.' Spelman 
speaks of his 'ingenium splendidum, bellarumque intentionum faecundis- 
simum.' FitzGeffrey wrote an epigram upon him. Carew's Historical 
Survey of Cornwall, 1602, 'still remains one of the most entertaining 
works in the English language. In its pages may be discerned the 
character of an English gentleman in the brightest age of our national 
history, interesting himself in the pursuits of all around him, and skilled 
in the pastimes of every class V His Epistle Concerning the Excellencies 
of the English Tongue, 1605, is interesting for its mention of Shakespeare 
in a comparison of English and foreign writers. He died Nov. 6, 1620, 
'as he was at his private prayers in his Study (his daily practice) at 
fower in the afternoon,' and was buried in East Anthony Church among 
his ancestors. Camden wrote his epitaph. A splendid monument was 
placed over his ashes. He is styled by Wood ' a religious and ingenious 
Man, learned, eloquent, liberal, stout, honest and well skill'd in several 



1 Diet, of Nat. Biog. 



120 



CAMDEN. 



Languages, as also among his neighbours the greatest Husband and 
most excellent manager of Bees in Cornwall.' From Hymettus also he 
gathered honey, his earliest work being a rendering of Tasso's Godfrey 
of Bologne. Carew's Letters to Sir Thomas Roe are published by the 
Camden Society. His son was Sir Richard Carew. 

Among the Oxford Writers a Wood also mentions a Thomas Carew of 
the same family, educated either at Exeter or Broadgates, who took holy 
orders and dedicated some sermons to his kinsman the President of 
Munster in 1605. 

A Survey of Cornwall was also written by Tristram (not Thomas) 
Risdon (whose father was treasurer of the Inner Temple and recorder 
of Totnes), a Devon antiquary and a Broadgates man. He was buried 
at Winscot, 1640. 

William Camden, ' historicus ille plane immortalis/ ' the Varro, the 
Strabo, and the Pausanias of Great Britain/ born in the Old Bailey 
May 2, 1 55 1, was the son of Sampson Camden of Lichfield, a 
member of the Guild of Painter- Stainers, and Elizabeth, daughter of 
Giles Curwen, of Poulton Hall, Lancashire, of an ancient Cumberland 
family. From Christ's Hospital he passed to St. Paul's School, and 
thence in 1566 to Magdalen as a servitor; but, being disappointed 
of a demy's place, he was invited by Dr. Thomas Thornton (who 
maintained him thenceforward), tutor to Sir Philip Sidney, to enter 
Broadgates Hall, where a number of distinguished men were then 
studying. Wheare, in his funeral oration over Camden, says that after 
studying logic at Magdalen, 

' Mox transit ad antiquissimam Aularum Lateportensem, ubi per duos 
annos et dimidium constanter haesit . . . sub ductu et disciplinatu viri 
etiam tunc temporis praeclari nominis et nunc admodum reverendi Tho. 
Thornton S. Th. Doct. et multa jam annorum lustra cathedralis illius 
Ecclesiae Vigorniensis, Regalisque hujus nostrae Aedis Christi Prae- 
bendarij. Nec minus pietati studuit hie noster quam liberioribus 
scientijs, cujus luculenta quaedam adhuc exstant vestigia apud Latepor- 
tenses, nempe benedictiones sive precatiunculae mensales 1 , quas ipse 
juvenis Latine primum meditatus est, et ad hunc usq; diem a servientibus 
quotidie solenniter recitantur. Eodem tempore aderant, una ejusdem 
Aulae Commensales Camdenoq; nostro perquam amici et familiares (ex 
ipsiusmet ore accepi quod refero), honoratissimus nunc Dominus Baro 
Carewus, serenissimo nostro Regi Jacobo ab interioribus Consilijs, prae- 
nobiles etiam Johannes Packingtonius, Stephanus Powlus, Edwardus 
Luceius, omnes postea Equites Aurati, aliiq; plures notae praestantioris 
viri . . . quod ego in honorem charissime nutricis mee lubens repeto, 

1 Only one is extant — the grace after meat. In Hearne's time there was but 
one. ' Mr. Camden, when he was a very young man of Broad- Gate Hall, now 
Pembroke College, made the Latin Grace which they use to this day.' {Collections, 
ed. Doble, O. H. S., iii. 90.) 



CAMDEN. 



121 



adeoq; gratulor tibi, veneranda Lateportensis, de hoc tuo Alumno prae 
multis alijs ; mihimet ipsi quoq; haud parum gratulor quod iisdem tuis 
uberibus quibus ille (6 si pari effectu et profectu dedisset Deus !), cum ad 
hanc Academiam recens accederem, lactari contigit. . . . Ab Aula Lat. ad 
Regale Aedis Christi Collegium transijt dicam ? an raptus est ? plane 
ita. Nam venerabilis Thorntonus ductor ejus et doctor tanto cum amore 
prosecutus est, ut suum totum et magis peculiari modo voluerit V 

Camden stood for a fellowship at All Souls, but was disappointed 
through the efforts, it is said, of the papists, he having already, at the 
age of twenty, made enemies by religious controversy. He suppli- 
cated in June, 1570, for his bachelor's degree, ' having spent four years 
in the University in Logicals,' and again in March, 1573. It was 
granted, but he failed to complete it by determination. Meanwhile 
he had followed Dr. Thornton, promoted in 1568 to a canonry, to 
Christ Church, but left Oxford in 1573 for London, where he devoted 
himself to antiquarian studies, to which he had at Oxford given all 
his spare time, being encouraged by his fellow students, Richard and 
George Carew and Philip Sidney. He became usher at Westminster 
School, but was not prevented from travelling over the greater part 
of England, amassing with immense labour an incredible store of 
materials — 'umbraticus vir et pulvere scholastico obsitus' (Smith). 
His Britannia (1586), dedicated to Burleigh, was received with 
universal applause. In June, 1588, we find him supplicating Con- 
vocation, as already B.A., ' that, whereas from the time he had taken 
the degree of bachelor he had spent sixteen years in the study of 
philosophy and the liberal arts, he might read three solemn lectures, 
and so be allowed to proceed/ However, it appears he did not do 
so. When he attended Sir Thomas Bodley's obsequies in 16 13, his 
fame was so great that the University offered him the degree of Master, 
but he refused the tardy honour. His Greek Grammar (1597) was 
used till recently at Westminster, of which he became head master in 
1593, one of his many eminent pupils being Ben Jonson, whom 
Camden afterwards took away from bricklaying and sent round 
the world with Sir Walter Raleigh's son. In 1597 he was made 
Richmond Herald and Clarencieux king of arms. The year before 
he had compiled a book on the churches and chapels of Oxford, now 
unhappily lost, but his fame is associated with greater researches. 
After the Powder Plot Camden was chosen by the King to be one 
of a learned college projected (in the Jacobean love of controversy) 

1 ' Camdeni Insignia. Parentatio Historica facta in Schola Historica per De- 
goreum YVhear, Historiarum Praelectorem.' Published 1628. 



122 



CAMDEN. 



at Chelsea, to publish argumentative works against the papal pre- 
tensions ; but the scheme fell through, and Dean Sutcliffe's splendid 
endowment reverted to his heirs. In 1622 Camden carried out a 
long-cherished plan of endowing a ' Reader of Histories ' at Oxford 
with the valuable rents of Bexley Manor, Kent, which he had bought 
from Sir Henry Spelman. He declined knighthood, and his last 
years were spent in retirement at Chiselhurst, where he died 
November 9, 1623. He was buried with much state ten days later 
in the south transept of Westminster Abbey Church. A monument 
of white marble above his grave represents him half length, the left 
hand resting on his Britannia. It was defaced in 1646, but repaired 
at the cost of the University. This inscription is on it : — 

Qui fide antiqua et opera assidua 
Britannicam antiquitatem 
indagavit, 
simplicitatem innatam honestis 
studiis excoluit, 
animi solertiam candore illustravit, 
Gulielmus Camdenus ab Eliza- 
betha R. ad Regis Armorum 
(Clarentii titulo) dignitatem 

evocatus 
Hie spe certa resurgendi in 
Xto s. e. 

Q- 

obiit an 0 . Dni. 1623 : 9 Novembris 

Aetatis suae 74. [He was not quite 73.] 
Next him rests Casaubon. Camden was of a gentle, happy disposition, of 
middle height, ruddy-complexioned. The picture by Gheerardts in the 
Bodleian was originally placed by Wheare, the first praelector, under 
the History Reader's pew, ' inclosed in shuttings.' The National Portrait 
Gallery has one, and there was one in Painters' Hall. Camden's name 
is inscribed by the University on its roll of Benefactors. His house at 
Chiselhurst passed to the Westons, from them to Harry Spencer, Esq., 
who sold it to Charles Pratt, whose barony of Camden, created in 1765, 
took thence its name. Recently it was the home of the exiled Emperor 
and Empress of the French. Among many Oxford verses on Camden's 
decease were : — 

{ Nuncius Chronogrammaticus de obitu V. C. Guil. Camdeni Clarentij ad Th. 
Cl[ayton] Reg. Prof, in Med. Aulae Lat. P. 

'Latarum Praeses Forium dignissime, quali 
Me nuper arbitraris aegritudine 
Mactum dum propero Camdenum visere, alumnum 
Vestrae inclytum Aulae olim,' &c. 
1 Chronogramma by Georg. Stinton, Art. Mag. Lateport. 
< CaMDenVs pIVs seneX obiit.' 



PA KINGTON ; WHEARE, 



123 



Latin and Greek epigrams were composed by Dr. Clayton, John 
Pember, A.M., Nath. White, gen., Fr. Chaloner, gen., Thos. Browne, 
gen., Steph. Plummer, A.B., Thos. Wilcox, A.B., all of Broadgates, and 
a great many others. 

The Sir John Pakington (1549-1625), Knight of the Bath and 
Privy Councillor, Camden's friend at Broadgates, was son of Sir 
Thomas, of Aylesbury. He was remarkable for wit, beauty, and 
strength. Elizabeth delighted in her ' lusty Pakington/ 

Beggared by his splendour and generosity 1 , he espoused in 1598 a rich 
widow, Dorothy Barnham (whose daughter was wife to Lord Verulam), 
and in 1603 entertained the new King with great magnificence at Ayles- 
bury. Dame Dorothy, 'a little violent lady,' got Sir John clapped into 
prison in 1617; but Bacon, who heard the matter, decided against his 
mother-in-law. There is a portrait of Pakington at Westwood Park. He 
took B.A. Dec. 13, 1569, and was then entered of Lincoln's Inn. 

Sir R. Naunton in Fragmenta Regalia (1630) says : — 

'Sir John Packington was a Gentleman of no mean family, and of 
form and feature no way despisable ; for he was a brave Gentleman, and 
a very fine Courtier ; and for the time he stayed there (which was not 
lasting) very high in [the Queen's] grace ; but he came in, and went out, 
and through disassiduity drew the Curtain between himself and the light 
of her grace ; and then death overwhelmed the remnant, and utterly 
deprived him of recovery: And they say of him, that had he brought lesse 
to the Court than he did, he might have carried away more than he 
brought ; for he had a time on it ; but an ill husband of opportunity.' 

Of Camden's other fellow-students at the Hall, Sir Stephen 
Powel, or Pole, was of an Essex stock: B.A. 1569; M.A. 1572; 
incorporated at Cambridge 1571. Sir Edward Lucy was brother 
of Shakespeare's Squire Lucy of Charlcote. There was a bachelor 
at Broadgates named Lucye in 1572, no doubt the same 2 . 

Degory (Diagoras) Wheare, born at Jacobstow in Cornwall, 'retired 
to the habitation of the Muses called Broadgates Hall/ aged 19, 
July 6, 1593 ; B.A. 1597 ; M.A. 1600 ; elected fellow of Exeter 1602, 
where he resided six years. After travelling beyond the seas in the 
acquirement of learning, he returned to England, where 'he was 
entertained by the Lord Chandois, and by him respected and exhibited 
to/ After his patron's death he took up his residence in Gloucester 
Hall, where he contracted an intimacy with the antiquary and ' soul 

1 His subsidy valuation was the highest of the Worcestershire justices in 1587, 
except that of Sir John Littleton. Freake, bishop of Wigorn, describes him to 
the Lord Treasurer as ' a good, wise gentleman.' 

2 Mr. Clark thinks he may be Timothy Lusie, B.A. April 26, 1567, probably 
overlooking Sir Edward. Timothy was ' lowzie Lucy's ' youngest brother. 



124 



ANTHONY WOOD'S FATHER. 



and sun of all the Mathematicians of his time/ Thomas Allen, the 
reputed magician, at whose instance Camden, in 1622, appointed 
Wheare first professor of the history chair founded by him, in pre- 
ference to Brian Twyne. Wheare's Method of reading histories was 
still in use at Cambridge in 1700. Clerk of the Market 161 7. He 
became Principal of Gloucester Hall (1626-47), which his abilities 
raised from absolute eprj/xia dv8pa>v to its highest point of prosperity, and 
of which he completed the then chapel and other buildings. Wheare 
died in 1647, and was buried in Exeter Chapel under the eagle, his 
study in books and manuscript collections passing to Francis Rous. 
1 He was esteemed by some a learned and gentile man, and by others 
a Calvinist.' He had been Pym's tutor at Broadgates, and through 
him Rous entered there. Charisteria, 1628, is dedicated to Pym. 

For his son's sake I here mention Thomas Wood, born at Islington 
January 29, 158^. He entered Broadgates June 20, 1600, but 
migrated to Corpus Christi, where he had obtained a clerk's place ; 
B.A. 1604. While still an undergraduate he led to the altar one 
Margaret Wood, whom his son calls ' an antient and rich maid,' with 
part of whose portion, and £500 left him by his parents, he bought 
land at Tetsworth, Oxon, which he for a time cultivated. In 1608 
he bought for a residence Postmasters Hall, opposite to Merton, 
and in 16 16 purchased the lease of the Flower de Luce Inn, near 
Carfax. On March 10, 16 if, he graduated in Civil Law from 
Broadgates, and afterwards obtained some legal practice. As he was 
exempted from the jurisdiction of Clarencieux king of arms, it has 
been thought that he held some college office. But there is no 
proof of this. 

After the decease, in 1621, of his wife, who left him her entire fortune, 
Thomas Wood tried his fate in a new direction and took secundis nuptiis 
the Mary Pettie 1 whom as a child, many years before, he had dandled in 
his arms and promised some day to wed, now a wealthy young lady. 
She bore him six sons, of whom Anthony, the fourth, was born Dec. 17, 
1632. He saw the light in Postmasters or Portionists Hall, and grew 
up native to every stone and every memory of the Oxford for whose 
history his affectionate industry was to do so much. In October, 1630, 
Thomas Wood refused to accept knighthood and paid the fine. In 1636 
he took little Anthony to see the ' glorious train ' which escorted the King 
down St. Aldate's Street to Christ Church gate, a sight which the boy 
never forgot. In 1642 Oxford became a centre of military affairs, two of 
his lads ran off to go soldiering for the King, and Thomas Wood himself 

1 Several of the Petties were buried in St. Aldate's church. 



MORGAN GODWYN. 



125 



had to shoulder a musket in the University train bands. His affairs 
suffered through the war; he had to give up Postmasters Hall for a 
residence for the Master of the Rolls, Lord Culpepper, and the family 
plate went to the royal mint at New Inn Hall, including Anthony's 
christening mugs. Thomas Wood died Jan. 19, 164I, and is buried in 
Merton ante-chapel. He was 'a fat and corpulent man.' 

Morgan Godwyn, a native of Anglesea, son of Bishop Francis 
Godwyn (whose memory, says a Wood, ' cannot but be precious in 
succeeding ages for his indefatigable travel in collecting the succession 
of all the Bishops of England and Wales'), and grandson of 
Dr. Thomas Godwyn, Bishop of Bath and Wells, migrated from 
Christ Church to Pembroke, whence he took B.C.L. July 6, 1627. 

He afterwards incorporated at Dublin. He was master of Newland 
Free School, canon of Hereford, and was made by his father archdeacon 
of Salop 1631, rector of English Bicknor 1639, and of Lydney 1641. In 
December, 1645, the Assembly of Divines reported that 'he hath wholly 
deserted the same, and betaken himself to the forces against the Parlia- 
ment.' He is said to have died in 1645 (i- e - before Lady Day, 1646). 
He is the translator of Bishop Godwyn's Annates Rerwn Anglicarurn. 

Father Baker, ecclesiastical historian, I have put among the divines. 



CHAPTER XI. 



DIVINES. 

An important part of the career of Bishop John Jewell connects 
him with Broadgates. When the President of Corpus Christi boasted 
that his foundation alone had kept its treasury and ornaments entire, 
he received the reply, 'You have done so indeed; but you have 
wilfully lost one Jewell and great treasure far more precious than 
any of them.' Fuller says 1 : — 

' On his refusal to be present at mass and other popish solemnities, he 
was driven out of the College and retired himself to Broadgates- Hall, 
where he continued for a time in great danger. ... As for Mr. Jewel he 
continued some weeks in Broadgates-Hall, whither his scholars 2 repaired 
unto him, whom he constantly instructed in learning and religion. . . . He 
had not lived long in Broadgates Hall, when by the violence of the 
popish inquisitors being assaulted, on a sudden, to subscribe, he took 
a pen in his hand and, smiling, said, " Have you a mind to see how well 
I can write ? " and thereupon underwrit their opinions. Thus the most 
orient Jewel on earth hath some flaws therein.' 

The Principal of Broadgates, Randolph, was a friend of Jewell's, and 
he continued to lecture there, but no longer publicly. In Lawrence 
Humphrey's Joannis Juelli Angli Vita (p. 77) he tells us: — 

' Ex hoc Collegio detrusus Iuellus primum exulavit quasi in Aula 
Lateportesi, in qua privatim more suo quosdam instituit, et multos sane 
auditores velut Magnes attraxit : nam ut alii complures assectabantur, 
sic Discipuli, praeceptore fugato, amplius in Collegio manendum sibi 
non existimabant . . . Aequo diutius Oxoniae haerens, novis legatis 
haereticae pravitatis Inquisitoribus derepente supervenigtibus, consensum 
in fide Romana ab omnibus subito et severe exigentibus, ac contra recu- 

1 Church History, viii. 10-15. 

2 Among others Roger Prynne and Edward Anne. The latter had been whipt 
in the hall of Corpus for writing doggerel against the Mass, a lash for every verse. 
He afterwards became a fellow of All Souls. As Jewell by papists, so Hooker was 
driven from Corpus by puritans. 



JEWELL AT BROADGATES. 



127 



santes dira fulmina Papaliter ejaculantibus, tandem in arctQ angustumq; 
conclusus : Quid, inquit, subridens, An me quoq; scribere necesse est ? 
et raeam manum videre volupe est ? et cordi vobis est periculum facere 
quam eleganter sciam pingere litteras ? Ita praefatus, invita et properante 
manu nomen scripsit, et Chirographo suo visus est certa Papisticae 
doctrinae capita hoc modo comprobare. Sic, proh dolor, Petrus in aula 
Potificis aliquanto logius et plus satis se ad igne calefaciens Christu 
negavit ' (p. 84). 

The place where the subscription took place was St. Mary's. 
Fuller speaks of Jewell's residence at Broadgates as extending over 
' some weeks,' but after a visit to London he returned to Oxford, and 
there ' lingered and waited/ It was soon after Mary's accession, in 
July, 1553, that he migrated to Broadgates. On Jan. 24, 155! 
(' Pridie Pauli '), Jewell dates a letter to Parkhurst, ' E Latis Portis, ubi 
exul aetatem 1 ago, et Randolphus mecum una, misere uterque, sed 
melius fortasse quam illi volebant quibus hoc molestum est quod 
vivimus.' In April, 1554, Jewell acted as notary to Cranmer and 
Ridley in their Oxford disputation. His recantation probably took 
place in October. After his flight from Broadgates, he reached 
Frankfurt, March 13, i55f. The account given in the Life prefixed 
to the 161 1 edition of Jewell's Works is as follows: — 

'After his expulsion hee staied himselfe a while at Brodegates Hall, 
where fame of his learning drew many scholars unto him.' The Univer- 
sity however chose him ' in this shipwracke of his estate to be her 
Oratour. In whose name he curiously penned a gratulatory letter to 
Queene Mary,' whose promise not altogether to change the Religion 
'stayed Jewel so long in Oxford till the Inquisition caught him. . . . How- 
beit, this subscribing, as it much obscured the glorie of his persecutions, 
so it nothing procured his safetie ; because his familiar conversing with 
Peter Martyr was euidence enough against him ; and D. Martial Deane 
of Christs Church had certainly caught him in a snare laied for him, had 
he not by the speciall providence of God gone that verie night when hee 
was sought for a wrong way to London, and so escaped their hands. . . . 
I would most willingly have laid my finger upon this foule scarre, but the 
truth of love must not prejudice love of truth. . . .Jewel almost assoone 
as he came to Frankford made an excellent sermon, and in the end of it 
openly confessed his fall in these words : It was my abject and cowardly 
minde and faint heart that made my weake hand to commit this wicked- 
nesse. Which when he had brought forth with a gale of- sighs from the 
bottome of the anguish of his soule, and had made humble supplication 
for pardon, first to Almighty God, whom he had offended, and afterwards 
to the Church, which he had scandalized ; no man was found in that 
great Congregation who was not prickt with compunction and wounded 

1 ' Aestatem ' in the Parker Society's edition of Jewell's Works. 



123 BISHOPS DLETHYN AND PHILLIPS. 



with compassion ; or who embraced him not even after that sermon as 
a most deare brother, nay, as an Angell of God.' 

Among others who fled overseas in Mary's first year was Richard 
Tremayne, a Devonian (B.A. from Broadgates 1548). He was a noted 
preacher and had just been chosen fellow of Exeter. On Elizabeth's acces- 
sion he became archdeacon of Chichester, and sate in the Convocation 
that established the Articles, being then canon and treasurer of Exeter 
cathedral. In 1565 he is described as of Broadgates Hall. He married 
Joan, daughter of Sir Peter Courtenay, and died in November, 1584. 

The last Bishop on whom Parker laid hands (April 17, 1575) was 
William Blethyn, whom he had recommended to the Queen, as 
a Welshman and well qualified, for the long vacant see of Llandaff \ 
The archbishop dispensed him to hold the archdeaconry of Brecknock 
and other preferments, not exceeding £108 in worth, with his meagre 
bishoprick. Dying October, 1590, he was buried in the chancel of 
Matherne church, Monmouthshire, where the prelates of Llandaff 
had a seat. Blethyn had studied civil law ' in New Inn or Broad- 
gates Hall, or in both/ B.C.L. Nov. 14, 1562. He was presented 
to the vicarage of Brampford Speke, Devon, in 1564, and to the 
parsonage of Twing, Yorkshire, in 1565. 

Another Welshman, Bishop John Phillips (i 555-1633), who gave 
the Manxmen the Bible and Prayer-book in their own tongue, was first 
at St. Mary Hall, whence he took B.A. 1579; M.A. 1584; but this 
last degree he completed from Broadgates at an Act celebrated 
July 10, 1584. 

After being preferred to several cures in Yorkshire, he became arch- 
deacon of Man 1587 and of Cleveland 1601, and chaplain to Henry, 
Earl of Derby, King of Man. He succeeded Lloyd as bishop there 1605 2 , 
retaining most of his preferments in commendam, the income of the see 
being not more than ^140. The same year saw him rector of Hawarden. 
Phillips lived among his flock and was an exemplary Father in God. He 
obliged the clergy to preach, made parish registers obligatory, reduced 
to writing the orally transmitted canons of the island, and by 16 10 had 
finished the Mannish Book of Common Prayer. It was not popular with 
the clergy, who were accustomed to extemporize. The governor too, 
John Ireland, was a puritan, and thwarted the bishop's endeavours to 
revive decency of worship. One of the latter's first acts was to commit 
to prison one who had disobeyed his warning that 'no man should 
irreverently lean or rest on the Comunion Table.' He now complained 
that Ireland had 'placed a layman in the chaplain's place to read service 
to the garrison in scandalous manner, vizt. in his doblett and hose, and 

1 Strype, Life of Matthew, Archbishop of Canterbury ', ii. 421 ; Ath. Ox. 

2 Wood however says ' about 16 14,' and is uncertain who was Lloyd's 
successor. 



OXFORD WRITERS. 



129 



sometime in his livery coat.' Also that 'the Bishop being the cheef 
competent spirituall judge . . . Mr. Lievtennante will take all appeales to 
himself and sendeth forth his prohibition.' He ' threateneth to fine any 
that will call me Lord Bishop.' The governor had also taken on him to 
issue dispensations to eat flesh in Lent. Phillips had to give up the 
project of printing his translation, and it remained while he lived in MS. 
Governor Chaloner (1658) averred that the bishop devoted twenty-nine 
years' labour to a rendering of the Holy Scriptures into Manx ; he himself 
gave to 'Sir' Hugh Cannell, vicar of Kirk Michael, £14. addition to his 
stipend for that he had been ' assistant to the late reverend father in God 
John Phillipps, Bishopp of this isle, in translatinge of the Bible.' So a Wood 
states that 'the said Joh. Philipps translated the Bible into the Manks 
tongue.' But it is lost, and even Bishop Wilson knew nothing of it. The 
Manx Prayer Book has lately been reprinted. Prof. Rhys testifies to 
the rapid extinction of this interesting tongue under the present educa- 
tional system. Bishop Phillips died Aug. 7, 1633, and was buried in 
St. German's Cathedral. The site is unknown. 

The following are mentioned by W T ood among 1 Oxford Writers ' : — 

Dr. John Milwarde 1 , matric. Nov. 23, 1581, at Christ Church; M.A. 
from Broadgates, June 22, 1584. He was chaplain to James I, and 
author of Jacob's Great Day of Trouble and Deliverance, preached at 
St. Paul's Cross, 1607, ' upon his Maj. deliverance from Gowries 
treasons.'— John Hudson, M.A. 1575, canon of Chichester, with other 
preferments: author of a Sermon at PaitFs Cross, 1584. — William 
Clarkson, 'Student in Physick,' M.D. 1590, Fellow of the College of 
Physicians 1592.— Simon Presse, matric. April 28, 1580, B.A. March 18, 
1582, vicar of Down Ampney, rector of Egginton, author of a Sermon 
concerning the Right Use of Things I?idifferent. — Hannibal Gamon, 
matric. Oct. 12, 1599, M.A. 1606, minister of St. Mawgan, Cornwall, 1619, 
and one of the Assembly of Divines 1643. —Thomas Prior, matric. 
Jan. 20, i6of, M.A. 161 1, canon of Gloucester. Died 1632.— James 
Martin, M.A. 161 1, a German; wrote against Baronius. — John 
Flavell, matric. Oct. 11, 1583, aet. fourteen, M.A. 1 591, B. and D.D. 
1616, rector of Tallaton, Devon, and a dignitary. — Henry Welstede, 
matric. Nov. 14, 1606, M.A. 1613, who held several cures. He wrote the 
Cure of a Hard Heart. — Benjamin Cox, anabaptist and covenanter, 
B.A. 1613— Richard Gardiner, matric. Oct. 28, 1604, M.A. 161 1, 
rector of Croft 1618, licensed to practise medicine 1621. — John 
Gumbledon, matric. June 18, 161 8, as bateller, M.A. 1624, B.D. 1632, 
parliamentarian, chaplain to Robert Earl of Leycester, and preacher at 
Longworth, Berks, rector of Coyty and other cures in Glamorganshire. — 
Samuel Eaton, who matric. April 16, 1602, aged seventeen, may be 
the same, a Wood thinks, as a Puritan of that name, who, being suspended 
in 1631, emigrated to Holland and thence to New England ; but, 

1 A John Milward entered Pembroke in 167 1 ; perhaps buried in Westminster 
Abbey. 

K 



A LAWYER-ASCETIC. 



returning, took the Covenant and ' became a most pestilent leading Person 
in the trade of Faction in Cheshire and Lancashire.' Having ' feathered 
his Neast ' in one or two cures, he was ejected at the Restoration, 'yet 
he carried on the trade of Conventicling in private, and was thereupon 
brought several times into trouble and imprison'd.' He died at Man- 
chester in 1664, aged, Calamy says, sixty-eight. We are probably 
dealing therefore with two kinsmen, both sons of a Cheshire clergyman. 
(See Foster's Alumni.) 

Of the seminary clergy who risked their necks in Elizabeth's reign, 
one was Sabin Chambers, a Leicestershire man (matr. June 13, 
1580, M.A. 1583), who when at Oxford 'had the vogue of a good 
disputant.' 

Being dissatisfied with the Reformed teaching he entered the Society 
of Jesus, in Paris, in 1588, aged about thirty. Afterwards he had a chair 
of Divinity in the University of Doll, 'and at length was sent into the 
Mission of England, to labour in the Harvest there.' The only work of 
his known to a Wood was The Garden of the Virgin Mary, St. Omer, 
1619. He died in March 163I. 

A more remarkable man was ' the most holy and seraphical father,' 
David (in religion Augustine) Baker, nephew to Dr. David Lewes, 
Admiralty judge. Born Dec. 9, 1575 *, he passed from Christ's 
Hospital to Broadgates Hall, of which he became a commoner 
March 28, 1590. 

Leaving without a degree, he pursued his legal studies at the Inner 
(not Middle) Temple (1597), and was thought qualified to be made 
Recorder of Abergavenny. At Oxford and in London he had followed 
loose courses and professed atheism. ' Led away by sin, he gave up all 
practices of religion. "Yet there remained in him a natural modesty 
whereby he was restrained from a scandalous impudence in sin." ' 
A marvellous escape from drowning, while at Abergavenny, turned the 
course of his life, and filled him with horror of the past. Some Romanist 
books of devotion which greatly moved him led Baker to join the renewed 
congregation of Benedictines in London, and in 1605 he went to Italy to 
take the habit. Returning home he found his father, William Baker, 
steward to Lord Abergavenny, on his deathbed, and received him into the 
communion of Rome. His transparent devotion of life and great powers 
of intellect gave him much influence among English Romanists, passing 
as he did from one house to another, usually in the disguise of a lawyer. 
Some time after King Charles' accession Baker became spiritual director 
of the English Benedictine nuns at Cambray, employing his time in 
making collections for an ecclesiastical history of England, in which work 

1 Wood MS. B. 4, however, is ' An account of the life of the venerable father 
Augustin Baker, monk of the English congregation of S. Benedict, who died in 
England upon the 9th of Aug. anno Domini 1641, aetatis suae 63 : his happy 
soul rest in peace. Amen.' He was sixty-six. 



SEMINARISTS AND CALVINISTS. 131 



he had been assisted by Camden, Cotton, Spelman, Selden and Bishop 
Godwyn. He published a learned history of the order of St. Benedict, on 
which Serenus de Cressy based his Church History and Reyner his 
Apostolatus Benedictinorum in Anglia, and a large number of ascetical 
and contemplative treatises, from which the Sancta Sophia of de Cressy 
was extracted \ He is described as a master of the spiritual life. 1 He 
was esteemed the most devout austere and religious person of his order. 
He was also an excellent common lawyer.' His works are preserved at 
Cambray. Baker, unlike Napier — hanged and quartered in the Castle 
yard in 1610 — and other Oxford seminarists, died an ordinary death of 
the plague, Aug. 9, 1641, in Gray's Inn Lane, and is buried in St. Andrew's, 
Holborn. 

An exile under Elizabeth was Thomas Clarke, a Warwickshire man, 
who entered Broadgates Oct. 11, 1583, aged seventeen; B.A. Feb. 23, 
158-7-. He became a seminary priest of the college at Rheims, but after- 
wards recanted his opinions in a sermon at Paul's Cross, July 1, 1593. 
He was presented to the rectory of Kinwarton in his own county in 
1606. 

Christopher Phippe, who was an M.A. of the Hall at his death in 
162 1 (aged twenty-nine), changed his religious allegiance and became 
Divinity reader among the English seculars at Doway. Buried in 
St. Aldate's. 

Edward Grant, ' the most noted Latinist and Grecian of his time,' 
resided for several years at Broadgates or Christ Church ; B.A. 1572, 
M.A. (from Exeter) 1572. 

He was appointed Master of his old school of Westminster, Camden 
being his usher; canon of Westminster 1577, B.D. 1579. ' A most noted 
Latin poet ' and ' well skilled in all kinds of humane literature.' He 
edited Roger Ascham and wrote his life, also a Greek Grammar. Grant 
died in 1601, and is buried in the Abbey Church. He was at various 
times prebendary of Ely, vicar of South Benfleet, rector of Barnet, rector 
of Toppersham, and elsewhere. 

Edward Philipps entered in 1574, took the degrees in Arts (M.A. 
1 583) and became a preacher at Southwark, where he was much esteemed 

1 ' Sancta Sophia, or Directions for the Prayer of Contemplation, &c. , Extracted 
out of more than XL Treatises written by the late Ven. Father F. Augustine 
Baker, A Monke of the English Congregation of the Holy Order of St. Benedict : 
And Methodically digested by the Reverend Father Serenus Cressy of the same 
Order and Congregation, and printed at the Charges of his Convent of S. Gregorie, 
in Doway' : 2 vols. Doway, 1657, 8vo. — with a fine engraving of Baker in his 
religious habit prefixed. A new edition was published at London in 1876. The 
Life and Spirit of Father Baker by James Norbert Sweeney, D.D., was printed 
at London in 1861. Nine folio volumes of ascetical treatises perished in the 
pillage of the convent at Cambray, and two books on the Laws of England were 
destroyed in the English Revolution of 1688. Four of the six volumes of historical 
collections, long thought to be lost, have been found in the Jesus College library. 

K 2 



132 



SH//SS STUDENTS. 



as a painful expounder of God's Word by a large auditory of Puritan tastes. 
Judge Henry Yelverton, after Philipps' death, published 'Two and thirty 
godly and learned Sermons ' 1605, which he had taken with his own 
pen from the preacher's mouth. Philipps lies in St. Mary Overie 
Church. 

Wood gives an account of Walter Wylshman, ' a Cornish man 
born, educated in Exeter coll. took the degrees in Arts, stood as a member 
of Broadgates hall in an Act celebrated 1 594, to compleat it, being about 
that time [1606, Foster] Minister of Dartmouth, and much resorted to 
for his frequent and practical way of Preaching.' The only work of his 
mentioned is The Si?icere Preacher. He died 1636, and lies in St. Saviour's, 
Dartmouth. During his incumbency the beautiful painted stone pulpit 
was put up. 

Isaac Colfe, fourth son of Amandus, 'of Calais,' one of the Canter- 
bury Huguenots, entered July 23, 1579, aged twenty; B.A. Feb. 17, I5|$, 
M.A. July 4, 1582. He was vicar of Stone and of Brookland, Kent; 
master of Kingsbridge Hospital in Canterbury 1596, canon 1596; died 
July 15, 1597, and is buried in the chapter-house. He printed several 
treatises of divinity. His eldest brother, Richard, student of Christ 
Church and vicar of Cumnor, &c, was canon and sub-dean of Canterbury. 
Richard's three sons, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, 'ministers of the 
Word of God,' gave twenty-three MSS. to the Bodleian in memory 
of him. 

In 1579, with a view to expelling the remains of popery, cate- 
chetical lectures were instituted in Oxford by the dominant party. 
Readers however being scarce, especially in the Halls, certain foreign 
exiles were appointed. To Broadgates was assigned the Pastor 
Dominus de la Benseris 1 from Caen University, whither however 
he was recalled the next year. At that date several Switzers were 
studying at the Hall. 

Wolphgang Muscal, from Berne, who entered July 20, 1578, 
aged twenty-two, was grandson of Wolphgang Musculus, the Swiss 
Reformer, who became Divinity Professor at Berne in 1549, and died 
1563. Lawrence Humphrey, Jewell's biographer, befriended the 
young man at Oxford, and wrote several letters about him to his 
father, Abraham Musculus. He says, under date March 3, i57|: 2 — 

1 Immanuel. Your son has left us and has staid some months in 
London. . . . He was very dear to me, both for the sake of your honoured 
and venerable father, and for yours, and also for his own. ... It some- 
what distresses me that your son has left us so soon, and that I was not 
able to be of so much service to him as I wished. He had however 
a great desire to see the University of Cambridge and other parts of 



Gutch, ii. 198. 



2 See Zurich Letters (Parker Society). 



MUSCULUS AND AB ULMIS. 133 

England, with a view to returning with more learning, though not with 
more money.' 

Wolphgang's compatriots at Broadgates, entered the same day, were 
Johann Rodolph ab Ulmis (Ulmerus, Ulmius) and Johann Huldrik 
k Vachnan (' Tigurini '), concerning whom Humphrey wrote to 
Rudolph Gualter, who was anxious about his young friends. They 
were amiable and studious. Humphrey was embarrassed, however, 
about their means of support. Those members of the University 
from whom help might have been looked for were themselves in want 
and dependent upon others. The Bishop of Winton had given some- 
thing to Rudolph : — 

' He has lately returned to us from Devonshire where the Earl [of 
Bedford] is now residing, not indeed overburdened with money, but yet 
in some measure provided with it and presented with a salary. I have 
placed both the young men in Broadgate Hall, as we call it, not far from 
Christchurch, where John's father was most liberally and kindly enter- 
tained in King Edward's time.' 

The writer begs Gualter to aid them by his patronage, and secure 
the speedy payment of their promised stipend. Francis, Earl of 
Bedford, wrote to Humphrey, Feb. 28, 1579, of his interest in Ulmer, 
from whose honourable principles and devotion to learning he hoped 
much for the benefit of God's Church. Cole, President of C. C. C, 
also interested himself in ' Ulmer's son.' John ab Ulmis, the Reformer, 
had come to Oxford under the patronage of Suffolk and of Dorset, 
March 2, 1549, and, after studying at 'the King's College/ been made 
Fellow of St. John's. His brother John Conrad, if not himself, was 
a member of 'Broad Yates' in 1551 and 1552. Conrad had been 
commended by Gualter to Martyr's care. Writing to Wolfius an 
account of a day's work, he says, — 

' At four we read privately, in a certain hall in which we live, the rules 
of Law, which I hear and learn by rote, as I do the Institutes. After 
supper the time is spent in various discourse ; for either sitting in our 
chamber, or walking up and down some part of the college, we exercise 
ourselves in dialectical questions.' 

The following is a pleasing picture of a saintly young scholar. 
Nathaniel Pownoll, a Kentish man, was entered a bateller of Broad- 
gates Hall in 1599 (Oct. 19), aged fifteen, becoming two years later 
a student of Christ Church. 

' Running with wonderful diligence through all the forms of Philosophy, 
he took the degree of M. of Arts, an. 1607 [June 18] ... He lived con- 
stantly in the University 10 years, in which time he learned eight 
Languages, watched often, daily exercised, always studied, insomuch that 



J 34 



A SCHOLAR SAINT. 



he made an end of himself in an over fervent desire to benefit others. 
And tho he had, out of himself, sweat all his Oyl for his Lamp, and had 
laid the Sun a-bed by his labours, yet he never durst adventure to do that, 
after all these studies done and ended, which our young Novices, doing 
nothing, count nothing to do ; but still thought himself as unfit, as he 
knew all men were unworthy of so high an Honour, as to be the Angels 
of God. And since in him so great examples of piety, knowledge, industry 
and unaffected modesty are long since fallen asleep, there is no other way 
left but to commend the titles of his Monuments to posterity, which are 
these : — 

4 The young Divines Apology for his continuance in the University — 
Meditations on the Sacred Calling of the Ministry — Comment or Medita- 
tion on the first seven Penitential Psalms of David — His daily Sacrifice. . . . 
He died in the prime of his years, to the great grief of those who knew 
well his piety and admirable parts, about the year sixteen hundred and 
ten, but where buried, unless in the Cath. of Ch. Ch., I know not V Hearne 2 
gives the Epitaph of the ingenious, pious and learned Mr. Nath. Pownoll, 
' from his Book in the Bodl. Library, 8° A. 28. Th. BS. being written 
before it by one of his near Relations.' 

Epitaphium. 

Flos iuvenum, decus Oxonij, spes summa parentum, 

Te tegit ante diem (matre parante) lapis. 
Hoc satis est cineri. Reliqua immortalia Caelo 

Condit amorque hominum, condit amorque Dei. 

Dr. Thomas Lushington, Sir Thomas Browne's tutor at Broadgates, 
' a famous scholar of his time,' and the occasion of some theological 
controversy, the son of Ingram and Agnes Lushington, of Sandwich, 
entered March 13, i6of, aged seventeen, and remained, off and on, 
studying divinity, till after the conversion of the Hall into a College, 
when he followed Bishop Corbet to Norfolk as chaplain, and obtained 
through him, besides various preferments, Corbet's vacated prebendal 
stall at Sarum (1631), and the place of chaplain to Prince Charles. 

' When the grand rebellion broke out he lost his spiritualities and lived 
obscurely in several places, publishing there divers books to gain money 
for his maintenance. At length upon the return of K. Ch. 2., in 1660, he 
was restored to his spiritualities and had offers made him of great dignities 
in the Church, but being then aged and infirm he chose rather to keep 
what he had with quietness than to be a Dean with riches. He was 
esteemed a right reverend and learned Theologist, yet in many matters 
imprudent and too much inclined to the opinions of Socinus V A sermon 
at St. Mary's in 1624 on St. Matt, xxviii. 13, in which he was thought to 
reflect on the impending war with Spain on account of the breaking off 
of the Spanish match, was called in question before Dr. Pearce the Vice- 
Chancellor, and he had to preach a recantation sermon the next Sunday on 



1 Ath. Ox. i. 312. 2 Collections, ed. Doble, O. H. S. iii. 81. 

J Athenae, ii. 171. 



A LA TITUDINARIA N. — LA TA EST PORTA. 135 



Acts ii. I. Otherwise he would have been brought before Parliament. Other 
passages in the offending discourse were considered to deal lightly with the 
sacred mystery of the Resurrection. ' The truth is this our Preacher was 
a Person more ingenious than prudent, and more apt on most occasions 
to display his fancy than to proceed upon solemn reason. If not, he 
would not in his said Sermon have discanted on the whole life of our 
Saviour purposely to render him and his Attendants, Men and Women, 
objects of scorn and aversion as if they had been a pack of dissolute vaga- 
bonds and cheats. But the best of it was that tho he then assumed the 
Person of a Jewish Pharisee and Persecutor of Christ, yet presently after, 
changing his stile, as became a Disciple of Christ, he with such admirable 
dexterity (as 'tis said) answered all the Cavillations and Invectives before 
made, that the loudly repeated applause of his Hearers hindred him 
a good space from proceeding in his Sermon V A commentary on the 
Hebrews by a continental Socinian was translated by Lushington in 1646, 
under the initials ' G. M.,' and denounced in 1655 by Richard Porter, 
B.D. of Cambridge, prebendary of Norwich, who describes it in his God 
Incarnate as ' written by a nameless D. of D. who now resides in this 
County but formerly in Broadgates Hall (for so it was then called) 
wherein he hath vented such blasphemies against Jesus Christ as (with- 
out special revocation and repentance) will in the end bring both him and 
all his seduced Sectaries, to that woful Broad gate of which mention is 
made Matth. 7. 13. Lata est porta quae ducit ad perditionem. ... It is 
to be feared that the pernicious Doctrines therein contained have many 
Abetters and Favourers in these dangerous times ; albeit his Commentary 
is the first of all the Serpents nest that dared to peep out and appear in 
our English Print.' Lushington was one of the earlier Latitudinarians 
inside the Church of England, a movement which accompanied and 
followed the Catholic reaction. His influence on Browne was probably 
considerable. He also translated Crellius' Galatzans, and wrote a Latin 
treatise, not published, on the theology of Proclus, as well as a Logic and 
other philosophical works. He died at Sittingbourne in great retiredness 
at Christmas, 1661, and was buried in the south chancel aisle. His 
monument (destroyed by fire in 1762), of alabaster and marble, showed 
him half-length in his doctor's gown and holding a book. Beneath was 
an inscription beginning ' Siste viator, raro calcabis doctos simul et 
mansuetos cineres,' and under it piles of books. On the stone covering 
his actual grave he was said to have been a member both of Lincoln and 
of Pembroke Colleges 2 . Aubrey {Letters, ii. 293) calls him ' a very 
learned and ingeniose man.' 

In John Rous's diary (Oct. 6, 1629) he records:— 

' I was at Mondeford courte, where asking Mr. Tayler what newes, he 

1 Athenae, i. 172 ; Gutch, ii. 353. 

2 At A. Ox. i. 173. See Gutch, ii. p. 335. In Halsted's Kent it is said: 'The 
S.E. chancel belonged to the Chilton Estate ; there are many gravestones of the 
family of Lushington in it.' The Rev. W. Bell, vicar of Sittingbourne tells me that 
he can find none, but that there are several at Rodmersham. 



>3 6 



BROWNE'S TUTOR AND FRIENDS. 



tould me that Mr. Barret had there showen a sermon imprinted, lately 
preached at Whitehall before the King, upon Mat. 28. 13, saying, " Say 
ye his disciples came by night and stole him away " by Dr. Lushington, 
Oxfordicns. I asked the driftc of it ; he tould me " witte." I asked what 
was remarkeable ; he said, first the beginning, " What newes." Every 
man askes what newes; the Puritan talkes of Bethlehem Gabor 1 , etc. 
Besides this, the doctor fell belike to personate the chiefe priests and 
elders, in a florishing description of our Saviour and his apostles, as 
imposters, etc. (a wicked witte), and then comes to demande why the 
soldiers should say it, etc. " Because," saith he (yet he mistooke his marke, 
see verse 14) "the soldiers were audacious and durst doe anything. In 
those times (said he) the soldiers did depose and chuse Emperors, yet the 
time had beene when the priests did this. But now peasants will doe alb 
by prerogative of parliament," etc' 

In 1634, ' Dr. L. at Norwich, after his sermon to the trayners, gave out 
these verses : 

" Skill, Number, Courage cannot prosper us 
Without our posie, Nisi Dominus. 
The strongest cities have been ominous 
To theire own keepers, Nisi Dominus. 
And every stone to the towne and us 
May prove a bullet, Nisi Dominus. 
The gunne or sticke may make a piteous 
And bloody muster, Nisi Dominus. 
Since power and skill in armes be governed thus, 
We dare say nothing, Nisi Dominus." ' 

Walker (Sufferings of the Clergy) says of Lushington : ' He was indeed 
a learned man, but I wish I could honestly omit him, for his translating 
the Socinian Comment on the Hebrews plainly shows that he was infected 
with that Heresie ; and his Sermon on the Resurrection (lately Reprinted 
in a Collection of other Prophane Pieces, under the title of the Phcenix) 
shews him, I doubt, to be something worse.' 

With Lushington Sir Nicholas Bacon of Gillingham, Sir Charles 
Le Gros of Crostwich, and Sir Justinian Lewyn had a share in 
persuading Browne to go to Norwich. Wilkins thinks that all these 
were contemporaries at Broadgates. Certainly Lewyn was there. 
He was made Doctor of Law in 1637, and became Judge-martial of 
the army under Thomas, Earl of Arundel, in the Scottish expedition 
of 1639, and afterwards a Master in Chancery and a knight. He 
was a nephew to Sir Justinian Lewyn, Dean of the Arches, who died 
1598. Sir Charles Le Gros (son of Sir Thomas; knighted in 1603) 
was father of the Thomas Le Gros to whom Browne dedicated his 
' Urn Burial.' 

1 Waivode of Transylvania. 



CHAPTER XII. 



HIGH POLITICS. 

Peter Smart, a man of considerable attainments, regarded by the 
Puritans as 'the Protomartyr of these latter days of Persecution,' 
' a Minister's son of Warwickshire, was educated in the College School 
at Westminster, became a batler of Broadgates Hall, 1588, aged 
nineteen years, and in the same year was elected Student of Christ 
Churchy where he was esteemed about that time a tolerable Latin 
Poet.' 

1 Afterwards taking the degrees in Arts, he entered into orders, became 
Chaplain to Dr. IV. James, Bishop of Durham, who not only confer'd 
upon him a Prebendship in that Church [1609-1629], but also the 
Parsonage of Bouden 1 , and was the chief instrument of promoting him to 
be one of his Majesties High Commissioners in the Province of York. 
But this person being puritannically given, took occasion in 1628 to preach 
against certain matters, which he took to be popish Innovations 2 , brought 
into the Church of Durham by Mr. John Cosin and his Confederates, as 
Copes, Tapers, Crucifixes, bowing to the Altar, praying towards the East, 
turning the Communion Table of Wood, standing in the middle of the 
Choire, into an Altar-stone railed in at the East end thereof, etc. But 
this his Sermon 3 or Sermons, preached several times to the people, being 
esteemed seditious, he was questioned ... in the High Commission Court 
at York 4 -, where for his said seditious Sermon or Sermons and his refusal 

1 Boldon. He was non-resident. Smart was also Master of Durham grammar 
school. 

2 Everything before Bishop Neile had been ruinous and filthy. The ' copes 
embroidered with idols, used a long time at Mass and May-games,' had been 
suffered to be taken from the Cathedral and used by boys in their sports. 

3 ' The Vanitie and downefall of Superstitious Popish Ceremonies ; or, a 
Sermon preached in the Cathedrall Church of Durham by one Peter Smart, 
a Prsebend there, July 27, 1628. Contayning not onely an historicall relation 
of all those popish ceremonies and practises which Mr. Iohn Cosens hath lately 
brought into the said Cathedrall Church, but likewise a punctuall confutation of 
them ; especially of erecting altars and cringing to them (a practise much in use 
of late) and of praying towards the East— Psal. 4. 2, Phil. 3. 18, 19. — Printed at 
Edenborough in Scotland 1628 By the Heyres of Robert Charteris.' 

4 See 'The Acts of the High Commission at Durham' (Surtees), App. 198. 
The trial was adjourned to York. While it was dragging on Smart indicted 



138 THE 1 PROTOMARTYR 3 OF PURITANISM. 



to be conformable to the Ceremonies of the Church, he was deprived of 
his Prebendship and Parsonage, degraded from his Ministry, fined 500/. 

Cosin at the Durham Assizes. Sir James Whitelocke quashed the indictment, but 
it was renewed the next year (1629) before Sir Henry Yelverton, who, in a 
colloquy with the prebendaries the day before the Assizes were opened, assured 
them that he considered Smart's discourse to be 'a very good and an honest 
sermon.' One of them said, ' that in that sermon singeing of service was con- 
demned for a superstitious ceremonie and an idle vanitie ; but he hoped his 
lordship did not think soe.' The judge answered, ' that he thought so too, and 
that truely for his parte he never liked of our singeing of the service ; and he 
gave this reason for his dislike, because he could never understand a word of it 
when the organs plaied, and this he repeated often.' One of the company told 
him ' that they were bound by the statutes of that Church to perform ther service 
in the Choir in this manner, cum caniu scilicet et jubilatione? ' Cum jubi- 
latione? said Judge Yelverton, ' that is, with whistling. And for my part, said 
he, I never liked of your whistling of service. One of the prebendaries hereupon 
desired him, saying, Good my lord, doe not call it whistling, for it is a word 
of disgrace. The judge replied upon him short again, and said, Sir, I know 
what I say. I call it whistling. . . . He said, moreover, that he had been alwaise 
accounted a Puritane, and he thanked God for it; and that soe he would die. 
One of the company told him, that he imagined one of Mr. Smart's indictments 
would be for standing up at the Nicene Creed, which notwithstanding the Bishop, 
as oi'dinarius /oci, had appointed to be done. To this he said, That the Bishop 
could not do it, and that they must stand only at the Apostles Creede.' However 
the judge's legal instincts afterwards came to the top, and he told Smart the 
indictment could not be grounded on any direct law, and forbade the Clerk of 
the Crown to file it. When Cosin was impeached in 161 1 he related that after 
the rising of the Court Judge Yelverton had called Mr. Smart, and caused him 
to take defendant by the hand and promise peace and unity with him. In 
a subsequent interview with the prebendaries he went so far as to insist that 
Smart's ' courses against Mr. Cosen & the Church were truly unchristian. That 
through Mr. Cosin's sides he strooke deepe into all the Cathedrall Churches in 
England. That he found Mr. Cosin of a better temper and disposition than 
Mr. Smart by farr. That he wondered at his refusal to stand at the Nicene 
Creed, the Bishop having counselled it, whose counsells were commandes to him.' 
Terms of peace might have been arranged, but the prosecution of Smart had now 
been removed from Durham to York and Lambeth. In this year Smart issued 
his Treatise on Altars, which formed the groundwork of the future accusations 
against Cosin. Of course the principal matter was the fixing the Holy Table 
altar-wise against the east wall, the result being that ' the minister cannot stand 
at the north side, there being neither side toward the north.' The usual Laudian 
reply to this very pertinent objection was the questionable one that north side 
meant or might mean north end ; since when, as the duellists in Hamlet their 
rapiers, the disputants have exchanged arguments. Smart's other points were 
such as the ' glorious Copes embroidered with images,' a ' precious golden pall 
to cover the altar, having upon it the false story of the Assumption of our Lady,' 
the gilded and painted altar of stone with its crucifix and tapers and other 
ornamenta, the making 1 profound legs ' and curtsies towards the altar, and going 
from it backwards, the organs, and horrible profanation of the Lord's Supper 
and also of the Sacrament of Baptism with 'an hideous noise of musick.' In 
Mr. Parker's Introduction to the Revisions of the Book of Common Prayer the 
charges of Peter Smart occupy considerable space. They influenced the subse- 



THE HISTORIAN OF INDEPENDENCY. 139 



and imprisoned many years. At length when the Long Parliament began, 
he, upon petition and complaint, was freed from his Prison in the Kings- 
bench (where he had continued above eleven years), was restored to all he 
had lost, had reparations made for his losses and became a witness 
against Archbishop Laud.' Smart on his release in 1640 was the principal 
promoter of the impeachment of Maynwaring and Cosin. He died in 
1642, the severity of his long imprisonment having impaired his con- 
stitution. His poems in Latin and English were called, a Wood says, in 
auction catalogues Old Smart's Verses. Neal says he was a person of 
grave and reverend aspect. 

A notable Parliamentarian who, Wood thinks, had his name on the 
books of Broadgates — ' a receptacle mostly in the Reign of K. Jam. I. 
for Dorsetshire men' — was Clement Walker, author of the History 
of Independency, written (says Warburton) ' in a rambling way, and 
with a vindictive presbyterian spirit, full of bitterness; but it gives 
an admirable idea of the character of the times, parties, and persons.' 

Leaving Oxford without a degree, he played the part of royalist country- 
gentleman in Somerset, his declamations against the Puritans expressing, 
a Wood considers, his real mind. ' Before the Civil War commenc'd, he 
was made Usher of the Exchequer, but when the Presbyterians were like 
to carry all before, he closed with them, was elected one of the Burgesses 
for the City of Wells, and became a zealous Covenantier, and was Advocate 
to that Congregation of Murderers that adjudged Rob. Yeomans and 
George Bowcher Citizens of Bristow to death, having had (as 'tis said) 
his hands staytied with his own Wives blood before he dipped them so 
deep in those Martyrs' He and Prynne were 'inseparable Brethren.' 
Walker took a prominent part against the Independents. He attacked 
Fairfax 'for his folly to be led by the nose by O. Cromwell] and Cromwell 
for his ' devilish hypocrisy.' Cromwell put him in the Tower, where he 
died in 1651, being buried in Allhallows, Barking. 

1 The greatest Member of Parliament that ever lived,' John Pym, 
entered as a gentleman-commoner, May 18, 1599, aged fifteen 1 . At 
Broadgates he displayed an unpuritanic joy in the Muses, his fellow- 
student FitzGeffrey styling him, in 1601, ' Phoebi deliciae, lepos puelli.' 
Wheare was his tutor. Leaving, as it seems, without a degree, he 
was entered of the Middle Temple in 1602. 

A clerkship in the Exchequer was obtained for Pym, and the foundation 
of his great acquaintance with finance was thus laid. In 162^ he was 
chosen for Calne, and in the next few years was second only to Eliot as 

quent ritual controversy and the final revision of the Prayer Book in 1661 ; e.g. 
the present rubric prescribes that the Nicene Creed shall be said or sung, and 
that standing. 

1 He was the orphaned heir of Alexander Pirn. When he was six years old his 
mother married Sir Anthony Rous, father of Speaker Rous, the Pembroke bene- 
factor. FitzGeffrey describes her as ' no Lyonnesse in her House,' ' making her 



140 



PYM. 



a leader of opposition. Pym's persistency in urging the strict execution 
of the penal laws against papists cemented his popularity, and in 1626 the 
impeachment of Buckingham was confided mainly to his hands, in 1628 
that of Maynwaring. The scabbard was now thrown away on both sides, 
and Pym had twice seen the inside of a prison. There is a tale that he, 
Cromwell, and Hampden were prevented in 1638 from embarking for 
America. He was certainly a patentee of Connecticut and Providence. 
When however he had brought about Strafford's condemnation, the 
Queen contrived that Pym should be offered the Chancellorship of the 
Exchequer, the Earl of Bedford engaging that Strafford's head should not 
fall. But Bedford died, and, Pym being supposed now to meditate the 
daring step of impeaching the Queen herself, Charles resolved to openly 
arrest him with four others, in the face of Parliament. The charge was 
treasonable correspondence with the Scots rebels. The miscarriage of 
this design raised the west country gentleman to the height of influence 
out of doors, as his abilities had already made him master of the House 
of Commons. He had been one of the ' twal kings ' for whom James I 
ordered ' twal chairs ' to be set, and the royalists lampooned him as 
' King Pym.' He has been called 'the English counterpart of Mirabeau, 5 
without the profligacy. The Grand Remonstrance was drawn up by him, 
and carried by his eloquence. He was not only the orator of his party, 
but its soul and centre. Though by temperament a legalist, Pym now 
discarded all legality — ' a master of revolution,' Mr. Goldwin Smith calls 
him. He refused to discountenance the rabbling of the Bishops in the 
precincts of St. Stephen's 1 , urged Parliament to seize the forces of the 
Crown and the machinery of government, secured the presbyterians by 
placing the re-modelling of the Church in the hands of the Assembly of 
Divines — himself (though an Episcopalian) taking the Covenant — and 
swept on the nation and parliament into irretrievable war. Being ex- 
cepted, with a few others, from the King's proclamation of pardon, Pym 
committed his followers beyond recall by the impeachment of Henrietta 
Maria. ' No man,' says the royalist historian, ' had more to answer for 
the Miseries of the Kingdom, or had his Hand or Head deeper in their 
contrivances.' He was ' the most popular Man, and the most able to do 
hurt, that hath lived at any time.' ' His parts,' Clarendon continues, 
' were rather acquired by industry than supply'd by Nature or adorned by 
Art. . . . He had a very comely and grave way of expressing himself, with 
great volubility of words, natural and proper ; and understood the Temper 
and Affections of the Kingdom as well as any Man ; and had observ'd 
the errors and mistakes in Government, and knew well how to make 
them appear greater than they were.' To organize the revolting forces 

Closet as an Apothecaries shop for the poore Neighbours in time of their sicknes.' 
Brymore House, near Bridgewater, the ancient seat of the Pyms, belongs now 
to the Earls of Radnor, descended from John Pym's sister Mary, wife of Sir 
Thos. Hales of Bekesbourne. Neal, I know not why, styles Pym 'a Cornish 
gentleman.' 

1 ' God forbid the House of Commons should proceed in any way to dishearten 
the people to obtain their just desires in such a way.' 



STRODE S AND HELES. 



and keep the war supplied with money was Pym's achievement. When 
the King was winning, Pym was the rallying point of puritanism. He was 
himself at the head of the ordnance. But he died early in the struggle, 
Dec. 8, 1644, his death, 'the discourse of all tongues,' being ascribed by 
his enemies to the loathsome morbus pediculosus, or ' Herodian visitation.' 
He was ' buried with wonderful Pomp and Magnificence in that place 
where the Bones of our English Kings and Princes are committed to 
their rest.' The spot was ' the void space or passage as you go to the 
chapel of K. Henry 7,' by the entrance of St. John Baptist's chapel. In 
1660 his remains were removed, and thrown into a pit on the north side 
of the Abbey church. He was a man of portly form, which a maid of 
honour said was that of an ox, and a forehead so high that scribblers 
compared it to a shuttle. 

Pym's contribution to the enlargement of the buildings in 1620 
shows that he kept up some connexion with Broadgates. A little 
junior to him there were Francis. Arthur, William, and John 
Strode, the cousins of Pym's fellow ' parliament-driver,' who lay next 
him in the Abbey, and John Strode, Sir William's younger brother. 
The last is said by Prince to have been ' a great favourite of the 
nobility and gentry, who spent much of his time about London, and 
was counted the best bowler 1 in all England.' The grandfather of 
all these was Sir William Strode, of Newnham, Devon, their grand- 
mother Elizabeth Courtenay of Powderham Castle. Arthur Strode's 
brass in St. Aldate's church still remains. Others of the family were 
at Broadgates. A number of the Devonshire Heles also entered 
temp. Elizabeth and James. One, Sampson Hele, sate for Plympton 
1 614, and for Tavistock (where Pym succeeded him) 1624. In May, 
16 1 3, one John Milton (but in the supplicat Thomas), of Broadgates, 
described as 'generosus nuper ab exteris nationibus reversus,' was 
studying in the Bodleian. His name follows that of Isaac Casaubon. 
Prof. Masson tells me, however, that he cannot connect with certainty 
this Milton with the poet's family, who were yeomen, not leisured 
gentlemen. 

Mention should here be made of a famous controversy of which 
Broadgates Hall was originally the centre. At the close of James I's 
shambling reign everything seemed prepared for an Armageddon 
between the principles of Authority and Liberty, and the fray of 
contending theories naturally began at Oxford : — 

Chronica si penses, Cum pugnant Oxonienses, 
Post paucos menses Volat ira per Angligenenses. 

1 i. e. player of the royal game of bowls. Danmonii Illustres. 



142 



PASSIVE OBEDIENCE. 



Beaumont is much out of favour with Hazlitt for the lines in the 
Maid's Tragedy idealizing non-resistance, though Dryden blames 
him for making Evadne the minister of vengeance on the royal 
criminal. Amintor exclaims 

' In that sacred word 
" The King " there lies a terror. What frail man 
Dares lift his hand against it? Let the gods 
Speak to him when they please ; till when let us 
Suffer and wait.' 

And Shakespeare's Richard II almost turned the scale in 1688. 
James I, however, had helped the revolted Hollanders, and his con- 
science was uneasy. He referred the question of his consistency to 
the Convocations of clergy. The churchmen in reply laid down 
the principle of passive obedience to all settled authority, whatever 
its origin 1 . But for Pharaoh's consent the Israelites might not 
have quitted Egypt. The University followed with a like pronounce- 
ment. Puritanism, however, was still strong in Oxford. The 
following narrative 2 of events in 1623-25 is in Wood, MS. D. 18, 
fol. 44 : — 

'The Relation of Mr. William Knights case as it is related by 
Dr. Clayton of P. C. who had it from his own mouth. 

' Dr. [Thomas] Clayton of Broadgates hall having out of respect to his 
house procured the priviledge of a Lent term at St. Peter's to be preach't 
by one of his own house pitch't upon one Mr. William Knight of the same 
Hall (an ingenious man, as he had before approued himself in a Sermon 
at St. Marye's, and a witty coppy of verses before Barton Holiday's trans- 
lation of Persius) to performe that seruice, who accordingly did it taking 
his text out of y e xix ch. of the 1st of Kings, & y e latter part of the 
9th v. 8 ; the words are, what doe'st thou here Elijah, upon w ch subject 

1 ' If any man shall affirm either that subjects, when they shake off the yoke of 
obedience to their sovereigns and set up a form of government among themselves, 
do not therein very wickedly, or that it is lawful for bordering kings to invade 
their neighbours, or that any such new forms of government, begun by rebellion 
and after thoroughly settled, the authority of them is not of God, he doth greatly 
err.' James, who reigned by hereditary right, and whose aid lent to the Dutch 
Protestants was thus disallowed, was much dissatisfied with this resolution by the 
spiritualty. 

2 Written Oct. 13, 1688, by Dr. John Bateman, President of the College of 
Physicians, from the mouth of Dr. Richard Clayton, Master of University College, 
sometime of Broadgates. 

3 Romans xiii. 1, Wood thinks. The gist, Heylin says {Life of Laud, pt. i. 
lib. 2), was ' that the inferiour Magistrat had a lawfull power to order and correct 
the King if he did amiss,' the preacher quoting Trajan's speech to the captain of 
his guard, ' Accipe hunc gladium ; quem pro me, si bene imperavero, distringes, 
sin minus, contra me.' 



KNIGHT'S CASE. 



143 



taking occasion to speake of the persecutions of the Prophet, and the 
meanes he used to prevent and avoyd them, he proceeded also to state 
this Question, viz. whether subjects se defendendo in case of Religion 
might take up armes against theyre Soveraigne, w ch he resolved in the 
Affirmative ; for this tenent after Sermon he was sent for and Questioned 
by the then Vicechancello 1 ' & the now Bishop of Bath & Wells 
Dr. Peir's, & required by him to deliuer up his notes, w th an Account 
of the Contriver's or Abetto r s of his sermon (for some such he would not 
be pswaded but that there were and those of the Grandees) & withall to 
whom he had showed his sermon before he preach't it ; to all w ch he 
returned this that in this Ten*, he had followed Paraeus then professo r at 
Heidelberg in his Commentaryes upon y e 13th to y e Romans 1 & to 
name his best Autho r the King's Majestye's practice, who then at that 
very time was sending releif to the Rochellers then in Armes ag st theyre 
naturall L d and King ; And for such as had before seen his Sermon he 
knew of none but one M r Herbert of y e same house Minister of Radley, 
and one M r Code a young Master of theyre hall 2 , upon w ch Answer both 
he, and Herbert w th Code, were committed to prison by the then Vice- 
chancellor, who presently sent news of this seditious sermon abetted, as 
he informed, by severall grave Diuines, to y e Court s , upon w cb Knight 
was sent for out of his prison here at Oxon, and committed upon a slight 
examinacon by y e L d Keeper Williams to y e Gate-house, Herbert and 
Code remaining Prisoners here behind ; and order was sent down that 
all studyes should be search't for Paraeus' his Commentary at Oxon 
& Cambridge & burn't here at Oxford, at Cambridge, & at Paul's 
Crosse, w ch was accordingly executed very vigorously (every schollar 
being sent for into y e Publick Hall, & y e keys of theyre studyes 4 
demanded & theyre studyes search't while they stayd there) about six 
or seven weeks after it happened that D r Prideaux' his Month being come 
he accordingly waited at Court, and there being mett by y e Prince, after 
Charles y e I st , D r , saye's the Prince, you haue strange doing's at Oxford, 
seditious sermons preach't and these contriued by Graue Diuines there, 
to w ch D r Prideaux replyed I confesse to yo r highnesse that a hott headed 
young fellow preach't a seditious sermon there, but for yo 1 ' grave Diuines, 
I cannot imagine whom yo r highnesse means, Oh, sayes y e Prince, one 
Herbert & one Code, Herbert & Code ! sayes y e D r does y r highnesse 
call those graue Diuines, why, Herbert is a poore Countrey-Vicar of 30* 
p. Annum ; & for Code he is a young, debauched Master of Arts and 
his ffather, who is now high sheriff of Cornwall is now upon disinheriting 
him ; Say ye so, sayes y e Prince is this truth & presently fell of to other 

1 Published in 161 7. David Waengler (Graecized to Paraeus) was first a 
Lutheran and then a leading Sacramentary ; 1 548-162 2. 

2 John Herbert, M.A. before 1619. John Code, matr. Nov. 10, 161 5. 

3 Note 'to Dr. Laud B. of S. Davids.' In Laud's Diary, Apr. 16, 1622, is 
this : ' I was with his Majesty and the Prince's Highness to give notice of Letters 
I received of a Treasonable Sermon Preached in Oxon Sunday Ap. 14 by one 
Mr. Knight of Broadgates? 

4 i. e. libraries. 



i 4 4 



PARA E US J THESES CONDEMNED 



discourse, and presently after Herbert & Code were released but 
Knight still continued in y e Gatehouse. About two yeare's after it 
happened that my L d of Oxford (who w th my L dB of Southampton, & 
Essex had been sent ouer to y° relief of y e Netherlands) returning out of 
y e Low-Countryes had a Contest with y e Duke of Buckingham, upon w ch 
he was committed to y° Tower & severall of his ffriends and officers to 
y e Gatehouse, and among y e rest one of his Captaines was lodged in y 6 
prison in y e next roome to Knight's and hearing one walk up and down 
frequently in y* roome asked who was there & what he was, to w ch 
Knight replyed y* he was a poore schollar & made his case known to 
him, with w ch ioyned w th theyre often following discourses y e Captaine 
moved' promised Knight y* if ever he was released he would remember 
his fellow prisoner Knight, w ch happening very shortly after upon a re- 
conciliation between y e Earle and y e Duke he was mindfull of his promise 
& obliged the Earle to sue to y e L d Keeper William's for his enlarge- 
ment w ch y e Earle accordingly did & promised that he should trouble 
them no more in England but goe his Chaplain with him into y 6 Nether- 
lands ; to w ch y e L d Keeper easyly & readyly condiscended being much 
troubled 2 y* Knight should lye so long in Prison, whom they imagin'd 
had been released long before & had quite forgotten, & accordingly sent 
for Knight & giuing him many faire words clad him in a new suit of 
Clothe's & furnish't him w th 20* for his pockett, and had him before y e 
King where he made his submission, & after went with my L d of Oxford 
as his Lp Chaplain oversea where, his body not able to beare so suddain 
a chang of Aire and Dyett after so close an imprisonment he shortly after 
dyed. 

' M v Herbert of Radley y e person before mentioned as a Cosufferer 
w th Code upon Knight's Account dyed y e 13th of this Instant Octob r , & 
D r Clayton preached his funerall sermon V 

In consequence of Knight's discourse, described by the Privy 
Council as 'a wicked sermon by one Knight, an unadvised young 
man,' the Vice-Chancellor was commanded to assemble the Heads, 
' and put them in mind of the Direction sent thither some few years 
since by his Majesty, that those who design'd to make Divinity their 
Profession should chiefly apply themselves to the Studies of the Holy 
Scriptures, of the Councils, Fathers and ancient Schoolmen ; but as 
for the Moderns, whether Jesuits or Puritans, they should wholly 
decline reading their Works/ that thereby (said James) 1 they may bee 
the better enabled only to preach Christ crucified, which ought to 
be the end of their Studies.' The Bishops, assembled in London, 
condemned Knight's proposition as ' contrary to the Holy Scriptures, 

1 The Vice-Chancellor however was first to satisfy himself as to the inclinations 
of opinion previously noted in them. 

2 Rather, Wood elsewhere suggests, to spite his rival Laud. 

3 1688. Dr. Richard Clayton. See Wood's Life and Times, ii. 125. 



SOME PARLIAMENT MEN, 



145 



the Sense of the antient Fathers, and utterly repugnant to the 
Doctrine and Constitution of the Church of England! The Oxford 
Doctors and Masters decreed ' that by the Doctrine of the Holy 
Scriptures it is in no Case lawful for subjects to make use of Force 
against their Prince/ All graduates were to take their corporal oath 
to condemn Paraeus' theses 1 . 'And that Calvin's doctrines might 
not revive here : An order was made at the same Convocation that 
the King's directions above-mentioned for the regulating of their 
Studies should be hung up in the College Chapels and other publick 
Places. And from this time Calvin's authority began to decline in 
the University. He was not now consulted as their Oracle.' 

The Oxford Parliament of 1664 enacted that it is not lawful, on 
any pretence whatsoever, to take up arms against the King; and 
the University again in 1683 published a decree inculcating Non- 
Resistance, while condemning the Leviathan. This decree was burned 
by order of the House of Lords in 1709, but was reprinted in 17 10 
in answer to Hoadly's Original of Government. 

Some Broadgates men who sate in Jacobean parliaments were 
William Carnsewe, Fellow of All Souls (Camelford, 1597, 1601); 
Robert Sanderson, Viscount Castleton's brother (? West Looe, 1588); 
Sir Philip Kighley (Evesham, 1604); Charles Thynne (New 
Lymington, 16 14; Westbury, 1628); his brother, Sir Henry, entered 
the same day ; their father was Sir John Thynne of Longleat ; John 
Trefusis (Truro, 162 1). John Perrot, son of Sir John Perrot, Lord 
Deputy of Ireland, was brother of Sir James, an opposition leader 
under James I. 

1 The first proposition censured was this : ' That it is lawful for Bishops and 
Pastors with the Consent of the Church, to deliver wicked and unjust Magistrates 
to Satan: Three others asserted that when a Chief Magistrate forces his subjects 
upon blasphemy or manifest idolatry, or ' commits an open Rape, as it were, upon 
Privilege and Property,' he is to be treated like a highwayman, * in the Character 
of one that goes on the Road ' (Salmon). 



L 



CHAPTER XIII. 



FOUNDATION OF PEMBROKE COLLEGE. 

Between 1605 and 161 2 a surprising increase in the numbers at 
Broadgates is observable. In 1605 it comes last but two with forty 
members. The census taken in the vacation of 161 2 shows it seventh 
of twenty-four with a hundred and thirty-one members 1 . Yet the 
numbers matriculating had rather fallen off. In those eight years 
seventeen entered as ' armigeri filius,' twenty-six as ' generosi Alius,' 
one as ' militis filius,' one as 1 mercatoris filius ' (he paid fees as 
a gentleman), eleven as ' clerici filius,' and thirty-three as ' plebeii 
filius.' The designation of clerical parentage is always noticeable, 
' Verbi ministri filius ' in Elizabeth's reign passes into ' clerici ' under 
James, that into £ sacerdotis ' under Charles I, reverting to ' ministri ' 
in the Commonwealth time and till 1676. Thenceforward ' clerici ' 
was used. 

In 1 6 19 Summaster's long principality ended and Budden's short 
one followed. Dr. Thomas Clayton succeeded in 1620. He at once 
took in hand the expansion of the buildings. The College possesses 
a duodecimo, presented in 1795 by Sir Hugh Palliser, containing a list 
of subscribers. The first page is headed 2w eea> ; on the next is this : 
' We whose names here follow in this booke, in our love to learning, 
the University, and particularly to Broadgates Hall in Oxford, w cn 
needeth enlargement of the Hall for meeting at Commons, Disputations, 
&c, as also some lodgings for Students, do contribute as followeth — 
July 15, 1620. Thos. Clayton, Principall, xx 1 * to be paid presently 
towards the providing of materialls. Who promiseth his best care for 
the disposing of all to the best use of the house, and account to the 
Contributors of the employment of all the money which shall come 
by their love and bounty. Thomas Clayton, Principall.' The other 

1 Wood's Life and Times, O. H. S., iv. 151. The larger bodies were Queen's 
(267), Magdalen (246), Christ Church (240), Brasenose (227), Exeter (206), and 
Magdalen Hall (161). The total membership of the University was, in 1605, 2254, 
and in 1612, 2930. 



LAST DAYS OF BROADGATES HALL, 



HI 



names, forty-eight in number, include ' the right honorable my Lady 
Viscountesse ' [Lucy] Doncaster (wife of James Hay Lord Doncaster, 
afterwards Earl of Carlisle) 'five peices ' (£5 ioj.); ' S r William 
Spencer, Knight of the Bathe to Prince Charles, sonne and Heire of 
the Right Honorable Lord Spencer,' 44,?. ; Lady Penelope Spencer, 
44^-. ; Sir Richard Anderson, of Pendley, Herts (whose son Robert 
entered the College in 1625), 44J. ; the noble Lady Mary Ander- 
son, 22s. ; Sir Thomas Wrothe, ' sometymes Scholler to the Principall/ 
40s. (he was a Rumper, and on the commission for the trial of the 
King, but did not act) ; Mr. Robert Nedham, ' of Shavington, in the 
countye of Salope,' 22s. (his son Robert, third Viscount Kilmorey, 
entered the College in 1625); Mrs. Margaret Washington, iw.j 
Richard Astley, Warden of All Souls, 33J. Most of the entries are 
autograph, followed by the signatures. The most interesting is, 
' Aprilis 27 0 , 1623 0 , Johannes Pym, Armiger, de Brimore in comitat 
Somerset, quondam Aulae Lateportensis Commensalis, donavit 44^. 
Jo : Pym.' Out of these moneys the transverse portion of the old 
dining-hall, which is shaped like a rather crooked T, was added. 
The plan of erecting new chambers for students was swallowed up 
in a larger transformation. What I find it difficult to explain is the 
language used by the orators at the inauguration of Pembroke 
College in 1624. They speak of 'nostras utroque cornu nutantes 
jam diu fortunas.' Some Principals took Halls merely to provide 
themselves with a house, and encouraged leakage of students \ 
But in Clayton's first year the entries rose from three to twenty- 
nine. He attracted to the Hall men of intellect like Browne, and 
men of family like Sir Anthony Hungerforde. Both these came up 
in 1623. 

The incorporation and endowment of the ' oldest of the Halls ' as 
a new College, in the year 1624, is a somewhat curious story. 

1 The Rev. Andrew Clark writes to me : ' Clayton seems to have been a man of 
substance, and had his professorship and, I suppose, his practice. If he wished to 
empty the Hall, so that he should have no trouble, he could have done much in 
four years. See what Wood says about St. Alban Hall (Life, i. 402 ; ii. 19, 264), 
and Gloucester Hall (ii. 398 ; iii. 1). Of course Clayton as a Head of a College 
with endowment became a very different person, and was no doubt much pleased 
to push Pembroke on. I have in my mind a general statement by Wood that the 
decay of the Halls was due to the practice of appointing to the Headship of them 
Professors, who turned the Hall into a house for their families. A Hall, owing to 
the absence of persons attached to it by endowment, had a very precarious existence. 
If the resident M.A.'s moved, their servitors, who made up the undergraduate 
element, would have to move also. See an exodus from St. Alban Hall, Wood's 
Life, ii. 468.' 

L 2 



148 



TESD ALE'S FOUNDATION. 



Thomas Tesdale, or Tisdale *, a fortnight before his decease at 
Glympton, near Woodstock, made a testament, dated May 31, 1610 2 , 
bequeathing the splendid sum of five thousand pounds to purchase 
lands, &c, for maintaining seven Fellows and six Scholars to be 
elected out of Roysse's Free Grammar School in Abingdon into 
Balliol or some other College in Oxford. 

In 1627 there was penned (and left in MS.) by Francis Little, of 
Abingdon, a connexion of Tesdale's wife, ' A Monument of Christian 
Munificence, or an Account of the Brotherhood of the Holy Cross and 
of the Hospital of Christ in Abingdon.' The Master and Governors 
of the Hospital caused it to be printed in 187 1 3 . It gives the fullest 
account of this bountiful merchant. 

1 Thomas Teasdale, of Glympton, in the county of Oxon, Gent., was 
born at Stanford Dingley, in the county of Berks. His father, whose 
name was also Thomas Teasdale, came from that village to this town 
& dwelt at Fitz-Harris' farm 4 in good account and reputation. He was 
chosen Governor of this Hospital A.D. 1554, in the first and second year 
of King Phillip and Queene Marie, & in December, 1556, he died. 
After his death the said Thomas Teasdale, his son, was brought up by 
his uncle, Richard Teasdale, of Abingdon, Sadler, and when the free 
school here was founded by John Royse, citizen and Mercer of London, 

1 The name is also spelt Teasdale, Teasdell, Teasedale, Tisdale, Tesdall, Teis- 
dall, Teysdale, Tisedale, &c. 

2 So Gutch's Wood, iii. 616. But Little (vide infra) dates the will Feb. 28, 1609 
[1610]. It is not at Somerset House. 

3 Edited by C. D. Cobham, D.C.L., crown 8vo. 'Mr. Frances Littell, allast 
Brooker, was buried the x th of Janewary, 1630,' in St. Nicholas. He was for 
thirty-eight years a Governor and twice Master of Christ's Hospital. I find the 
name Francis Little as Governor, 1585-1610, and Master, 1596-7; but perhaps 
this was his father. One Francis Lyttle, from Berks, entered Christ Church 
Feb. 14, 16 1 1. The Monument was clearly known to Wood. 

4 The official pedigree (vide infra) makes Fitzharris Farm to be situated at Stan- 
ford. Wood falls into the same error. In the Oxford City Records (ed. Turner, 
p. 331) is this entry: ' Abyngdon. 1569, Nov. 25. M d that at this Counsell was 
left in the kepyng of M r Mayors chyst, w ch lyeth w th in the kepynge of the fyve 
Key Kepers chest, on blacke boxe, sealed, in the w ch boxe ther ys one lease made 
by the Maior, Baylyffs, and Burgesses of the borrowgh of Abyngdon, of on ferm 
called Fytts Harrys unto Edmund Benet and John Tysdale, w ch lease, w th a byll 
of one Edmund Benet and Richard Benott for the name of John Tysdale, is made 
w th thre hands and seales unto the said byll, to shew for what use and order y e 
said lease ys left in the custody and kepyng of the chestes of the Mayor and fyve 
Key Kepars, and delivered at this present Counsell.' In 1666 Fitzharris was in 
the occupation of Joan Badcock, widow, who still held it in 1681. In 1666 the 
corporation of Abingdon borrowed £200 on it and another farm ' for the use of 
his Majestic' The farm and house are now parted. The latter, the home 
of Tesdale's childhood, is close to the town, and is a gentleman's residence in 
a small park. 



THOMAS TESDALE. 



149 



in the year 1563, he was the first scholar that was chosen and admitted 
by the founder into the school, being then about sixteen years of age. 
Afterwards, when he came to man's estate, he married in Abingdon & 
traded in the making of malt, then a very gainful course there ; whereby 
in short time and by God's assistance & his own diligence, he got great 
store of wealth & substance, and grew as fast in credit & estimation 
in the town among his neighbours. For in the year of our Lord 1569, the 
one and twentieth of his own age, he was chosen one of the common 
council of the town, & in the year 1571 he was elected one of the 
bayliffs of this borough, & again elected one of the bayliffs in 1574. In 
the year 1577 he was chosen a Governor of this Hospital, & 1579 the 
Master thereof; 1580 a principal burgess of this borough, & 1581 he 
was elected Mayor thereof ; but by reason he had a little before left the 
town, & was departed from thence with his family, he was freed from 
serving that office by the payment of a fine to the Corporation. And 
liking better of a country life, he dwelt the most part of his time at 
Glympton aforesaid, at which place & many others, in divers shires & 
countries, he traded in sowing & making of woad (used by dyers) & 
was held to be the greatest dealer therein that was in the whole realm ; 
whereby, and by tillage for corn and by grazing of cattle, he attained to 
a great estate. Then first to testify & declare unto the world his thank- 
fulness to God who so abundantly blessed his labours, he maintained at 
his own charge a lecture every Sunday in his Parish Church of Glympton, 
where he dwelt, giving twenty pounds yearly to the Preacher, whom he 
always desired to be of special note and of the best account in the Uni- 
versity of Oxford. He was always a lover of God's Word and a great 
favourer of the preachers & professors thereof, & still prospered 
accordingly. He was a bountiful Housekeeper & gave much alms and 
relief to the poor, to whom his purse was ever open & his hand never 
shut; & having no child living on whom to bestow his wealth, he gave 
in his lifetime many liberal portions to the marriage of divers of his 
kindred, & to some of them stocks of money to trade withal, that while 
he yet lived he might be an eye-witness of their honest endeavours & 
frugal courses. And by his last will & testament— dated at Glimpton 
aforesaid the last day of February, in the year of the world's salvation 
One Thousand Six Hundred & Nine, he gave many large and liberal 
legacies to all those that were of his name & consanguinity. Besides he 
gave unto Maud his wife two thousand pounds, to divide & bestow 
amongst her own kindred. He likewise gave portions to all his house- 
hold servants, to recompense their true and faithful service, something 
also to his familiar friends & old acquaintance. But his gifts and 
legacies to pious Sc charitable uses surmounteth all. And first he gave 
unto divers towns & villages that were near his dwelling ten pounds 
apiece, & to some places more remote other sums of money to succour 
& relieve the poor and needy people of those places, 8c appointed that 
all men women and children that came to his funeral for relief should 
have, every one of them, sixpence a-piece in money. He gave thirty pounds 
to the poor of Stanford Dingley where he was born, & thirty pounds to 



THOMAS TESDALE. 



the poor of Abingdon where he was bred. Further more he gave 
to this Hospital, for the perpetual maintenance of an Usher in the 
free School at Abingdon, all his Glebe lands & tythes in Upton 1 , in 
Warwickshire, worth above sixteen pounds a-year. Besides all this he 
gave unto the most Reverend Father in God George, then Lord Bishop 
of London, now Archbishop of Caunterburie, Sir John Bennett, Knight, 
Doctour of Civill Lawes, & to Henry Airay, Doctour of Divinity, then 
Provost of Queenes Colledge in Oxford, as unto feoffees & devisees in 
trust, five thousand pounds for the purchase of lands for the perpetual 
maintenance of seven fellowes & six scholars, to be from time to time 
chosen out of the free school in Abingdon & placed in Balioll college in 
Oxford, if the Master & Fellowes thereof would entertain that company 
with those provisions, & upon such conditions as were ordained by his 
will, or else the said gift was to be conferred by the said devisees upon 
some other college that would accordingly accept the same. The election 
of which scholars from the said free school is to be made up of poor men's 
children born at Abingdon, and brought up in the said School, & next 
after six of the poorest of his own kindred, which are first to be chosen. 

1 Master William Bennetts poor scholars 2 , are next, by his will, to be 
preferred. The electors are the Master & the two senior fellows of the 
college wherein they shall be placed, the Master & the two senior 
Governors of this Hospital, and the master of the free school, to have 
a voice also in the said election. The said Thomas Teasdale by his will 
hath also ordained that all those seven fellows of his foundation, after 
a convenient time that they have studied & proceeded in the arts, shall 
every one of them successfully apply their studies unto Divinity & profess 
the same in preaching, otherwise after a time, limited by his will, they 
are to be removed from their places, declaring, or at least intimating 
thereby, his care for the preaching & teaching of God's Holy Word, that 
men's souls may be saved, & God may be glorified. The rest of his 
estate unbequeathed he gave unto the aforesaid Maud his wife, as a token 
of his love & affection towards her, & farther to shew also his trust & 
confidence in her, he made her his sole executrix of all his will ; & so 
having set his worldly estate in order, it was not long after he fell 
grievously sick, & feeling death approaching, he drew his comfort out 
of Holy meditations, & in the end gave place unto nature ; and at 
Glympton aforesaid he died, the thirteenth day of June, in the year of 
salvation one thousand six hundred & ten and of his own age threescore 
& three, the climacterical year of his life, & was buried at the place of his 
decease. 

' Mawde Teasdale, wife to the forementioned Thomas Teasdale, was 
also a benefactor to this hospital, who was born at Henley-upon-Thames 

1 This glebe was parcel of the rectory of Ratley. The lands, &c, were let at 
a rent of £14. They were vested in the same trustees as the £5,000. 

2 See afterwards. Bennet directed Tesdale to see that after six years' schooling 
in the Free School they should either be apprenticed at the cost of the charity, or, 
'if any of them should prove fit to make scholars,' they should receive liberal 
assistance towards their expenses at the University. 



MAUD HIS WIFE. 



in the County of Oxford, the daughter of Reinhold Stone, of that town, 
Gent. Her parents always lived in good fortune & reputation. First she 
was married to Edward Little, then of Oxford, and afterwards of Abingdon, 
whose widow she was when the aforesaid Thomas Teasdale married her *, 
and after his death she was a widow until she died, which was six years 
& six dayes after her husband's decease. This good Christian gentle- 
woman & grave matron, when sickness came & put her in mind of her 
mortality, she deferred not to address Herself to her last will, wherein she 
gave sundry portions of monies to divers pious & charitable uses, 
some to the poor of several parishes that were near unto her, & one 
hundred pounds to provide means to maintain two sermons yearly for 
ever, to be preached in the parish church of Henlie where she was born, 
one upon Christinas day & one upon Easter day ; & towards the relief of 
fourteen poor women of the said town of Henlie, a penny a-piece, to be 
given in bread in the said parish church every Sunday for ever. More- 
over she gave this said town of Henley three hundred pounds, to be lent 
unto fifteen young tradesmen, twenty pounds apiece, for six years together, 
& afterwards to six other in like manner for ever. Also she gave two 
hundred pounds to be bestowed in St. Marie's church in Oxford, for the 
building of strong and sufficient galleries in the same church, whereby all 
people might stand the more conveniently to hear the Word of God, to 
his Glory & their own comfort ; but especially at the time of the solemnity 
of the Act, at which time multitudes of strangers do usually resort. 
Furthermore she gave unto this Hospital fifty pounds, to be employed 
towards the relief of twelve poor widows of this town, to every of them 
a penny loaf of bread every Sunday in St. Helen's Church for ever ; 
& having no child living to enjoy her wealth she gave the rest of her great 
estates unto her kindred & her near allies, & made two executors, to 
whom she gave one hundred pounds apiece to see her will faithfully per- 
formed & justly executed. And having thus disposed of her worldly 
wealth, & received in Christian manner fit consolation for her soul's 
health, death, in execution of the Almighty's sentence, was ready to 
discharge her soul of the prison of her flesh, which she joyfully rendered 
to her Redeemer & left the world upon Wednesday, the nineteenth day 
of June, in the year of man's happiness 1616, & of her own age threescore 
& eleven, & lieth buried by her husband in the parish church of Glympton 
aforesaid. 

' The five thousand pounds before mentioned, which was given by 
Thomas Teasdale for the benefit of seven fellows & six scholars, to be 
maintained in Oxford as aforesaid, was by the provident care & prudence 
of the most Reverend Archbishop of Caunterburie, at length obtained, & 
by his means disbursed & settled upon lands & rents, which he had also 
endeavoured to confer on Baliol Colledge in Oxford, according to the will 
of the donor ; but the Master & fellows thereof refused to accept the same 
upon those conditions which were prescribed by the said Thomas Teas- 
dale's will ; wherefore the said Archbishop, very desirous to perform the 

1 She was then but twenty-two ; Tesdale was twenty. They seem to have had 
three children, who died young. 



ABINGDON. 



trust reposed in him, & willing to help forward so good a work as was 
intended, hath settled the said lands upon Pembrooke Colledge in Oxford, 
lately founded in the said University, chiefly for that purpose, by King 
James, his letters patent, dated the nine & twentieth day of June Anno 
Domini 1624, attributing & describing the foundation thereof to be done 
at the costs & charges of the said Thomas Teasdale & one Richard 
Wightwicke, to consist of one Master, ten fellows, and ten scholars, with 
the priveleges liberties & immunities granted by the said letters patent : 
of which number of fellows and Scholars, the aforesaid Thomas Teasdale 
is founder of seven Fellows & six scholars & the said Richard Wightwicke 
is founder of three fellows & four scholars, who have all liberal allowance 
appointed to their places. This colledge is placed upon Broadgates Hall 
in Oxford & the name of the Hall extinguished & abolished in the 
foundation of the said College, by the consent & aprobation of the Right 
Honorable William, Earle of Pembroke, Lord Chamberlaine of the 
King's Household, & Chancellor of the said University & with the allow- 
ance & good liking of Thomas Clayton, Doctor of Physic, late Principal 
of the said Hall, & now Master of the College. 

' The Mayor, Bayliffs & Burgesses of Abingdon, out of their pious & 
charitable disposition to so good & godly a work, did begin, & to their 
great costs & charges followed, the suit for the founding of the said 
college, wherein they considered also the public benefit that would thereby 
come & accrue unto the whole town by preferring of the poor town-born 
children from the school unto the college ; which school the mayor 
bayliffs & burgesses do gladly advance, for that they are patrons of it ; 
for which charitable deed of theirs, in procuring the said college, they do 
worthily deserve to be accounted among the benefactors of this Hospital ; 
for by the prosperity of the school & benefit of the college, in breeding 
& bringing up of poor men's children, the Hospital may happily be freed 
from future charges ; & besides the Master & the two senior Governors 
of the Hospital have an interest in the College, by being electors of 
Thomas Teasdale's scholars out of the school into the college ; in which 
respect the aforesaid Richard Wightwicke, for giving the like power 
& prerogative to the said Master & Governors in choosing three of his 
scholars may also justly challenge a place amongst the benefactors of 
the said Hospital.' 

This account is by no means complete or impartial as regards the 
transformation of Broadgates Hall into Pembroke College and the 
circumstances of its endowment. We know from Balliofergus that 
Balliol College regarded itself as tricked in the matter. The govern- 
ing body cannot have actually refused Tesdale's conditions, seeing 
that they acquired Caesar's Buildings for chambers for the new 
fellows and scholars. Wood, who through his father had means of 
information, says that ' several articles of agreement were made between 
the Mayor, Bailiffs and Burghers of Abendon and the Master and 



BALLIOL COLLEGE THROWN OVER. 153 



Scholars 1 ' of Balliol, and Savage gives the terms of these ' con- 
descensions.' The negotiations however, for some reason, were not 
completed thirteen years after Tesdale's decease, when the thoughts of 
the citizens were suddenly turned in a new and more ambitious direc- 
tion. About 1623 Richard Wightwick, B.D., rector of East Ilsley, 
Berks, formerly of Balliol, offered to augment Tesdale's foundation. 
' It fell then under consideration,' says Fuller in the Worthies, i that it 
was a pity so great a bounty, substantial enough to stand of itself, 
should be adjected to a former foundation (some intentions there 
were to have made it an addition to Baliol College), whereupon a new 
College (formerly called Broadgates Hall in Oxford) was erected there- 
with by the name of Pembroke College.' Nutt {Magna Britannia) 
says, ' The Feoffees and the Corporation of Abingdon made suit to 
the King through the Earl of Pembroke.' They prayed that ' within 
Broadgates Hall and on the site, circuit, and precinct thereof the 
King would constitute a College, consisting of a Master, Fellows and 
Scholars,' with power of holding land. Little, who must have known 
all the circumstances, evidently wishes to clear the Corporation from 
blame ; and it is possible that there was some hitch in the arrange- 
ment with Balliol. But I have not been able to ascertain the evidence 
for the following statement in Blundell's Brief Memorial of Abingdon 
School (1863): ' As at this time the pressing necessities of Baliol had 
just been relieved by advances made to its master and scholars by the 
trustees of Blundell's grammar school at Tiverton, on conditions 
somewhat similar to those proposed by Teasdale, they declined an 
overture which, if accepted, would have practically divided their 
fellowships between Abingdon and Tiverton.' The feoffees in whom 
Tesdale's benefaction was vested at the time were Sir Nicholas 
Kempe, Knt., and William Baker, Esq. The Mayor of Abingdon 
in 1622 was Richard Curtyn, and in 1623 Richard Checkyn, both 
connected with the Tesdale family, and in 1624 Tesdale's kinsman, 
Christopher Tesdale — unlikely men to disregard the intentions of the 
founder. Wood 2 says that the aid of Parliament was invoked, but 
I find nothing in the Statutes at Large. 

The inscription placed on Tesdale's monument by his relict 
describes him as ' lyberally beneficial to Balliol Colledge,' and the 
last entry in the continuation (16 13) by Howes of Stowe's Chronicle 
says simply that he ' gave 5000/. to maintain seven fellows and six 
scholars, to be placed in Bailyoll Colledge.' 



1 Gutch, iii. 616. 



2 Gutch, iii. 619. 



154 



TES DALE'S EXTRACTION. 



The Rev. A. B. Valpy, M.A., rector of Stanford Dingley (grandson 
of Dr. Valpy of Reading), has furnished me with the following from 
the very early registers of that parish: '1547. Thomas Teysdall 
was baptized y e 13th of October 1547.' The Norman font remains. 
Another extract relates perhaps to his mother's brother: 'John Knapp 
and Jane Myler weare married y e 24th day of November 1559/ What 
is known respecting Tesdale's progenitors and kindred may be seen 
in the pedigree 1 at the end of this chapter. His father was thrice 
married, and Thomas was the elder child of the second wife, Joan 
Knapp. The first wife, Cecilia Hyde, died of the pest, in 1545, with 
five of her six children. The survivor, Elizabeth, became the ancestress 
of Lords Arlington and Ossulston, of Sir James Whitelocke, and of 
the Dukes of Grafton. When his father died the co-Founder was nine 
years old. We learn some further particulars of his youth from the 
testament, dated October 31, 1556, of the elder Thomas, who is buried 
in St. Helen's, Abingdon. 

After the usual pious commendations and a few small charitable 
bequests, including one to the church of Allhallows in Wallingford, the 
testator bequeathed to his son Thomas all his right, title, interest, and 
term of years in the ' personnage ' of Allhallows, Wallingford, as well 
as a sum of £100, to be his on his twenty-first birthday; 'and yf it 
shall pleas God to calle hym out of this worlde before he shall come 
and accomplishe the age of xxj years then my will and mynde is that 
the sayd some of cli. shall be payd and delyvered to my daught' 
Elizabeth Benett or her children at the discreation of my overseers if 
she shall chaunce to dye before the saide Thomas.' The will goes on : 

1 I have compiled this from the wills at Somerset House, from Little's Monument, 
and from the very full Tesdale pedigrees collected by Robert Dale, Blanch Lion, in 
1695, and preserved at the College of Arms. W. A. Lindsay, Esq., Windsor 
Herald, has courteously allowed me full access to these records. Dale has written 
the following at the head of the principal pedigree : — ' The Preamble beginning thus. 
Immediately after the Death of Thomas Tisdale late of Glimpton, gent., who by 
will gave maintenance for 13 Scholars in Oxford, viz. 6 of his kindred and 7 others, 
it was thought expedient by the Ancient'st of his kindred, Christopher Tisdale and 
others, for the avoiding of Controversies which might arise about Electing his 
kinsmen to the said Places, that his pedigree should be made known as far as it 
mought be, and also his Kindred which he seemeth to intend by his last will, 
wherein he hath (as it were) marked out every person, or at least every Family, of 
his kindred with a Legacie given to him or them in the name of a kinsman or 
kinsmen. By the Testimony of Christopher Tisdale his kinsman, who was at the 
decease of the said Thomas about 68 years of age and was son of John Tisdale 
(which was Uncle to the said Thomas), the first Tisdale that was born in the 
County of Berks, who died a man of great age about the 36th year of his said son 
Christopher's age. This Christopher upon the Report of his said Father and his 
own knowledge did declare,' &c. 



CHILDHOOD AND MANHOOD. 



155 



' Item I wille that my brother Richard Tesdall and William Hopkyns 
shall have the custody and kepeing of my said sonne Thomas . . . 
untill the saide Thomas shall come to and be of the age of xxj yeres 
. . . and bringe hym up in lerning, and when he shall sufficientlye 
be lerned and of age to be a prentice thenne they shall cause him to be 
bound prentice ' at London, the Wallingford rents meanwhile being 
used for his benefit. In case of his death before twenty-one, the 
aforesaid parsonage and lease were to pass to Thomas Bennett. The 
lease of Fitzharris farm is left to his wife Agnes Tesdall, who is to 
' have the oversight and be tutor ' of their youngest son John, during 
his 'noneage.' To his brother John Tesdall the testator left £4, to 
his brother Richard £6 13^. 4^., and to his sister Elizabeth Tringe or 
Dringe £4. The widow was residuary legatee. The next generation 
are found filling the chief civic chairs of Abingdon, governors also and 
Masters of the Hospital of Christ's Poor. Thomas Tesdale the younger 
was kept by his uncle's side, and never, as far as can be learned, 
apprenticed in London. Fuller however relates that he was clothier to 
the royal army and at one time an attendant at Court. His wife had 
been one of Elizabeth's maids of honour. In the borough records of 
Abingdon the various Tesdales of the time are always described as 
'gentleman.' Some were maltsters. On Nov. 18, 1585, 'Anthonye 
Teysdale,' with others using that trade, was ordered to ' bring into the 
Marckett everye Marckett daye three bushells of maulte, upon paine 
of a fine of 3s. 4^.' The same ' Anthony Teisdall, gent.' was elected 
Mayor in 1597 and 1599, but objected to serve a second year, alleging 
that the ' execucon of his said office ' had been ' very chargeable unto 
him.' The excuse was allowed. In 1603 he was made a 'veiwer of 
mounds and bounds'; in 1588 and 1607 Master of Christ's Hospital. 
He died in 1610. This Anthony was a first cousin of our Thomas. 
Anthony's son, Thomas, was elected Recorder October 2, 1628, being 
succeeded in 1632 by Bulstrode Whitelock \ Thomas Tesdale the 
co-Founder had some trouble about his civic duties. In 1579 there 
is an entry in the Chamberlain's Accompts : ' Item, paid to Mr. Halle- 
well yat he payd to Mr. Ploden for councell about th' eleckcyon of 
Mr. Tesdall xxs.' Seven years afterwards, in the Corporation Minutes, 
'27 Sept bris 28 Elizabethae': — 

1 Afterwards Speaker, one of Cromwell's lords, and President of the Council of 
State. This notable man was Recorder of Oxford in 1649 ( an d High Steward), 
but I find no mention in any life of him that he held this office at Abingdon, as 
the Corporation papers show is the case. He married Tesdale's grandniece, 
Rebecca Bennet. 



REMOVES INTO OXFORDSHIRE. 



'The causes that Thomas Teysdall gent dothe alledge to the Mayor 
Baylyffs and Burgesses to be reasonable causes whie he shoulde not take 
upon hym to be Mayor of this yere next following to which he was elected 
unto the first of September last and desirethe theie maye be allowed 
accordingly . . . 

First This I saie that a four years agon being elected to the s d office 
I fulfilled the s d charter and to my charge paide the fine Also that my 
dwelling and mansion howse is nyne or tenne myles hence at Kydlington 
where my busynes is so greate at this tyme that my absence thence may 
torne me to suche losses that it is hard to recover again Also that I have 
in this Boroghe neither howse, furnyture for a howse, provision or any 
thing towards the same acordingly.' 

An order allowing these causes, ' with others secretly known,' and 
discharging the fine, is signed by the Mayor, Paul Orpwood, and 
others. But on Jan. 12, 32 Eliz., — 

' It is ordered by the Comen Councell of the s d Borough That yf 
Richard Quelche and Thomas Teysdall gents do not come to the Mayor 
for the tyme being before the firste daye of Maye next comyng or [show] 
la wfull cause whie theie or either of them do exempte themselves oute of the 
towne or not companying with the Mayor for to geve there good advises 
for the Government of the said Boroughe That then he which shall not 
come and shewe cause and the cause allowed lawfull by the Mayor 
Baylyffs and Principall burgesses or the more parte of them That then 
he or theie not comyng as aforesaid shalbe disfranchised of his principall 
burgessheppe.' 

Kidlington, where Tesdale had in 1586 his 'dwelling and mansion 
house,' is but a short distance from Glympton, to which he must 
before long have removed. The expansion of the wool trade, and 
consequent conversion of small yeoman holdings into large sheep 
grazings, was having economic results which at the end of Elizabeth's 
reign were loudly deplored. He lived at Ludwell Manor 1 , which is 
actually in Wootton parish. This is a typical Oxfordshire stone 
village climbing picturesquely the hill on which stands the pretty Late 
Decorated Church. Two or three miles away, half a mile beyond 
Glympton Church, is Ludwell Farm or Manor House, now the 
property of Sir George Dashwood, Bart., in a somewhat lonely 
position on high ground — a haunt, as seen on a summer's evening, 
of ancient peace, with its old fish-ponds and fifteenth-century windows. 
In the interior is a remarkable chimney-piece. The family no doubt 

1 The tenant still pays a yearly rent -charge of 6s. 8d., which is given to 
the poor, and is supposed to be Maud Tesdale's gift. The house was lately 
for sale. 



GLYMPTON. 



T 57 



went down to Glyrapton for service, and on his monument and in 
the foundation charter Tesdale is said to have belonged to that 
parish. Glympton is a sequestered village set with rich pastures and 
noble forest trees. Between the parsonage and the church lies one 
of the oldest and smallest deer parks in England, through which runs 
the little Glyme. This a few miles on fills the lake at Blenheim. The 
abbot and monks of Kenilworth were once the owners and patrons 
here. The Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary stands in a leafy 
enclosure surrounded by old-fashioned gravestones, and consists of 
nave and chancel, with west tower and south porch. The architecture 
generally is of the Late Decorated and Perpendicular period, but there 
is a very wide Transition Norman chancel-arch, and a fine Norman 
font, rescued not long ago from base purposes. Some remains of an 
old west porch, with the dog-tooth, are built into the tower, which is 
a plain ivy-clad erection without parapet or pinnacle. The ravages 
of restoration have destroyed much of the beauty of Glympton, as of 
most ancienc churches. The hammerbeams of the nave roof how- 
ever have been preserved, and the carving of the old pews introduced 
into the new. Nor has the north wall with the Tesdale tomb been 
interfered with. On the chancel-arch is inscribed dedicacio hvivs 
templi idus martii ! the year is obliterated. 

The alabaster monument of Tesdale and his wife, erected to him in 
her lifetime, is very fine. The figures kneel face to face at a fald- 
stool, on large red cushions — grave and buxom presentments. Both 
wear large ruffs, and the man a coif or skull-cap and a municipal 
gown. This and the lady's dress are uncoloured; otherwise the 
whole monument is elaborately painted and gilt. It has been re- 
touched recently. Between the two arches, the soffits of which are 
richly coffered, Tesdale's arms are impaled with his wife's 1 . The 
monument is surmounted by a large shield blazoned with Tesdale's 
arms with a great teazle for the crest. Some delicate ornamentation 
of red roses and golden lilies runs about the tomb. On the rear 
wall are two tablets, the one inscribed : — 

EN QUO TANDEM. 

Hue ubi Nestoreos implerunt stamina soles 

Humana in foveam dejicit ossa ligo. 
Indistincta patet calvaria, nec minus urget 
Ora super regis quam super ora gregis. 

1 Party per fess, or and gules ; in chief three bars sable ; in base three fleurs de 
lis of the 1st ; for Little. 



MONUMENT AT GLYMPTON. 



The other, 

DISCE MORI. 
Maxima nosse mori vitae est sapientia ; vivit 
Qui moritur ; si vis vivere disce mori. 
Vita prior mortem, sed mors tibi vita secunda 
Vitam quae vita est non moritura dabit. 

Two tablets under the gilded claws which support the monument 
bear the mottoes ' Terrena vide Caelestia crede/ and ' Pietas in fine 
coronat.' The principal inscription is as follows : — 

(Auspice Christo). 

Here lyeth the Body of MAUD TESDALE y e Relict of THOMAS 
TESDALE of this Parish of Glympton E 8 i w cb said Maud left this vale 
of misery and finish'd her days of mortality in y e true Faith and fear of 
y e Lord Jesus w th singular patience, peace of Conscience, and content- 
ment, y e 19 day of June An. Sal: 1616. Whose true and sincere love unto 
Religion, whose Charitable devotion towards y e Poor, whose respective 
Care and kindness to sundry bordering Towns S*. Marys Church in y e 
Famous University of Oxon Henly upon Thames where she was born 
and hath shew'd her bounty Most liberaly Abingdon where she some- 
times liv'd and hath left a Perpetual remembrance of her love Glympton 
Charlbury and Ascott in all w ch places she hath lovingly anointed Christ 
Jesus in his poor me m bers shall forever testify and declare. 

Her never dying faith and loyalty to her above mention'd most Religious 
and worthy Husband (so far as mortality could provide to stretch y e 
same) this Monument erected purposly by her own command and charge 
upon her death bed to propagate his memory rather than her own may 
and doth fully wittness and convince. 

Sic sic coelestis qui lux es singula lustrans, 
Vivere da nobis, da bene, Christe, mori. 

On the faldstool is a round tablet with the words : — 

Hoc Fundatoris 
sui Monumentum 
pene collapsum instaurarunt 
Magister et Socii 
Coll. Pembrochian. 
Oxon. a.d. 1704. 

On Nov. 2, 1 87 1. the College voted £10 to repair the tomb, a fire 
having slightly damaged it early in that year. 

On the floor is a large black marble slab with a brass plate repre- 
senting Tesdale standing, it would seem, on an ale cask, in allusion 
to his earlier trade as maltster, and thus inscribed : — 

Here lyeth, expecting a joyfull resurrection, the body of 
Thomas Tesdale, esquier, a man in the judgement of all 



BENNET'S POOR SCHOLARS. 



159 



Men that knew him in the whole course of his life 
Religious towards God, sober & honest in his conversation, 
Just and upright in his dealings amongste men, bountifull 
In hospitality, lyberally beneficial to Balliol Colledge 
In Oxford, the free school at Abington in Berks, 
Charitable to the poore, lovinge and kinde to his wife, 
As also to his and her kindred ; who was borne at Stanforde 
Deanlye in the county of Berks, and there baptized 
The XIII th day of October, 1547, and when he had lived almost 
lxiii yeres, deceased at Glympton 13 June, 1610. 
Maude Tesdale, his sorrowfull wife and sole executor, 
In testimony of her true faythful love toward him, 
Erected this small memorial of him. 

There are no Tesdale entries in the Glympton registers, which date 
from 1667 only \ 

Of Bennet's Poor Scholars Little gives this account (pp. 63-4) : — 

'William Bennet, of Fulham in the County of Middlesex, Gent, was 
the next benefactor to the Hospital, & the best of any before him in 
the Greatness of his gifts since the Hospital was founded. He was born 
at Clapcott, near Wallingford, in the county of Berks> & was brought up 
in his youth by his uncle, Master Thomas Teasdale, at the free school at 
Abingdon. The said William Bennett out of a thankful commemoration 
to the place of his education, gave in trust to the said Thomas Teasdale, 
two messuages & three Yard lands & a half lying in Broad Blunsdon & 
Widdill in the county of Wiltshire, to the end that the said Thomas Teasdale 
should convey & assure the same unto the Master & Governors of the 
Hospital of Christ of Abingdon, for the perpetual relief & benefit of six 
poor children, born in the town of Abingdon, to be bred in the said 
schools six years together, & to be farther ordered in such manner & form 
as should seem best to the said Thomas, who conveyed the said land 
accordingly, and ordered as followeth. That the said six scholars should 
be chosen from time to time by the Master & Governors of this Hospital, 
& should wear livery gowns 2 & be called Master William Bennett's poor 
scholars. . . . He died and was buried at Fulham aforesaid upon Friday 
the nineteenth day of February in the year of Christ's incarnation one 
thousand six hundred & eight. 

'Ralph Bennet of Chaleigh, in the County of Berks, gentleman, the 
eldest brother of William Bennet aforesaid, having by law a right & 
interest in the third part of the said land, out of his own charitable 
disposition relinquished his title, & gave all his interest in the land to the 
said Hospital. . . .' 

Sir John Bennet, one of the trustees of Tesdale' s benefaction, is 

1 I am indebted to the Rector, the Rev. A. C. Bartholomew, M.A., for much 
courteous help afforded me on visiting his parish. 

2 Until this century Bennet's Scholars wore a dress very similar to that still 
worn at the greater Christ's Hospital, in the Greyfriars, London. 



i6o 



SIR JOHN BEN NET. 



mistakenly described in the Dictionary of National Biography (following 
a Wood) as his grandson, whereas he was his nephew in the modern 
sense of ' nephew.' This eminent civilian, the grandfather of Lords 
Arlington and Ossulston, was at Christ Church (Junior Proctor 1585), 
and was made D.C.L. in 1589, afterwards becoming Vicar-general in 
spirituals to the Archbishop of York, prebendary of Langtoft, and 
Chancellor. In 1599 he was a member of the Council of the North. 
In 1597 he was elected for Ripon, in 1601 for York, and again in 1604 
for Ripon. He spoke in Parliament in favour of a bill giving to justices 
summary powers over persons not attending church on the Lord's day, 
and also argued against monopolies, making Raleigh blush by an 
adroit reference to monopolies in cards. In 1603 before the Corona- 
tion he was knighted. He now became Dean of the Arches, Chan- 
cellor to the Queen-Consort, and in 16 17 was sent on a special 
mission to Brussels to procure the punishment of the author and 
printer of a pasquinade satirizing James and his Court, called Corona 
Regis. He found in Flanders a third wife, a ' large ' woman, who was 
too much for him. Bennet sate on the Commissions of 1620 to put 
in force the laws of Elizabeth against heretics. In 162 1, on Williams' 
advice, together with a greater man, Lord Bacon, he was impeached 
for ' divers exorbitant oppressions and bribery ' and sale of privileges, 
and was sentenced to pay the enormous fine of £20,000, together 
with imprisonment. He died in indigence and obscurity, though it 
would seem that the sentence had been remitted ; for Bacon writes 
thus to King James : ' Your Majesty hath pardoned the like to 
sir John Bennett, between whose case and mine (not being partial 
to myself but speaking out of the general opinion) there was as much 
difference, I will not say as between black and white, but as between 
black and grey or ash-coloured.' The King declared that the lawyers 
' were so nursed in corruption that they could not leave it off.' Bennet 
does not appear to have misused any part of the Tesdale money, 
' which money, deposited in so careful hands, was advantageously 
expended,' says Fuller. He was also Bodley's executor. When in 
161 1 the idea was agitated of completing Bodley's Library by the 
erection of a quadrangular pile to form the Schools of the University, 
Bodley wrote as follows to Dr. Singleton the Vice-Chancellor : — 

' It may please you to be informed, that where it hath been long 
desired by the University that God would raise them up an instrument, 
by whose creddit and care they might be provided of better built Scholes, 
for their publick professions, than those ruinous Little Roomes with which 
their turnes, at this present, are with much inconvenience and undecencie 



BENNET; AY RAY. 



161 



served : I have of late upon occasion conferred about it with Sir Jo. 
Bennett 1 , who, like a true affected sonne to his auncient Mother, hath 
opened his minde thus farre unto me, that if he thought he should finde 
sufficient contributors to a worke of that expense, and the assistance of 
frendes to joyne their helping hand to his, he would not only very willingly 
undergoe the collection of every man's benevolence, but withall take upon 
him to see the building itself to be duly performed. ... I am strong of 
opinion that, in case the University (having that prevailing power which 
they may always hold with him in all their occasions) will vouchsafe to 
take notice of as from one of his forward inclination, to imbrace that 
imployment, and will in wryting unto him use such hopeful tearmes of 
speeding as may well befitt a mother to presume upon her childe, he will 
not only not stagger in condescending to their suite, but set it on foot 
with such alacritie as they shall soon be advertised that he hath gotten 
the possession of a rich contribution. For he hath great store of frendes 
of eminent calling, and he is furnished with meanes to compasse many 
more, which, in regard of his integritie and abilitie to answer whatsoever 
he receiveth, will be easily induced to part for such a purpose with liberal 
sums of money. And that there may be no question of good successe to 
their desires, I should deem it very requisite that they would also 
addresse their letters of intreaty to my L. Grace of Canterburie, to my 
L. their Chauncellor, and to my L. B. of London, that their Lordships 
would be pleased to take for their motive the true information which 
I have delivered of Sir John Bennett's prone affection, and thereupon 
proceede to exhort and incite him to undertake the business out of hand.' 

The University wrote to Bennet, who replied in a Latin letter 
promising his best endeavours. His own contribution would be at 
least a tenth of the entire charge. The day after Bodley' s funeral 
(March 29, 16 13) the first stone of the Schools was laid, to the ac- 
companiment of ' musick with voices and other instruments,' by the 
Vice-Chancellor and Sir John Bennet, who ' offered liberally thereon.' 
Besides the moneys bequeathed by Bodley, the building absorbed 
about £4,500 in contributions. Bennet was returned as burgess for 
the University in 161 4 and 1620, but 'removed from sitting/ He 
died Feb. 15, 1627, and is buried in the Greyfriars Church in Newgate 
Street, London. 

Dr. Henry Ayray, another Tesdale trustee, was Provost of Queen's 
from 1599. His puritanical views had got him into trouble at the 
end of Elizabeth's reign. As Vice-Chancellor, in 1606, he in turn 
convented a rising B.D. of St. John's, William Laud, for a sermon 
preached in St. Mary's. His brass in Queen's College Chapel 

1 John Day says, ' The great renowne of the Name of Oxford hath raised up 
three Worthies, I meane a Bodley, a Bennet, and a Wadham.' (Day's Dyall, 
1614.) 

M 



162 PURCHASE OF WALL1NGFOJW TITHES. 



described him as succeeding Bishop Robinson there 'as Elisha 
Eli as/ and he was represented as kneeling with a scroll issuing 
from his mouth inscribed ' Te sequar.' He died Oct. 10, 1616, 
aged fifty-seven — ' Vivere desiit semper victurus.' His father was 
William Ayray, favourite servant of Bernard Gilpin, ' the Apostle 
of the North.' 

One of the purchases of realty made out of the Tesdale moneys is 
of interest, viz. the rectorial tithes, whereof Tesdale held the lease, 
of Wallingford Allhallows and St. Mary the More. These had been 
bestowed on the famous abbey of Bee in Normandy by Milo 
Crispin. 

' Wigodof Wallengford held the mannor of Wallengford in King Harold's 
time and afterward in the dayes of King William I. He had by his wife 
a certaine daughter whome he gave in marriage to Robert D'oyly. This 
Robert begat of her a daughter named Mawd who was his heire. 
Miles Crispin espoused her and had with her the honour aforesaid of 
Wallengford. After the decease of Miles, King Henry I bestowed the 
aforesaid Mawd upon Brent Fitz-Court, who both betook themselves to 
a religious life, and King Henry II seised the honour into his hand 1 .' 

From the abbey the tithes passed into the hands of Pole and then 
of Wolsey. Early in the present century the Master and Fellows of 
Pembroke, desiring certain information about the tithes, entered into 
a Latin correspondence with the Abbot and monks of Bee, who 
transmitted an extract from their chancellery relating thereto. The 
Wallingford tithe amounted to £284 10s. Tesdale's trustees also 
purchased the Allhallows glebe, the site of the glebehouse, and the 
freehold of the churchyard. On May 3, 161 6, they bought from 
Thomas Baskervill, for £3,800, Can or Calne Court in the parish of 
Lydiard Tregooze, Wilts, lately tenanted by Sir Thomas Wroughton, 
Knt., deceased. £800 remained in their hands. 

The date of Tesdale's will is very close to that of the laying of 
the foundation-stone of Wadham College on July 31,1610, and to the 
issue to Thomas Sutton, on June 22, 16 11, of letters patents for 
founding his hospital and free school of Charterhouse. The monastic 
revenues were all gone. The kings had no money. There was, 
however, beginning a revival of private benefaction. In the same 
year, 16 10, George Palyn, citizen and girdler of London, gave a 
large sum to the two Universities. 

Little gives the following account of the other co-Founder (p. 71): 

1 Wood's City, O. H. S., i. 278. The whole was sold, Nov. 29, i6i6,by David 
Bennet to Thomas Freeman for ^950. 



RICHARD WIGHTWICK. 



163 



'Richard Wightwick was born at Donnington in the parish of 
Lilshall, in the county of Salope, & descended from worshipful an- 
cestors, their house yet remaining, called Wightwicke Hall, not far from 
Wollerhampton in the said county of Salope. He was brought up in 
learning in Balliol Colledge, Oxford, in which university he profited & 
proceeded Bachelor in Divinity ; & afterward was chaplain to the 
Right Honorable Henry Lord Norrice of Ricott 1 ; and in process of time 
was preferred to the vicarage of Hampstead N orris and to the parsonage 
of East Ilsley in the county of Berks, where he now dwelleth. He hath 
all his time lived a single life, & is a man very prudent, provident, & 
circumspect in all his actions, diligent & painful in his calling & 
profession, & just in all his dealings in worldly affairs, & by good 
desert in his vocation and ministry hath attained to his ecclesiastical 
promotions. And, moreover, by God's blessing & his own industry, 
hath also compassed & gotten a fair temporal estate ; out of which, he 
hath now, upon a fit opportunity, supplied with his wealth what was 
wanting unto Thomas Teasdal's bounty, to make perfect the body of the 
new-erected College with a convenient & complete company. He hath 
seen almost fourscore years & yet liveth in perfect health. The form 
of this college existeth yet in the old building of the aforesaid hall, & 
therefore it were to be wished, that such as God hath enabled would set 
their helping hands to the new building therof, in some fairer fashion, & 
so deserve to be remembered & commended amongst these honorable 
benefactors to that famous university.' 

The family of Wightwick derive their name from the little town of 
Whitwick, near Ashby-de-la-Zouch, a seat of the hosiery manufacture. 
In Domesday for Staffordshire Westewic is spoken of as a member 
of the lordship of Tettenhall Regis. Upon an eminence on the 
Bridgenorth Road between Tetenhall and Perton still stands the old 
family mansion. The place belonged to the Wightwicks from King 
John's time till 1827, when it was sold, together with five other Stafford- 
shire properties. One of these was Dunstall or Tunstall, a fine moated 
house near Wolverhampton. After the Wars of the Roses a younger 
son, Thomas, settled at Lilleshall, in Shropshire. He died in 1565 ; 
his wife, Elizabeth Moseley, in 1 580. They had, it seems, four children, 

1 He was the son of Sir Henry Norreys (beheaded May 14, 1536, ' in the cause 
of Queen Anne Bullen'') by Mary, daughter of Thomas Fiennes, Lord Dacre of 
the South. Through his wife Margaret, co-heiress of John Lord Williams of 
Thame, he acquired the manor of Rycote, Oxon, where he was knighted in 1566, 
' being then aged 30 or upwards.' Knight of the shire for Berks and for Oxon ; 
ambassador to France, 1572 ; Baron Norris of Rycote, 1572. His sire having 
been attainted, he had an act of restoration of blood 1576. Created M.A. at 
Oxford April 11, 1588. He died July 1, 1601, and is buried at Rycote, but has 
a monument in Westminster Abbey. ' He was father (though himself of a meek 
and mild disposition) to the Martiall brood of the Nor rices' (Fuller). 

M % 



J 64 



H 1GJJ TW1CK 'S I >R ICFKR MEN TS. 



Richard, Thomas, William, and Jane 1 . The first of these was the 
co-Founder of Pembroke. 

Richard Wyghtwicke, born about the end of Henry VIII's reign, 
graduated B.A. from Balliol, July 2, 1580, when he was about 
thirty-two; M.A. July 4, 1583; B.D. May 31, 1593. Two years 
later he was presented to the rectory of Albury, Oxon, and in 1607 
to that of East Ilsley, Berks. So says Mr. Foster. Little, his contem- 
porary and neighbour, does not mention the Albury preferment. 
Albury, four miles from Thame, is a tiny parish in the gift of the 
Earl of Abingdon. Its church is ' a neat modern structure/ Hamp- 
stead Norris is a perpetual curacy, now presented to by the Marquess 
of Downshire. The portrait of Wightwick in Pembroke hall may be 
by the same hand as that of Tesdale, but it is clearly of the earlier 
seventeenth century, and not a fancy picture. In Wood's Historia 
(1674) the heads of the co-Founders are given. 



NOTE A. 

Wightwick's Home. 

Ilsley is the Hildeslei of Domesday and the Ildesleye of the Valor 
Ecclesiasticus. Hildes-hlawe is mentioned in Eadred's Grant of 955, the 
derivation being Hild goddess of war, and hlawe a hill, or hild a battle, 
and laeg a field, for this is one of several places to which the great battle 
of Ashdown is assigned. The Ridgeway, the old Roman street from 
Wantage to Silchester, the British Grim's Dyke, and Icknield Street, all 
pass through Ilsley. At West Ilsley Marco Antonio de Dominis, Arch- 
bishop of Spalatro and Primate of Dalmatia 2 , was rector in the reign of 
Charles I ; after him Calybute Downing ; and King Charles visited there, 
in 1644, another rector, Goodman, Bishop of Gloucester, who also 

1 Among the Lichfield wills Mrs. Mary Grace Wightwick, of Canterbury, tells 
me she has found that of Thomas Wightwick, dated 1565, containing mention 
of his son 'Rygard.' The testament of Elizabeth, the widow, appoints as 
executors 'Richard Wyghtwicke, Wyllyam Wyghtwicke and Jane Wyghtwicke, 
my children.' 

2 Shortly before this unsatisfactory conformist, who had been much honoured 
by the University, and by the King preferred to the Deanery of Windsor and 
sacerdotal rectory of the Savoy, two Carmelite friars, Giulio Cesare Vanini and 
Giovanni Maria, had endeavoured to obtain preferment from James I, but failing 
reverted to the papal allegiance, were imprisoned, but escaped from England. 
Vanini was finally burnt as a heretic at Toulouse. De Dominis also fell between 
two stools, and died in a Roman prison. 



EAST ILSLEY. 



165 



trimmed. (He dedicated a sermon to Cromwell and ended a Romanist.) 
The adjoining East or Market Ilsley had formerly the largest sheep fairs, 
next to Smithfield, in the kingdom, and in comparatively recent times as 
many as eighty thousand sheep have been penned there on the Wednesday 
in Easter week. 

' Ilsley, remote amidst the Berkshire downs, 
Claims these distinctions o'er her sister towns — 
Far-famed for sheep and wool, though not for spinners, 
For sportsmen, doctors, publicans and sinners.' 

The allusion in the third line is to a successful resistance to the intro- 
duction of the spinning wheel. At an agricultural meeting here some 
fleeces shorn in the early morning were sent to Newbury, there manu- 
factured into cloth, the coat made of which was returned to East Ilsley 
the same day and worn by the chairman that evening at dinner. There 
are four racing stables in the parish, in one of which Eclipse was trained 
as a yearling, and probably foaled. The ' Butcher ' Duke of Cumberland 
occupied here a fine house for racing purposes called Keat's Gore. It 
was taken down in 1764 except the stables, which George IV later tried to 
purchase. The place was in early times one of considerable size, and 
there lingers a tradition that, besides a nunnery, there were eight churches 
in it. In Domesday it is one of six towns in the county mentioned as 
having a priest. The manor was held in 1087 by Geoffrey de Mandeville, 
afterwards by the baronial family of Somery, and from the early thirteenth 
century by the St. Amands. Almaric de St. Amand had here, temp. 
Henry III, a gallows and assize of bread and ale {furcas et assisas ftams 
et cerevisiae). In the fifteenth century the manor passed to Gerard de 
B.raybrooke, and after him to the family of Babington. Then, in 1605, it 
came to a local sheepmaster called Hildesley, enriched by the rising 
trade, of the same family as Bishop H ilsley who succeeded Fisher at 
Rochester; from the Hildesleys in 1650 to the Moores of Fawley ; from 
them to the Aliens of Compton ; from them to the Heads of Hodcott ; the 
present manorial owner is Lord Wantage. The interesting old manor- 
house is now a farmhouse. 

The parsonage of East Ilsley was given by King John in 1199 to the 
Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem, who presented for nearly 
three centuries. In Wightwick's time the patrons seem to have been the 
family of Barnes ; one of them, Joseph Barnes, succeeded him in 1630 as 
rector. He was ejected by the Parliament in 1654, and ' his leg broken by 
a brutal kick from one of the Commissioners.' Afterwards the advowson 
belonged to the Kennets. In Pope Nicolas' Valuation the benefice is set 
down at fifteen marks, with a pension of 6.y. to the priest of Abingdon, 
and in Henry's VIII's Valor at £22 13s. 4^. The Church of Our Lady 
stands strikingly on the top of the hill on whose slope the village is built. 
It is 'a plain church of any date.' After 11 99 it was restored, and a south 
aisle added, and about 1250 the chancel was restored or rebuilt in the 
Early English style, with foliated lancet windows. The arches on one 
side of the nave are Transitional. The eastern window is a single lancet 



WIGHTWICKES OF ILSLEY. 



with foliated head, and a circle a little above it. There are traces of 
a stair to the rood-loft, and the rood-beam remains embedded in a repul- 
sive arch. This, with an extremely ugly north nave aisle, in which the 
old Perpendicular windows are inserted, dates from 1845. The fine 
Norman font was for some time buried beneath the Jacobean pulpit, in 
which probably Wightwick preached. The seventeenth-century oak 
seats, bearing the Hildesley arms, have been unfortunately removed. 
There is a monument to William Hildesley, dated 1596, and an interest- 
ing but mutilated brass (post-Reformation) to his wife Margaret Stonor, 
placed by their youngest daughter, a nun. The Hildesleys stuck to the 
papal side for several generations, and these monuments in the parish 
church are therefore of much interest. The royal arms are those of 
Charles II. This church has a low battlemented Early Perpendicular 
tower. An inscription on the inside says that it was rebuilt in 1625, 
during Wightwick's incumbency ; but the mediaeval character of the 
tower is not impaired. It was re-stuccoed in 1883, when the south aisle 
was restored. The nave and aisle roofs are ancient. Of the five bells, 
the tenor, weighing nearly a ton, is inscribed ' Richard Wightwick gave 
this Bell, 1625 ' ; he gave also an interesting clock, which struck on the 
tenor, but had no face. It is said to have been wrought by the village 
blacksmith, and bore the date 1627. This was superseded in 1885 by 
a fine modern clock which displays as well as sounds the hours. Who 
in Wightwick's simple days required to know the time within sixty 
minutes 1 ? 

The older registers were destroyed in the Rebellion. But of those 
which date from 1653 the very first entry is the marriage of a Richard 
Wightwicke to Mary Westall, and the name, spelt with an ' e ' at the end, 
is of frequent occurrence down to the middle of the eighteenth century. 
Rector Richard was a celibate ; but in his will, besides a Richard 
Wightwicke of Albrighton, Salop, he mentions ' Richard, son of Thomas 
Wightwick, my kinsman,' and a cousin Samuel, as well as kinsmen of 
other names, who having no residence specified were doubtless of East 
Ilsley. The co-Founder of Pembroke then belongs to a family which had 
struck root at Ilsley. It is impossible to say how he came to be presented 
to the rectory. His body lies in the chancel, the spot unmarked by any 
stone. As appears by his will, he left a small charity to the poor of the 
parish, which has vanished. Perhaps it was recorded on an old table of 
charities, the last fragments of which the present incumbent, the Rev. 
T. R. Terry, F.R.A.S., 2 remembers to have seen. 

Ilsley lies pleasantly among the lonely downs, its position marked for 
many a mile by a solitary three-sailed windmill. It contains one or two 
handsome houses of the Queen Anne period, and the Swan Inn was 

1 In 1633 a person writing from Barnstaple to London could get an answer 
in eleven days, three of which were allowed as a reasonable interval for the 
meditating and composing of the answer. This was deemed quite a dashing 
return of post. Felicia saecula ! 

2 Sometime Fellow and Bursar of Magdalen. I am indebted to Mr. Terry for 
much kind assistance. Magdalen College are the patrons since 1829. 



TESDALE'S WILL. 



167 



probably there in Wightwick's time. The old rectory was destroyed 
thirty or forty years ago. The rectors had ceased to live in it, but it was 
sometimes used for a curate. The present population is 519. In 184 1 it 
was 733. 

A grandson of Richard's first cousin Humphrey, George Wightwick, 
acted as curate at East Ilsley in the last year of Richard's life. He is 
said to have brought all his family with him from Patshull, Salop, in that 
year. Richard's kinsman, Walter Wightwick, was buried at Ilsley in 
1622. 



NOTE B. 

Wills of the co-Founders. 

That parte of Mr. Thomas Tisdale his last Will and Testament which 
concerns the College. 

' Item Whereas God hath blessed me in my worldly state with increase 
of substance, I being minded and resolved to dedicate some good part 
thereof together also with some of my kindred in more especial manner 
to his glory and service of the church, do therefore give and bequeath 
unto the reverend Father in God George Abbott, Doctor of Divinity, now 
Bishoppe of London, Sir John Bennet Knight, and Henry Ayry, D r of 
Divinity, the sum of five thousand pounds of lawful English mony, to be 
payd by mine executors within convenient tyme after my decease, upon 
special trust and confidence in them reposed, and to the intent and pur- 
pose that they shall as soone after the receipt of the said summe as 
conveniently they can disburse the same in and for the purchase of some 
lands, tenements, and hereditaments in Fee simple of the yearly value of 
two hundred and fifty pounds at the least, holden in free and common 
soccage, and of cleere and undoubted title not subject to any incumbrance, 
or doubt of eviction, as they easily may gett, at twenty yeares purchase or 
under ; the yearly rents, revenues, and proffitte of which lands and tene- 
ments my will is shall be imployed and disposed to and for the maintenance 
and sustentation of thirteene Schollers in Balliol Colledge in the University 
of Oxford, if there they may be conveniently placed and entertained 
according to the purpose of this my will ; and if not, then in University 
Colledge in Oxford, if there they may be so placed and entertained ; and 
if not, then in some such other Colledge within the University, as my said 
devisees and trusty friends shall think and finde fitt for that purpose 1 ; 
And my will is that sixe of the sayd Schollers shall perpetually be of my 

1 The Patent of Foundation, reciting Tesdale's will, merely says, ' in some 
College within our University to be elected.' 



i68 



TES DALE'S WILL. 



kindred, and of the poorer sorte of them, And the other seven of the poorer 
sort of such as are or shall be borne in Abingdon, and as poor Schollers 
of Mr. William Bennett my kinsman deceased, brought up in the school 
there, if amonge them fitt choyce may be made ; else of others of the said 
Schoole and there brought up, being capable apt and likely in some good 
measure to prove Schollers, if such can there be found ; and that sixe of 
those thirteene shall be called poore Schollers or Abingdonians, whereof 
two being of my kindred shall be of such as are brought up and instructed 
in the said Schoole of Abingdon, if such there can be found, and shall 
have the yearly mayntenance of fifteene pounds by the year to each of 
them ; and the other foure twelve pounds by year to each of them, and 
the other seaven shall have yearly each of them five and twenty pounds 
for their maintenance, whereof those foure which are to be of my kindred 
my will is shall be taken out of the said Schoole of Abingdon if there such 
may be found answerable to my intent, if not, then out of any other 
Schoole in England. And my will is that election of such Schollers (to 
be taken into the sayd Colledge) shall be made by the Master, Head, or 
Governor for the tyme being of such Colledge in which they shall be 
placed and the two senior fellowes of the same Coiledge and by the 
Master and two senior Governors of the hospital of Christ in Abingdon 
for the time being, and by the Schoolemaster of the said Schoole for the 
time being ; and that from tyme to tyme after the first election, in case 
any of those to whom the greater and more liberal maintenance is allowed 
happen to dye or to be remooved, that then one of the sixe poore Schollers 
or Abingdonians shall be chosen and taken into his place and roome ; 
and if he so dying or removed shall be one of the foure of my kindred, 
then one of those two poore Schollers of my kindred to be taken into his 
roome ; and if not, then one of the others ; and that those thirteene 
Schollers shall be tyed to perfourme such exercises of learning, and be 
subject to such censures and punishments, as well for default and neglect 
therein as for not comming to prayers, and for all and every other 
defaulte and misdemeanors as other fellowes and Schollers of the said 
Colledge are and be. And that they shall within one yeere or sooner after 
they shall be of sufficient time and continuance in the University proceede 
Masters of Arts and enter into the ministry within three years or sooner 
after their being Masters of Arts. And in case any of them shall have 
and obtayne any Benefice with cure of soules, then my will and meaning 
is, that within six months after his being admitted and instituted to the 
said Benefice, he shall relinquish his place and maintenance in the 
Colledge, and an other shall be chosen in his place. And to the end my 
sayd thirteene Schollers may be more fully and perfectly incorporated in 
the body of such Colledges, and in other points not by me mentioned nor 
contrary to the purpose of this my will be ordered ruled and governed by 
and according to the statutes of the same, and be capable of Lectures and 
other offices, as other fellowes and Schollers of and in the said Colledge 
are, my will and desire is that the said 6 poore Schollers or Abingdonians 
may be received and admitted to be Schollers of the said Colledge, and 
the other seaven to be fellowes of the same. And if that so may be 



WILLS OF TESDALE AND WIGHTWICK. 169 

effected, that then my said devisees do in such sorte as may stand with 
the performance of this my will, or the substance and effecte thereof, 
conveye and assure to the said Colledge by their true and right names of 
incorporation, the said lands, Tenements, and Hereditaments so to be 
purchased, license of Mortmaine to receive the same being first had and 
obtained. And to the intent the said Colledge nor the members thereof 
may no way receive losse hindrance or detriment by this admission to 
their body and participation with them I further will in recompence of 
such participation, the said Colledge do injoy and receive of the annuall 
proffitte of the premisses yearly thirty and six pounds, the same to be 
taken out of the said yearley allowance of five and twenty pounds by 
yeare appoynted to each of the seaven of the said Schollers, so as each 
of them so accepted into fellowshippe shall have only twenty pounds by 
yeare, ten pounds of the said thirty and sixe pounds to the Master or 
head of the said Colledge for the increase of his maintenance. And the 
sixe and twenty pounds residue to and for the body of the same Colledge ; 
and if neede be building rooms and chambers in the said Colledge for the 
said fellowes and Schollers my will is that the placeing of the said seaven 
to whom larger allowance is appointed as aforesaid, to be forborne untill 
with the same yearly allowance such rooms and chambers may be there 
built. And that in the meane time, only the sixe poore Schollers be 
chosen and placed, out of whom after building of the sayd roomes and 
defraying of the charge thereof, five of the said seaven may be supplied. 
And to the intent that all questions, doubts, debates, and controversies 
touching the election, ordering, placing, and displacing of thirteene 
Schollers and P^ellowes, and other the operation of this my will touching 
them and their revenues to their maintenance designed, may be with ease 
and without great charge composed and decided, my will mind and desire 
is that the Vice Chancellor of the University of Oxon for the tyme being, 
the Provost of Queenes Colledge for the tyme being, and the President of 
Corpus Christi Colledge for the tyme being, or any two of them agreeing 
together, shall and may arbitrate, adjudge, and decide the same, unlesse 
that some matter of great moment and difficulty arise, whereof they 
cannot well agree and determine, which I will and desire may in such 
case be referred to the decision of the Bishoppe of London for the tyme 
being. And in case necessity shall require an Act of Parliament to be 
made for the full and perfect settling, establishing, and ordering of the 
premises touching the said Schollers according to mine intent and mean- 
ing hereby declared, my will is that the charge thereof be saved and 
reserved out of the sayd greater yearly maintenance to and for the seaven 
appointed as for and touching the building is before limited.' 

Richard Wightwick's Will was enrolled in the Prerogative Court 
of Canterbury. 

' In the name of God Amen. 

1 1 Richard Wightwicke of East Ilsley in the countie of Berks Clerke 
being weake in bodie but of good and perfect memory Doe make this my 



170 



WIGHTWICK'S WILL. 



last will and testament in manner and forme followinge ffirst I commend 
my soul to God through the intercession of Christ Jesus hopeinge and 
stedfastJy beleeving to have all my sinnes pdoned through the merritts of 
my blessed Saviour and I will that my bodie bee decently buried in the 
Chauncell of the pish church of Ilesley where now 1 am Rector Item 
touchinge the disposinge of my outward estate wch it hath pleased god 
to blesse me withall ffirst I give and bequeath to the poore of the towne 
of Ilesley three pounds to bee paid unto them wthin two moneths after 
my decease Item I give and bequeath unto the poore of the parish of 
Hamsteed Norris three pounds to bee paid unto them wthin two moneths 
after my decease Item I give and bequeath unto my kinsman Edward 
Meare all that my house and lands with Thapptennce wch I bought 
of Lawrence Hide lyinge in Cheevely in the Countie of Berks To have 
and to hold to him y e said Edward and heires for ever Item I give and 
bequeath unto the M r ffellowes and schollers of Pembroke Colledge in 
Oxon (of wch Colledge I am a Cofounder) one anuity or rent charge of 
ten pounds per Annum issuing out of the lands of Thomas Hinde which 
annuity I entended when I bought it and accordingly doe now bequeath 
it unto the said M r Fellowes and schollers and theire successo rs for ever 
to the use and benefitt of the said M r and his successo 1 ' 8 And I will that 
this shalbe in discharge of my promise wch I made to them of giving 
them two hundred pounds for the purchasinge of tenne pounds per annum 
and my meaninge is and accordingly I doe will that the two hundred 
pounds wch the tenants were to paye for the purchaseinge of the said ten 
pounds per annum bee paid to my executors towards the payment of my 
debts otherwise if the M r ffellowes and schollers will not accept of this 
ten pounds per annum (as I hope they must and will) then I give and 
bequeath the said rent charge or annuity of tenn pounds issuinge out of 
the lands aforesaid to Samuell Wightwicke Esq 1 * for ever towards the 
payments of my debts and satisfyinge of my legacies Item I give and 
bequeath unto Richard Wightwick the sonne of Thomas Wightwick my 
kinsman fortie pounds Item I give and bequeath unto Richard Meare 
and William Meare the sonnes of Jeffery Meare deceased each of them 
Twentie pounds apeese Item I give and bequeath unto Edward Meare 
Robert Meare and Richard Meare the sonnes of Richard Meare my 
kinsman each of them twentie pounds apeece Item I give unto Richard 
Wightwicke the sonne of Francis Wightwicke of Albrighton in the 
Countie of Salop Twentie pounds Item I give and bequeath unto Isabell 
Wightwicke the wife of Henry Smith five pounds and to her two children 
fortie shillings apeece wch severall legacies I will shalbe paid unto them 
wthin one yeare after my decease And if any of them die before the 
legacies bee paid unto them then my will is that the legacies of such of 
them soe dyinge shalbee equallie devided amongst the brothers and sisters 
of the child soe dyinge Item I give and bequeathe unto Richard Prise 
sonne of M r Prise of fframebrough ten pounds to bee paid w th in one 
yeare Item I give and bequeath unto the children of Katherin Meare 
the wife of John Smith fifteene pounds to bee devided amongst her 
children and for the faithfull performance of this my will I make my 



WIGHTWICK'S WILL. 



171 



aforesaid loveinge Cosen Samuell Wightwicke Execut or of this my last 
Will and Testament revokeing all other and former wills hopeinge that he 
will carefullie see this my last Will performed and observed according to 
my appointment In witness whereof I have hereunto sett my hand and 
seale the eleaventh day of January Anno Dni one thousand six hundred 
twenty nine — Richard Wightwicke — sealed subscribed and published in 
the presence of John Price 1 Samuell Whichcote Thomas Wightwicke.' 

Proved 3rd ) 
Feby 1629 ) 

1 From Price of Framborough the present Master is directly descended. The 
Smiths were a West Ilsley family. Shortly after Wightwick's decease the College 
bought the lease of the Clapcot tithes in the parish of Allhallows, Wallingford. 
For the reversion of these it paid in 1873 £663 to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. 



PYM'S SIGNATURE (see page 147). 




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176 PEDIGREE OF THE BENNET-TESDALE EA MI LIES. 



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CHAPTER XIV. 



NATALITIA AND STATUTES. 

The Letters Patents and the Charter of Mortmain, dated on the 
festival of St. Peter the Apostle (June 29), 1624, were read in the 
common hall on August 5, and at the same time the new Master, 
Fellows, and Scholars were formally admitted. There was present 
a large and distinguished company, including the Vice-Chancellor, 
Dr. Prideaux, Robert Lord Dormer, afterwards Earl of Carnarvon, 
and William Dormer his brother \ Sir Francis Godolphin 2 , knight, 
Sir John Smith, knight, Dr. Daniel Featley 3 (Archbishop Abbot's 
chaplain), the Proctors, a great number of other Masters, and the 
Mayor, Recorder, and principal Burgesses of Abingdon. The co- 
Founder, Richard Wightwick, was, it seems, not present. He lived 
at no great distance, at East Ilsley, but was advanced in years. 

1 Both entered Exeter this year. Lord Carnarvon fell at Newbury in 1643, 
being lieutenant-general of the King's forces. Sir Fleetwood Dormer, a cousin, 
entered Pembroke in 1634. He settled in Virginia. 

2 He entered Exeter June 25, 1624. Sidney Earl of Godolphin, Lord High 
Treasurer, was his third son. 

3 Or Fairclough (Fertlow), son of the cook of Magdalen and C. C. C. He 
was fellow of Corpus. While chaplain to the embassy at Paris he had much 
learned controversy with the doctors of the Sorbonne. His rectory at Acton was 
occupied in 1642 by the Roundheads, who taking him 'to be a Papist, or at 
least that he had a Pope in his belly, they drank and eat up his Provision, burnt 
down a Barn of his full of Corn, and two Stables, the loss amounting to 211/., 
and at the same time did not only greatly profane the Church there by their 
beastly actions, but also burnt the rails, pull'd down the Font, broke the 
windows and I know not what' {Athenae, ii. 37). They also sought him in the 
Church to murder him. Featly was however placed in the Assembly of Divines, 
but, excepting to the Covenant, was judged by the Commons ' to be a Spye and 
a betrayer of the Parliaments cause, was seised upon, committed Prisoner to the 
Lord Petres house, and his Rectories taken away.' He was allowed, however, 
to go to Chelsea College, of which he was Provost, to die. Though a Calvinist, 
his character and polemical abilities are highly extolled by Wood. 1 He was of 
small stature, yet he had a great soul and had all learning compacted in him. 
He was most seriously and soundly pious and devout.' See Life and Times, ii. 
244, n. 3. 



CHARTER AND GRANT OF ARMS, 181 

When he made his will, four and a half years later, he was ' weak in 
body/ 

Having recited the terms of the Tesdale benefaction, the Patent 
(as quoted in Wood MS.) proceeds : — 

4 And wheras also Richard Wightwike doth intent to name and elect 
certaine other fellowes and scholars from y e said schoole into some 
certaine coll. in y e universitie for y e maintenance of whom he doth 
indeavour to settle lands and tenements for their maintenance, and there- 
upon y e Major Ballives and Burgesses of Abingdon supplicated y e King y t 
he (Will: E. of pembr. chanc. of y e universitie granting his consent) 
would grant y* within broadgates hall in y e university of Oxon he would 
constitute a Colledge consisting of M r fellowes and scholars and y* he 
would grant to y e s d M 1 ' and fellowes y* they might be made capable to 
receive lands tenements and hereditaments, the King ordaines and con- 
stitutes y* within y e said hall of Brodgates be one perpetual! coll of 
divinity civil and common law arts medicine and other good arts and 
y* it sh ld consist of one M r 10 fellowes and 10 graduat or non-graduate 
scholars. And y e King further grants y* it sh ld be a body politick 
known by y e name of the Master Fellows and Scholars of the foundation 
of King fames at the cost and charges of Thomas Tesdale and Richard 
Wightwicke. The King assigns nominates and constitutes Thomas 
Clayton M.D. y e first and modern M r of y e said coll.' 

A Grant of Arms accompanied the instrument of foundation. 
Burke gives them thus : Per pale azure and gules, three lions 
rampant, two and one, argent (for Herbert). A chief per pale, or 
and argent, charged on the dexter side with a rose gules and on the 
sinister side with a thistle vert (for King James). This is incorrect, 
as a glance at the actual grant in the muniment-room shows. The 
chief should be argent and or, as they are blazoned over the door of 
the Library. But the error, reproduced in Burgon's Arms of the 
Colleges and on the New Schools, is almost as old as the foundation 
of Pembroke. The University being exempt from the wholesome 
jurisdiction of the Heralds' College 1 , it is stated that only two or 
three of the colleges have a correct shield. 

1 Somerset and Bluemantle appeared in 1634 <in their ricn coates,' but the 
University disallowed their commission. ' Moreover there was sent to the vice- 
chancellor a table of all the College arms blasoned in their proper collours and 
mettalls set forth by authoritie by Jo. Scott ; and that the Colledges could not 
shewe the heraldes any other armes than them there sett forth, and so it would be 
needlesse for them to enquyre any further about it' {Life and Times, iv. 52). Wood 
records of the year 1670, ' Sir Edw. Bish came to visit.' The boat clubs are the 
leading offenders against heraldic laws, especially the law which forbids the 
placing of a colour upon a colour, but only on a metal. At Pembroke for a short 
time the Eight actually bore a white rose on a crimson cap, as though York and 
Lancaster had never fought ! The College colours are cerise and white. 



l82 



INAUGURATION. 



Wightwick's arms are, Azure, on a chevron argent, between three 
pheons or, as many crosses pate"e gules. 

Tesdale's are, Argent, a chevron, vert, between three teasells proper. 
Wood mistakes these for leaves or pineapples, vert \ Dean Burgon 
(who, however, is wrong in his suggestion that the thistle in the 
College coat should be a teazle 2 ) saw that they must be a cant on 
Tesdale's name. Dale the herald describes the arms rightly. The 
teazles, however, were assumed by the Berkshire family without a grant 
from Heralds' College. The original blazon was Sable, three pheons 
argent. 

The first oration was delivered by ' Thomas Browne, Studiosus 
non Graduatus Commensalis Collegii,' afterwards famous as the 
author of the Religio Medici. He addresses his auditors for the last 
time by the old name of ' Lateportenses.' They wonder, no doubt, 
whether he has risen to speak ' in invidiam Pembrochianorum an in 
gratiam.' But they have not met to pour forth lamentations over the 
grave of the Hall. 'En Aulam vestram vagam & ahkwnoTov (quern 
enim hujus domus patrem aut fundatorem recolimus ?) in tutelam 
recepit Mecaenas nobilissimus/ who is about to make of a Hall of 
brick a College of marble, which no envy, or only passing envy, shall 
look upon. He insists on the continuity of Hall and College : ' Eadem 
jura omnia, idem Magister et Principalis, eaedem aedes, nisi quod 
nobiliores, Lateportensis Pembrochiensis et vice versa Pembrochiensis 
Lateportensis, Tros Tyriusque hoc tantum discrimine, quod nos prius 
titulo nescio quo forte Ironico appellatos jam vere magnificum nomen 
insigniet.' 

The second oration was delivered by John Lee, B.A., one of the 
new scholars, extremely flowery, and packed with elaborate mytho- 

1 Gutch, iii. 627. 

2 ' The arms of Tesdale, the unintentional founder of a new College, are not 
used by the Society. The bearings are those of the Earl of Pembroke, with an 
augmentation granted by James I of a chief of the badges of England and 
Scotland. That the latter may have been considered particularly happy in view 
of the fact that the arms of Tesdale contain a thistle or " teazle " as their principal 
charge is probable. It has been said that the original grant to the College 
placed the rose of England upon an argent field, and the thistle of Scotland 
upon or, in order to equalize as far as possible the honours due to the two 
countries, and probably also as a delicate compliment to King James. It is to 
be observed that the portraits of the co-Founder in the hall, dating from 1624, 
have the arms of the College as they are now borne ' (Notes on the Heraldry of 
the Colleges, by Mr. Percival Landon, in Archaeologia Gxoniensis, part iv, 1894). 
The last statement is an error. Tesdale's and Wightwick's portraits have a 
correct shield. 



FUNERAL OR NEW BIRTH? 



183 



logical allusions, as befitted a Bachelor. ' Galium debemus candido 
serenissimi Claytonis Aesculapio cujus unius beneficio, velut gustato 
Glauci gramine, nostri in his aedibus revixit Tisdallus/ Jealousy 
may croak till she burst. Some day (without waiting for the Greek 
kalends), a splendid pile, rivalling all others, will rise for the Muses. 
The Lord Archbishop is called 'fiduciarius Tisdalli haeres, qui 
nostras utroque cornu nutantes jamdiu fortunas grato tibicine suf- 
fulcire dignatus est.' 

Matthias Turner, M.A., Prelector of Physic and Philosophy, 
delivered the third oration. To the members of Broadgates the 
change is not in truth ' exilium intra eadem maenia.' He deprecates 
tragic lamentation over the extinction of the ancient hall, whose youth, 
like that of Aeson, was to be gloriously renewed. Turner had been 
at Balliol (M.A. 1622, B.D. 1632, being then rector of Dynedor). 
He was ' an excellent Philosopher, had great skill in the Oriental 
Languages, and wrot (as he himself professes) all his Sermons which 
he preached, in Greek 1 .' Viscount Sligo, ambassador to France, 
made him his chaplain. 

Dr. Clayton, the new Master, in the last oration, refers to the some- 
what embarrassing position in which the new foundation stood, and 
earnestly declares that he had not in any way sought the honour 
which had come to him. He prays God's blessing on the College. 

A royal commission had been issued to George, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, William Earl of Pembroke, the Vice-Chancellor for the 
time being, Sir John Bennet, Sir Eubule Thelwall, the Master for the 
time being, Walter Dayrell, Esq., recorder of Abingdon, and Richard 
Wightwick, clerk, or any four of them, to make and constitute 
wholesome statutes for the good government of the House. Bennet, 
Thelwall, and Dayrell were lawyers. The connexion of the first of 
these with Tesdale has been already mentioned. 

Sir Eubule Thelwall had three years before procured from 
King James a new charter empowering commissioners to frame 
a perfect body of statutes for Jesus College, of which he had just 
become Principal, and which he was in 1624 building and embellishing. 
There is, however, no noticeable resemblance between these statutes, 

1 Athenae, i. 843. It will be remembered that Queen Elizabeth herself was 
a fluent Grecian. The Puritans built more on Greek than on Latin. ' Philosophy 
disputations in Lent time ; frequent in the Greek tongue ' (Z. and T. i. 300). This 
was under the Commonwealth. Turner died in 1656. 



184 COMMISSIONERS TO MAKE STATUTES. 



which are puritan in tone, and the ones made for Pembroke. Thehvall 
was a Master in Chancery, and Master of the Alienation Office. 

Walter Dayrell, a kinsman of the famous 'Wild Darrel,' came of 
the family seated since the twelfth century at Lillingston Dayrell, 
Bucks 1 , of which county his father, Paul, was high sheriff in 1563 
and 1580. Of Walter's brothers, one, Sir Thomas, married Margery, 
daughter of Bishop Home 2 ; another, William, was fellow of Magdalen, 
1576; a third, Paul, was Master of Christ's Hospital, Abingdon, in 
1601. Walter himself entered St. Mary Hall March 27, 1579, aged 
fifteen j of Gray's Inn, 1598, and of Staple Inn; bencher and autumn 
reader, 1616. In 1604 the Abingdonians chose him 'to be of 
counsell with this Corporation'; Recorder 1609; Governor of Christ's 
Hospital from 1603. He died on St. Peter's day 3 , 1628, leaving 
three sons and three daughters. Of these Thomas was ejected from 
a fellowship at All Souls in 1648, and Walter from a student's place 
in Christ Church. He was afterwards canon and archdeacon of 
Winchester. Mary was wedded to Dr. John Morris, Professor of 
Hebrew, and Alice to Serjeant ('Old Charles') Holloway. A nephew, 
Anthony Dayrell of Lillingston, entered Pembroke in 1639. Dayrell 
was succeeded as Recorder, Oct. 2, 1628, by one of the Tesdales- 
Thomas. 

Prideaux was Vice-Chancellor in 1624. While he was still in office 
a body of statutes was drawn up and signed by him and five other 
Royal Commissioners. Wood was not aware of this. He says, 
1 Three years afterwards were statutes made, to the end that the 
members thereof might be well governed, and within the space of one 
year following were subscribed, sealed 4 , and published,' Accepted 
Frewen, afterwards Archbishop, being then Vice-Chancellor. The 1628 
statutes, however, were only a modification of those of 1624. The 
latter are on vellum and are signed by 'G. Cant: [Abbot]. Pembroke. 

1 In Sir Ralph Verney's will (1528) ' my cowsen Paule Darrell, Deputye and 
under- sherif,' is mentioned. This was Walter's grandfather (ob. 1566). A remoter 
ancestor, Sir John, gave Littlecote to his third son, Sir George, who fought in the 
Wars of the Roses, and was great-grandfather of Queen Jane Seymour. Sir 
Edward (' Wild ') Darrel was his son. 

2 Bishop Home, in 1579, bequeathed 'to Paul Dayrell my nephew' (i.e. 
grandson), 'my best bason and ewer' (Strype, Annals, II. (ii.) 377, 8). 

3 Hearne says ' June 21.' 'A Monument in St. Nicholas Churche in Abbingdon 
in the North Wall of the Chancell to the Memory of Walter Dairell, Esqr., 
Recorder of Abbingdon, who died June 21, 1628, Aet. 63' {Collectanea, ed. Doble, 
O. H. S., iii. 393). The inscription is worth reading. 

4 There are no seals on any of the copies ; they were ' chirographis commis- 
sionariorum signati.' 



STATUTES. 



185 



Jo. Prideaux vicecafi: Oxon. Jo: Benet. Eub. Thelwall. Tho: 
Clayton Collegii Pembroch: Magister.' Walter Dayrell was dead in 
1628, but not in 1624 ; and Wightwick also does not sign. It seems his 
plans were not yet matured. The later statutes vary most from the 
earlier in regard to his fellows and scholars. His name is affixed to all 
the five extant copies of the statutes as finally settled. The signatures 
are 'G. Cant. Pembroke. Richard Wightwicke. Ac. Frewen, Vicecanc. 
Oxon. Eubul Thelwell. Tho. Clayton, Coll. Pembrok. Magister.' 
Sir John Bennet was dead. It is observable that the 1624 edition 
draws no line of separation between the two foundations, the same 
rules being made for both, and the fellows ' of the College ' acting as 
electors to both. Some of the 1624 provisions were avowedly 
temporary \ 



STATUTES. 

The statutes open with the invocation of the Most Holy and 
Undivided Trinity. The desire of the commissioners is to constitute 
a House ' piam, literatam, studiosam, in Dei gloriam, bonum Ecclesiae 
et reipublicae ' ; and, forasmuch as they know that 1 except the Lord 
build the house their labour is but lost that build it,' they begin with 
ordinances respecting divine service ' in the College Chapel or other 
convenient place to be assigned by the Master and the majority of the 
Fellows/ Morning prayers are to be held between five and six o'clock, 
but out of term at seven o'clock, to be attended by all fellows, scholars, 
commoners, and servitors resident in College. There is a fine of 
twopence for absence without good cause, of a penny for coming in 
after the Psalms or going out without leave, but below the age of 
eighteen offenders may be punished either by the rod 2 or by a fine. 
There is to be a commemoration of founders and benefactors, and 
a giving of thanks for them in the public prayers, it would seem daily. 

1 The Oxford University Commissioners, one of them the Master of the 
College, reported in 1852 (p. 247) that 'a charter was obtained in 1629 from 
King James I.' James had then been dead four years. 

2 So at Cambridge at this date, 'Escholiers audessus de 18 ans non chastiez 
011 fustigez, mais mulctez par amendes pecuniaires' (MS. note-book of Eli Brevint, 
minister of Sercq, c. 1620). In 1617 our University decreed whipping for junior 
offenders, and in 1623 the wearing of boots with a gown was to be similarly 
corrected. The rod was in force after the Restoration (see Wood's Life and Times, 
ii. 140); but I believe the Pembroke statutes are the last occasion of it being 
prescribed at Oxford. (See Collectanea, ed. Prof. Burrows, O. H. S., ii. 429, 430.) 



RELIGION. 



There is no direetion whether the services are to be in Latin or in 
English. The present Act of Uniformity, which expects that College 
services will be in Latin, dates from 1662 only. Attendance at 
University sermons is prescribed; to the sermons in Latin, or 'ad 
clerum,' and the service at the beginning of term, and other public 
solemnities, all the members of the College, properly habited, are to 
accompany the Master or Vicegerent. Maintainers of heresies and of 
opinions not approved by the Church of England are to be fined 6d. 
for the first offence, 2s. 6d. for the second, suspended from all emolu- 
ments, except their chamber, for the third, and, if the error is not 
renounced within three months, expelled. Profane swearing is to be 
punished by a fine of i2d., or, if the offender is under the age of 
eighteen, by corporal correction. Grace is to be said in Latin before 
and after meat, and about the middle of dinner and supper a chapter 
or convenient portion of Holy Scripture is to be read aloud in Latin l . 
All are to sit modestly, becomingly, with their caps 2 on their heads, 
according to their condition, reverently and silently during this reading. 
The meals are to be ' in accordance with the statutes of the realm, and 
the ordinances of the Church of England ' — i. e. as regards feast and 
fast days. 

The statutes speak next of the different members of the society, 
which is to be constituted as a well-ordered Family in the due subor- 
dination and mutual helpfulness of its different parts. The office of 
the Master, as of a good father, will be to shew himself a pattern of 
honest conversation, of wisdom, of toil and study, that the whole 
family may have a mirror after which to fashion itself. A pious, 
honourable, and prudent Paterfamilias can do much for the advantage 
and splendour of the household; and the commissioners, solicitous 
that the Master shall not fall short of this ideal, ordain that he shall 
be a man of sound religion, attached to the faith of the Church of 
England, circumspect and discreet, studious, of at least thirty years, 
a doctor in theology, medicine, or civil law, or a Master in Arts, or 
a Bachelor in one of the superior faculties, a present or sometime 
fellow. If, however, a suitable fellow or former fellow cannot be 

1 Archbishop Bancroft, as Chancellor, issued an injunction in 1608 for the 
familiar employment of Latin in colleges, 'whereof there is now so much use 
both in studies and common conversation.' One of Laud's reforms was to insist 
on the speaking of Latin at meals. 

2 The cap is part of the proper vesture of a clerk inter divina. In 1659 'the 
gentlemen commoners of the University of Oxon petitioned to sit with their caps 
on their heads as the Masters and Bachelors did,' viz. in church. See Life and 
Times, i. 290. 



A DULY ORDERED FAMILY. 



187 



found, then the electors may go outside for a Master, who however 
is first to be sought in Balliol, and next in University College, in 
honour and memory of Thomas Tesdale, Esq., and of the Most 
Reverend George, now Archbishop of Canterbury, his first trustee, 
1 qui propensissime fuere afifecti erga dicta Collegia/ His salary is to 
be £20 out of the Tesdale rents and £10 from those of Wightwick, 
besides all emoluments arising from room-rents, admissions, presen- 
tations to degrees, and other accustomed dues which the Principal of 
Broadgates Hall had hitherto received. The Fellows are the filii- 
familias, and must be ' probi, pii, prudentes, qui patri subsidio esse 
possint in bene administranda familia/ They are to be at least 
seventeen years old, graduates, scholars within the three years pre- 
ceding, celibate, of good report, sufficient in learning, needy, not 
given to drunkenness, sloth, or brawling. Next come the Scholars, 
who are to be deemed the sons of the Master and Fellows, and so the 
grandchildren of the Founders (the figure is a little confused) — 'Amor 
paternus non descendit in filios solum sed in nepotes etiam.' 
A statute follows regarding the duties of the College servants, those 
mentioned being the obsonator, the promus, the coquus, the faber, 
the lignarius, the lapidarius, the hortulanus, the tonsor, and the 
janitor. The tonsor, or College barber 1 , remained till quite recent 
memory, his name appearing on the buttery books. But there are 
now no perukes to dress for hall. All fees paid to servants in the 
Broadgates days were to be continued. After the famuli come regu- 
lations concerning the 'commensales sen comminarii.' Their presence 
is encouraged as it had been nowhere else so markedly. Living at 
their own charges in College, the Commoners are to be regarded as 
'guests and strangers/ who, as in every well-ordered household, 
should be courteously welcomed and kindly treated. They are to be 
assigned rooms and enjoy all the commodities of the common College 
life 2 . Their payments are to be those usually made by commoners 
at Broadgates. They are to be under the same rules of discipline as 
fellows and scholars. All members of the College, including servants, 
are at admission to swear on the Holy Gospels to observe the statutes 
and not to reveal College secrets ; but scholars and commoners under 
the age of fifteen are to make a promise only, and not an oath. In 

1 The Oxford Guild of Barbers, incorporated in 1 348, was dissolved not long ago. 
This craft maintained of old ' a light before Our Lady in Our Ladye's Chapel/ 
{City, ii. 62.) 

2 In 1851 of seventy-three undergraduates seventy were commoners. Most of 
the Scholars' places were filled by graduates, or were vacant. 



STUDIES. 



case of candidature for the proctorship or any like University office, 
that candidate is to be preferred on whom the Master and the major 
part of the M.A.'s shall have agreed. 

The rules of discipline, in domo togata pacata qualem cupimus, are of 
the usual kind. Carrying arms, except when starting from, or having 
lately returned to, Oxford, is to be punished with expulsion. For 
contumelious language, a senior is to be fined, a junior to be flogged. 
Violence accompanied by bloodshed incurs a fine of 6s. Sd. ; without 
bloodshed, of half that sum. Any one, whether fellow or other, sleeping 
out without leave is to be fined at least i2d. Revealing the secrets of 
the College is to be punished with a mulct of 2s. 6d. Dissolute habits 
and associates, and also forbidden games, are the subject of other 
rules, and there is one against appeals to outside courts of law. 
Subordination to those in authority, reverence and uncovering the 
head before superiors, mutual courtesy and concord between all, are 
inculcated. As regards studies, ' In familia bene ordinata neminem 
decet esse otiosum/ The following scholastic exercises, forming a 
very complete course of study, and having no reference to any 
University Schools, are ordained: (i) A Catechetical lecture, 'delivering 
the sum and foundation of the Christian religion/ to be read c singulis 
diebus Sabbati seu Saturni ' in full term, at 10 a.m. All B.A.'s and 
non-graduates are bound to attend ; those of a higher grade are 
invited to do so. The praelector is to receive 6d. a term from every 
fellow, scholar, or commoner. (2) A Natural Philosophy lecture, at 
9 a.m. on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, the auditors to be 
all non-graduates in the higher class. The praelector is to moderate 
their disputations on Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. 
He will receive 136-. 8d. in each of the four terms. (3) A Logic lecture, 
at 6 a.m., immediately after mattins on Mondays, Wednesdays, and 
Fridays, to be attended by non-graduates of the lower class. The 
praelector will act as their moderator, and receive 13s. 4^. a term. 
(4) A Rhetoric lecture, at 9 a.m. on Tuesdays and Fridays, the 
auditors being all non-graduate scholars, commoners, and servitors in 
College ; the reader to receive 10s. a term. (5) A lecture in the Greek 
tongue, at 2 p.m. on Tuesdays and Fridays, the salary of the lecturer 
being \os. a term. All non-graduates imbued with Greek are to 
attend. The various praelectors are to be appointed by the Master 
at the beginning of Michaelmas term, and he is to pay their salaries 
out of the room-rents received by him. It is also ordained that there 
shall be Theological disputations every other Thursday in term at 
4 p.m., at which all M.A.'s who have completed the first year of their 



DISCIPLINE. 



189 



regency are to respond and expone, the Master or the Praelector 
Catechisticus moderating and receiving from the disputants 4s. a term. 
Disputations in Philosophy are to take place every Saturday at 4 p.m., 
the respondents being all Bachelors of Arts, and the moderator the 
Junior Dean, with the same reward. All non-graduate scholars and 
commoners are to declaim publicly in hall on Saturdays after common 
prayers, and all graduates to exhibit their themes or exercises ; and 
then they are to submit themselves for correction at the hand of the 
Master, Vicegerent or Deans, for all offences against the statutes, 
absence from prayers, and other excesses. An exception is made in 
favour of ' commensales magistrorum et baccalaureorum ' (fellow-com- 
moners). Servitors, whether scholars or batellers, are ordered to declaim 
every Thursday just before or after dinner. All non-graduates shall 
live under some graduate tutor, as arranged by the Master, except the 
' commoners of B.A.'s and M.A.'s,' who are to enjoy their own freedom 
in their studies and the scholastic exercises of the College. Every one, 
before receiving the grace for his degree, is to appose or respond 
publicly in hall in some problem to be approved by the Master. On 
the day that he is presented, he is to give a public dinner in hall, or 
pay 20s. for the use of the College. B.A.'s seeking the grace for M.A. 
are to respond in some thesis, or deliver to the Master a commentary 
on some portion of Aristotle. They too are to feast the College at 
an expense not exceeding 40^. In 1852 there were three tutors, but 
no other lecturers. 

The remaining statutes relate to the offices of the Master's Vice- 
gerent, of the two Censors or Deans, and of the two Bursars ; to 
lands and rents ; to payment of batells and dues ; to sanitary matters ; 
to the two chests, one for muniments, the other for valuable plate 
and for money ; and to the College seal. There is a statute about 
expulsions, including the extreme case of the removal of a Master, 
which actually occurred within forty years; another ordinance is 
about dress, since ' vestis et tegit corpus et detegit saepe animum ' — 
the apparel oft proclaims the man. Long hair is forbidden, and no 
one is to be seen in Oxford wearing cloak or high boots (pallio aut 
ocreis 1 indutus). A member of the College absent on affairs of 
Church or State, if it be with consent of the Master and the Fellows 
of his foundation, is to receive his salary 2 . If any is sick or in 

1 ' Would you think it possible that the wise founders of an English university 
should forbid us to wear boots?' (Southey, Letter to Grosvenor Bedford, Esq., 
Jan. 16, 1793.) 

2 A similar provision for leave to travel abroad existed at Exeter, Merton, and 
Wadham. 



190 



THE VISITOR. 



affliction, the whole Family is to succour and care for him, joying 
with them that rejoice, and weeping with them that weep ; and if the 
misfortune be of a material nature, the other members of his own 
foundation are to provide for him with Christian affection out of their 
revenues. A final ordinance provides for the appointment of a Visitor, 
to be to the College ' anchora in arduis,' viz. the High Chancellor of 
the University, ' as well in honour of the present most noble High 
Chancellor, the most honoured Lord, William Herbert, Earl of Pem- 
broke, who has imparted to the College a name, privileges, and many 
favours,, as also in right and equity ; for that the most illustrious 
Chancellors of the University are Visitors of all Halls, and among 
them of Broadgates Hall V It speaks of Pembroke's ' love to letters 
and lettered men, the patronage of whom the University in general, 
and this College in especial, commends to his protecting care.' 
(Tesdale's will however designated the Bishop of London for the 
time being as the decider of disputes.) With the consent of the 
Visitor the College might make additional statutes. 

It will be observed that, doubtless on Clayton's account, the Master 
was not bound, like the fellows, to Holy Orders or celibacy. The 
modern statutes require him to be a person capable in law of 
holding the Gloucester canonry. Except Christ Church, Pembroke 
is therefore the only society which is now obliged to have a clerical 
Head. Savage says that Clayton was ' a good Divine ; and this his 
skill he did seasonably exercise towards his Patients.' 

The regulations made by the Commissioners respecting the Tesdale 
fellowships and scholarships followed in the main the directions of 
his will. Of his seven fellows, four were to be of his kinship 2 , and all 

1 These great officials were originally the Bishop of Lincoln's chancellors 
resident at Oxford, which was in the Lincoln diocese. The Chancellor had 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction and granted licence to teach. He was not in the 
beginning, like the Parisian Rector, a creature of the University. In course of 
time, however, he came to be elected — a change very unwelcome to the town. 
In the Wars of the Roses the Universities sought the protection of some powerful 
noble as their Chancellor. The Stuart attention to academical affairs added 
importance to the office, a deputy or vice-chancellor performing the ordinary 
duties, which rule has obtained ever since. Pembroke College has in this way 
been brought into connexion with a number of eminent statesmen, whose 
decisions on disputed points are interwoven into the law of the College. In 1657 
the Presbyterians endeavoured to upset the parliamentary Visitation, and brought 
in a bill fixing the office of Visitor of the several societies in some distinguished 
non-resident. The Earls of Pembroke were to be perpetual Visitors of Jesus 
and of Pembroke Colleges (Gutch, Annals, ii. 676-680). 

2 Founders had always provided for their own blood. 1 Forasmuch as I have, 
under God's eye, converted the inheritance of my lands in fee, which by the 



TESDALE FOUNDATION. 



191 



seven were to be taken from among the scholars, having been educated 
in Abingdon Free School, of at least seventeen years, graduates in 
Arts (this was not required for the Wightwick foundation), sufficient 
in learning, of good report and conversation, celibate and in need 
of support, their private income not exceeding £40 ; to be elected 
by the Master and the Fellows of the Tesdale foundation [College, 
1624], the Master having the casting vote. All were to be students of 
theology, to proceed M.A. as soon as possible, and within three years 
of magistration to be admitted to the priesthood. A benefice with cure 
of souls outside Oxford [1624, inside as well], to vacate the fellowship. 
Of his scholars, two were to be of his poorer kindred, educated at 
Abingdon by preference, but, if there were none such there, then 
at some other school. The other four were to be chosen from the 
poorer natives of Abingdon, brought up as Bennet Scholars ; but, if 
none were found fit, then from others in the same school, if any be 
found there apt and meet. The election was to take place at the 
school at the annual visitation, viz. on the Monday 1 next following 
the first Lord's Day after August 1 ; the electors being the Master of 
the College (to whom a double vote was given), the two senior Tesdale 
fellows [fellows of the College, 1624], the Master and two senior 
governors of the Hospital of Christ's Poor in Abingdon, and Roysse's 
schoolmaster. In case of an equality of votes, the decision was to 
rest with the Vice-Chancellor, the President of Corpus, and the Provost 
of Queen's. The limits of age were thirteen and nineteen — in 1624 
eighteen. The stipends were fixed at £20 for the fellows, £15 for 
the two scholars of founder's kin, and £12 for the other four, the 
Master receiving £20 out of the Tesdale rents instead of £10. In 
1852 four Tesdale fellows were receiving £154 each, and four non- 
kin scholars £28 each and rooms. Three kin fellowships and two 
kin scholarships were vacant for lack of competent candidates to 
fill them. 

For the Wightwick foundation the original statutes were in 1628 
considerably modified. Whereas in the earlier statutes only one 

custom of the realm was due to my heirs or kinsmen, for the purposes of this 
charity, I will and enact that if any young children of my kin need support in 
consequence of the death or poverty of their parents/ &c. Walter de Merton's 
Statutes, 1274 {Memorials of Merton College, by Hon. G. C. Brodrick, O. H. S., 
P- 339)- In 1647 the Craven Scholarships were to benefit Lord Craven's poor 
kindred. 

1 Not Tuesday, as in Nutt's Magna Britannia. Archbishop Laud, in 1634, 
decreed that in default of competent scholars from Abingdon, the College might 
elect out of any school in Berkshire. 



192 



W1GHTWICK FOUNDATION. 



of the three fellows was to be of his kindred, and all three to have 
been educated at Abingdon, in the later constitutions two were to be 
of his kindred or name, with no restriction as to place of birth or 
education. In 1624 the kin fellow was to study theology, proceed 
M.A., and be ordained priest ; one of the others was obliged to the 
study of medicine, and to graduate in that faculty ; the third was to 
study Civil Law, and take the B.C.L. degree. But in 1628 all three 
were to apply themselves to divinity and take holy orders, proceeding 
to B.D. within twenty years. Was this due to the new King's policy ? 
Instead of being elected by the fellows of the College, there was 
to be promotion by seniority from among the scholars, founder's kin 
or Abingdonian, the only qualifications mentioned being celibacy and 
poverty, for an income of more than £10 vacated the place. In 
1624 the rule had been the same as for Tesdale's fellows. A cure 
of souls, whether inside or outside Oxford, vacated a Wightwick 
fellowship. Of the four Wightwick scholars, it had been ordained 
that two should be of his kindred, out of Abingdon School, or, if none 
found there, from some other; two from the poorer boys at the 
school, ' or some other School,' being apt and meet. The later 
statutes say that two shall be of Wightwick' s name or kindred, 
wherever born or educated, and two from the free grammar-school 
at Abingdon. Vacancies were now to be filled not by the Master 
and two senior fellows electing, but in the case of the Abingdon 
scholars in the same way as those of Tesdale, while in the other case 
whoever should be first presented by one of the two founder's kin 
fellows to the Master and two of the senior fellows was to be elected. 
The limit of age was raised from eighteen to nineteen. Scholars as 
well as fellows were now to make divinity their profession. The 
stipend of fellows was fixed in both editions at £20, and of scholars 
at £10. To the Master £10 a year was assigned. In 1852 the 
Master was receiving (besides his canonry) £860, Wightwick fellows 
£95 and £74, and the scholars £28 or £30. 




SIGNATURES TO STATUTES OF 1628 



CHAPTER XV. 

WIGHTWICK'S FOUNDATION — ABINGDON SCHOOL. 

Wightwick's benefaction was at the date of the Patent of Founda- 
tion still in intention. By an indenture dated June i, 1625, he 
granted to his nephew Samuel Wightwick a lease for ninety-nine years 
of his manors and estates at Marlstone, Thatcham, Bucklebury, and 
Bowdones, all in Berkshire 1 ; and subsequently, on August 1, 1628, 
granted a further lease of the same properties for a term of 400 
years, to commence at the expiration of the former lease, subject to 
a yearly payment of £70. To another nephew, Walter Wightwick, 
he gave like leases, for the same terms, of his property called 
Quarrels, in the parish of Appleton, Berks, subject to a reserved rent 
of £30. On August 13, 1628, after decreeing that each of his 
fellows should receive from his rents £20 yearly, and each scholar £10, 
he ordained that the rent-holders should pay £500 for the building 
of chambers in the new College and for the stipend of the Master, 
ex fundatione sua, viz. £300 for the years 1625, 1626, 1627, at the 
Michaelmas next coming, another £100 in 1628, O. S. (one moiety on 
September 29, and the other on March 24), and in 1629 two further 
instalments of £50 each. The salary of the Master ex fundatione sua 
was to be £10 a year. ' Quae omnia, Deo volente, perficientur intra 
tempus praedictum, viz. intra vicesimum quintum diem Martii anno 
1630; adeo ut omnes Socii et Scholares meae fundationis percipient 
stipendia et pensiones suas in vel a vicesimo quinto die Martii 1630, 
et postea in perpetuum.' Six weeks later, on Sept. 30, 1628, Wight- 
wick enfeoffed all the lands, whose leases he had granted to his 
nephews, to Pembroke College, granting it the reserved rents of £70 
and £30. These the College still receives. The actual properties, 
now greatly increased in value, will not come into its possession for 
another 230 years. The statutes provide for a pro rata reduction 
of stipends in case of diminution in the income of the foundation. 
In his will, made Jan. 11, i6f§, a few days before his death, 

1 The Marlstone property (625 acres) is now in the hands of Messrs. Huntley 
and Palmer. 

0 



194 FOUR-YEAR-OLD FELLOWS AND SCHOLARS. 



Wightwick asks the College to accept an annuity of £ i o issuing out 
of the lands of Thomas Hinde, 'for the use and benefitt of the 
Master and his successo™,' in lieu of £200 which he had promised for 
the purchasing of a like annuity. 

Wightwick's benefaction, though now of inconsiderable value, 
seemed to those nearer his time to be a very large one. Fuller says : 
' What the yearly value of his living was I know not, and have cause 
to believe it not very great : however one would conjecture his 
Benefice a Bishoprick by his bounty to Pembroke Colledge. . . . When 
he departed this life is to me unknown.' More modern gifts by those 
of his name and kindred to the College have largely augmented its 
usefulness. Richard Wightwick's other possessions appear to have 
been small, since in his last testament he disposes of but £200 
personalty and one piece of realty. He therein speaks of himself 
as ' co-Founder,' and he can scarcely be denied the title, considering 
that but for his bounty, which was no mere deathbed bequest, but 
an actual bestowal during his lifetime of £100 of income, Pembroke 
College would not have been founded. 

Like most other founders he retained, or was given, the right of 
nominating the first persons who were to profit by it. ' Quos 
omnes,' the statutes provide, ' durante vita naturali, quales quando 
et quomodo sibi videbitur, licebit sibi ad arbitrium eligere et amovere ; 
nec eorum aliquis post mortem suam sub praetextu defectus aetatis 
gradus aut literarum amovebitur.' In the Patent of June 29, 1624, 
the first Tesdale and Wightwick fellows and scholars are named. 
On Dec. 6, 1632, there is an injunction of Bishop 1 Laud, as Visitor, I 
allowing one fellow and three scholars, of Wightwick's kin and 
nominated by him, they being at the date of the injunction twelve 
years old and at school, to receive their full pensions, albeit non- 
resident, until their seventeenth year, if meanwhile they remain 'in 
ludo literario, ut instructiores ad bonarum artium studia ad Collegium 
accedant,' for the reason that ' fundator consanguineis suis ejus 
aetatis in Socios et Scholares nominatis in eo indulsisse videatur ' ; 
but it was not to be a precedent for the future. Wightwick died in 
January, i6f|. The fellow and scholars mentioned in the injunction 
must therefore have been but four years old, if they were of those first 
appointed in 1624, and in any case of tender age when nominated. 
The Bishop decrees a deduction of 3J. for each week of absence in 
the case of other fellows, and is. 6d. in the case of other scholars 
(four days' residence sufficing to the week) ; but Henry and George 
1 It is signed ' Guil. Londin.,' but a later decree, ' W. Cant.' 



THE SIX TESDALE SCHOLARS. 



195 



Wightwicke are to enjoy their fellowships undiminished, Master 
Wightwicke their founder appearing to have dispensed them. These 
two fellows are mentioned in one of the statutes as kin and original 
fellows of the founder, and as being, by his desire, dispensed from 
the rule depriving of his place any fellow or scholar who marries, 
or has an income of above £10 by the year, or holds a benefice with 
cure of souls. It is decreed that Henry Wightwicke shall enjoy his 
fellowship for five years from admission in any case, while George 
shall be fellow and have seniority in College according to admission, 
' etsi gradum academicum non suscepit.' Henry, afterwards Master, 
was in 1624 thirty-four years of age. George was, it is said, son of 
George Wightwicke, vicar of Patshull. Both were distant cousins. 

The original fellows and scholars of the double foundation, as 
named and constituted in the royal patent, were : — 

Fellows — Thomas Godwyn, Robertus Payne, Christoferus Tesdale, 
Nicholaus Coxeter, Carolus Sagar, Thomas Westley, Henricus Wight- 
wicke, Johannes Price, Willielmus Liford, Willielmus Griffith. 

Scholars — Johannes Lee, Willielmus Reade, Franciscus Dringe, 
Ricardus Allein, Johannes Bowles, Johannes Grace, Thomas Milling- 
ton, Humfridus Gwyn, Ricardus Kirfoote, Georgius Griffith. 

There is no George Wightwick in this list. But at the end of the 
1624 statutes, after declaring that the surviving Founder is to have 
the right during his life of appointing and removing his fellows and 
fixing their stipends, the commissioners ordain that all the titular 
fellows and scholars nominated in the Foundation Charter shall 
resign all their right and title in the said places within a month after 
being admonished by the Master in writing so to do ; if they fail to 
resign, their places to be ipso facto vacant ; but five existing scholars 
are excepted from this compulsory retirement, viz. Lee, Dring, Read, 
Allen, and Bowles. In the room of the remaining five scholars and 
ten fellows others are to be elected as soon as provision shall have 
been made ' de necessariis structuris Collegii et impensis circa statum 
Collegii stabiliendum expendendis.' We have seen that the Wight- 
wick stipends did not begin to be paid till 1630. As regards 
Tesdale's beneficiaries, his will directs that the seven fellows, if 
chambers have to be built for their reception, are not to be placed 
till out of their allowance the cost be defrayed, ' and that in the meane 
time only the sixe poor Schollers be chosen and placed/ It appears 
from Balliofergus that there was found at Balliol 'a present recep- 
tacle for the said six scholars, which were there received and settled 
accordingly, receiving their Exhibitions by the hand of our Bursars, 

0 2 



196 



LODGED AT BALLIOL COLLEGE. 



Dring, Lee, Crabtree, Allen, Bowles, and Read: whereof Crabtree 1 
dyed of a stab with a Knife given him by the unlucky hand of a 
Freshman of three weeks' standing.' None of the six matriculated 
till at least eleven years after Tesdale's decease. 

In the Articles of Agreement originally made between the Mayor, 
Bailiffs, and Burgesses of Abingdon and the Master and Scholars of 
Balliol College, it had been arranged that the rents should remain 
in the chamber of the town of Abingdon until such time as there 
be raised a competent sum to erect buildings uniform to the said 
College, the College allowing ground for the said buildings, and 
meanwhile providing a convenient lodging for the seven fellows 
and six scholars. But the fellows, it seems, were not appointed, no 
place being found for them. Balliol College, however, received £300 
out of Tesdale's money, which, with the addition of £40 or there- 
abouts, was expended in acquiring the rooms known as Caesar's 
Lodgings, nearly opposite the east end of St. Mary Magdalen Church. 

Balliol had acted rashly in spending money before the negotiations 
with Abingdon were ratified. They were to take effect ' if so be it 
shall seem good to the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury his Grace.' It 
would seem that when the Abingdonians showed themselves bent on 
a new College Abbot refused to ratify the agreement. The King's 
wish to be a Founder may have had something to do with this ; or 
Wightwick, who, says Ayliffe, ' had long since thought of endowing 
this charity,' may have made a point of the Broadgates Hall plan. 
Wood however says 2 , ' Mr. Wightwick had intentions to found Fellow- 
ships and Scholarships in some Colleges.' There can have been no 
prejudice against Balliol, since Wightwick was of that College, Abbot's 
brother Robert was at the time Master, and the Archbishop's own 
connexion with it, as alumnus and Visitor, was what had turned the 
designs of his friend Tesdale in that direction. But at any rate the 
agreement fell to the ground, and Balliol College found itself with 
Caesar's Buildings on its hands. Dr. Henry Savage, Master of Balliol, 
whose Balliofergus z (1668, but written in 1661) contains an account 
of the inauguration of Pembroke called Natalitia Collegii Pembrochiani, 
shows a not unnatural resentment. ' This rejeton had no sooner 

1 John Crabtre, B.A. from Balliol, Oct. 16, 1623. 

2 Colleges and Halls, p. 616. 

3 Hearne says : ' Ibi mendae innumerae comparent, prout nobis indicavit 
Antonius Woodius. Savagius nempe hoc opus invita Minerva suscepit. Quin et 
Woodius ipse saepius cespitavit' {Collections, ed. Doble, O. H. S., ii. 271), Savage 
was helped by a Wood (see Life and Times, ed. Clarke, O. H. S., ii. 136). He 
died 1672, aged sixty-eight. 



BALLIOL BROUGHT INTO CHANCERY. 197 



taken root than the Master and his company called the Master and 
Society of our Colledge into Chancery for the restitution of the 
aforesaid £300/ Wood says: 'The Fellows for the most part 
inclining to demur, and the rather because that Coventry, then Lord 
Keeper, sometime of Balliol College, had promised them a gracious 
hearing, it was in the end (for he was not faithful to them) referred to 
George Archbishop of Canterbury, sometime of the said College also, 
who, knowing very well that the Society was not able at that time to 
repay the said sum, bade the fellows go home, be obedient to their 
Governour, and Jehovah Jireh, i.e. God shall provide for them. 
Whereupon he paid £50 of the said £300 presently, and for the 
other £250 the College gave bond to be paid yearly by several sums 
till the full was satisfied. The which sums as they grew due did the 
lord Archbishop pay.' By the original agreement the Master of 
Balliol was to have received £20 yearly from Tesdale's donation. 
The Archbishop in his award decreed to him as compensation Caesar's 
Buildings with their garden. The sense of injustice however rankled 
long. Savage says bitterly, ' 'Tis hard to judge whether has had the 
more malignant aspect upon our College, viz., The Thievish glance of 
Mercuries Eye or the Fiery looks of Mars.' He complains that the 
citizens of Abingdon had no regard at all to the condescensions 
of Balliol College, which could not have been greater without mani- 
fest injury to the ancient foundation. ' The place the Abingdonians 
pitch' d on was Broadgates hall, where that they might take such 
footing as that nothing might be able to remove them they made the 
Earl of Pembroke the Godfather of this new Christened Hall, King 
James the Founder of it, but (ad onera et costagia) at the cost and 
charges of Tisdale and Whitwick, allowing these only the priviledge of 
Foster Fathers.' 

Under the Laudian cycle fixed in 1629 Pembroke was to have a 
proctor once in the twenty-three years. 

ROYSSE'S SCHOOL AT ABINGDON. 

The Free School of the Blessed Trinity, within the borough of 
Abingdon, has had such a close connexion with Pembroke College, 
which it claims as a daughter, that a brief account must be given of it. 
The monks of Abingdon, who had had the schooling of Archbishop 
Aelfric, of the Royal Clerk Henry I., of Geoffrey of Monmouth, and 
legend even says of Constantine the Great, were turned adrift in 1538, 
and an educational vacuum resulted. To provide for the humanities 



ROYSSE'S FREE SCHOOL. 



in his native town John Roysse 1 , citizen and mercer of London, by 
indenture of Jan. 31, 1563, gave to the mayor, bailiffs and burgesses 
the sum of £50 to provide a schoolhouse, and on Feb. 23 two 
tenements in Birchin Lane, producing 20 marks yearly, for the 
maintenance of a schoolmaster. The corporation covenanted that 
before the Feast of the Annunciation of our Blessed Lady the Virgin 
next coming they would provide one meet convenient schoolhouse able 
to receive three score and thirteen 2 scholars, and also cause the said 
schoolhouse to be assured to some body politic for ever for the use 
of a free school. Roysse intended to disinherit a profligate son 
Thomas, though ' for God's sake especially and for his good mother's 
sake, which was my wife/ he provided for his son's eldest child, John. 
The residue of his fortune, save for some minor charitable bequests, 
he gave for the endowment of his Grammar School, directing that, as 
it was founded in the sixty-third year of the century and of his own 
age, there should be in it for ever three and sixty free scholars. As 
it chanced, Tesdale, who founded the ushership (abolished in 1868), 
died at the age of sixty- three, the grand climacteric. The number is 
no longer observed. Indeed, less than a hundred years ago the free 
scholars had dwindled to zero. But every day, now, as of old, the 
school bell tolls sixty-three times. The school was built under the 
wing of the ruin of the old abbey, hard by whose great gateway, 
opposite St. Nicholas' church, still stands the humbler school gate, 
embattled and bearing the founder's arms. The Earl of Abingdon 
spent £100 in 1811 in restoring it. Inside a little courtyard is the 
old schoolroom, over whose little square porch is the invitation 
Ingredere ut proftcias. A tablet on the wall sets forth that ' Johannes 
Royssius hanc Scholam instituit Anno Dom. 1563.' The interior is 
now dismantled, and used by a volunteer corps. The eagle lectern, 
the old pictures, and the clock inscribed Pereunt et imputantur are 
in the new home. But the decaying panelling and forms, the old 
floor, the master's and usher's seats with the iron clasp that held the 
corporation mace on Visitation days, and a pretty little curving gallery 
with gilt balusters, these still remain, The gallery bears on its front 

the WOrds ectv rjs (j)ikoiJLii6ris ear] 7ro\vfxa6r}s. 

Among the Ordinances made by the founder, breathing the quaint 
and pious spirit of the time, was the following : ' The scholemaster 

1 The computus 'Johannis Koyse de Civitate Oxon Wollen draper,' under 
date 27 0 Elizabethae, is given in Oxford City Documents, O. H. S., p. 117. 

2 The Master was allowed ten pupils of his own. The others paid id. A 
' libera schola ' is an uncontrolled, not a gratuitous, school. 



ROYSSE'S FREE SCHOOL. 



shall thryse in the daie hear with a loud voice the children say thes 
prayers following 1 : that is to saie, in the morning upon their knees the 
Pater Noster, Ave Maria, and the Crede ; and at the end thereof shall 
saye Upon our founder John Roysse and all Christian people the 
Blessed Trynytye have mercy ; and at 1 1 of the clock when they go 
to dinner, upon their knees, Deus in nomine tuo salvum me fac c*., 
and at the ende therof shall saye Upon our founder John Roysse and 
all Christian people the Blessed Trynytye have mercy ; and at night 
at the breakinge upp of the schole shall saye upon their knees 
De profundis c*., with the suffrages, c*., and at the end therof shall 
say Uppon our founder John Roysse and all Christian people the 
Blessed Trynytye have mercy/ 

On the Sunday after his decease a preacher was to be provided at 
St. Helen's, who in some part of his sermon was to say, ' For John 
Roysse's soul, late citizen and mercer of London, and all Christian 
people, the Blessed Trinity have mercy'; and this to be done yearly 
for ever. The preacher was to receive 6s. 8d., the mayor and burgesses 
20s. for ' a potation or drinking/ and afterwards bread, drink, and 
cheese were to be distributed, at a cost of 12s., among the poor, who 
were in return to pray for his soul. The same supplication was to be 
offered by twelve old widows, ' women or men,' to whom every 
Sunday at his tomb in St. Helen's ' twelve pence in white bread, being 
good, sweet, and seasonable ' was to be dispensed. Four and twenty 
pensioners were further to kneel round his tomb every Sunday to 
receive alms. Of these religious observances only the potation 
remains. They are noticeable as being of post-Reformation date 2 . 
The prayers for his soul which the founder so anxiously enjoined on 
his children have fallen into disuse, but every Founder's Day his tomb 
is reverently visited and adorned with red roses. By his will in 1568 
he left £5 for a tomb to be erected c near unto the quior door'; the 
top stone, whence the dole was to be distributed, he ordered should be 
the great stone from the arbour of his London garden. It bears his 
arms, a rampant griffin carrying on his shoulder a red rose. 

1 In the borough records is a curious entry of Sept. 6, 1671, recording the 
expulsion by order of the corporation of Richard, Jasper, and another Tesdale, 
with other scholars of Roysse's School, for refusing attendance, in accordance with 
the Founder's statutes, at divine service, albeit admonished by the Visitors and 
the common council. I have not found the name Tesdale in the records after 
this. 

2 Such phrases as the following (from the testament of Henry Mylton, Nov. 25, 
1558) are common in Elizabethan wills: 'I bequethe my soul to God, to Our 
Lady Saint Mary, and to all the Holy Company of Heaven.' 



200 



ROYSSE'S FREE SCHOOL. 



Besides Tesdale and Wightwick Abingdon School has had several 
generous benefactors. Its many eminent sons witness to the utility 
of their bounty. Pope is said to have been one of these, but not 
with certainty. Degory Wheare, Thomas Godwyn, John Lempriere, 
Philip Morant, Richard Graves, Sir William Boxall, R.A., Sir Thomas 
Smith (James I's Latin secretary), Lord Chief Justice Holt, 
Sir Edward Turnor, Speaker and Lord Chief Baron, Lord Wenman, 
Archbishop Newcome, Lord James Beauclerk, Bishop of Hereford, 
were educated at the school. It has given seven Masters to Pembroke 
(Dr. Langley, Dr. Radcliffe, Dr. Brickenden, Dr. Adams, Dr. Sergrove, 
Dr. Smith, and Dr. G. W. Hall), and four Heads to other societies, 
viz. W. Walker, D.C.L., to St. Johns, John Clarke, D.D., to Oriel, 
John Viscount Tracy, D.D., to All Souls, and James Gerard, D.D., 
to Wadham. Roysse ordained that the children of poor men 1 and 
fatherless children of widows should be preferred, if apt for learning ; 
but the Corporation were ' not to refuse any honest man, gentleman, 
or rich man's sonne or others in the said town or elsewhere that be 
willing to have them taught in the said schole.' As usual in 
eleemosynary foundations, reforms and the spirit of the age have 
deprived the poor of much that was intended for them ; and the 
Royal Commission of 1819 elicited the fact that Bennet's Poor 
Scholars seldom, if ever, in spite of Bennet's and Tesdale's wills, 
offered themselves for election to Pembroke scholarships. However, 
they have continued down to the present time, whereas Roysse's 
sixty-three children by Dr. Lempriere's time (1 799-1 809) had 
vanished, though in 1766 they existed in full numbers, besides forty 
boarders in the Master's house. The boarders went on, but the Day 
Boys grew fewer and fewer. The explanation given to the Commission 
was that few of the inhabitants of Abingdon wished a learned 
education for their sons. They had not, it would seem, appreciated 
the Classical Dictionary. The boarders on the other hand were 
usually placed at the school with a view to the Pembroke scholarships, 
to which they were considered eligible after a short residence. They 
were a source of income to the Ludimagister, and more of a credit to 
the College as regards attainments than the ordinary Abingdon 
tradesman's son. Any pupil coming within a twelvemonth of an 
expected election was required to pay the Master twenty guineas. The 

1 Hearne records (1712), 'The Town of Abbingdon was pitch'd about 20 Years 
agoe. It cost above a thousand Pounds. All the Charges were defray'd by one 
Person who had been educated in the Free-Schoole. He was of mean Extract' 
{Collections, ed. Doble, O. H. S., iii. 394). 



THE HOSPITAL OF CHRIST'S POOR. 201 



usher taught humanity to Bennet's Poor Scholars exclusively. These 
arrangements the commissioners considered a departure from the 
intention of the foundation. At present the re-constituted school is 
flourishing in point of numbers under the Rev. Thomas Layng. 

In the year 1870 the school was moved into new buildings just 
outside the town. They lack as yet a chapel. There was a small 
water-colour of the old schoolhouse made by Samuel Smith, one 
of Dr. Lempriere's pupils, in 1793, and copied by another, Augustine 
Gratton, in 1844. 

Along one side of St. Helen's churchyard, near the bank of the Isis, 
lies, behind its fragrant limes, the long, low, cloistered Hospital of the 
Poor of Christ (founded by Edward VI in the home of the Fraternity 
of the Holy Cross), one of the most beautiful of the monuments of 
mediaeval piety and munificence. In the small panelled hall, lit by the 
blazoned glass of a large oriel, among other interesting portraits, is the 
best picture of Tesdale, and next it the presentment of ' Mawd 
Teasdale,' his wife, painted in 161 2, in her sixty-seventh year. She 
is in widow's weeds and holds a small book of devotion. The 
inscription on the former is, " Hanc Thomae Teasdale Armigeri 
Effigiem d.d. Joannes Stevenson Hypodidascalus, 1763/ There is 
also a portrait of Roysse. The property of his school has always 
been vested in the governors of Christ's Hospital, who employ the 
considerable wealth of that foundation for public-spirited purposes. 
It may be hoped that they will not suffer the old schoolhouse to fall 
into decay. 



NOTE A, 

Caesar's Lodgings. 

Mr. Clark writes (Wood, City of Oxford, i. 634, n.) : ' The building 
called " Cesar's Lodgings" or (more shortly) " Cesar," was a tumble-down 
house opposite the place where the Martyrs' Memorial now stands. 
The current modern tradition ascribes the origin of its name to its 
having been the residence of Sir Julius Caesar (1 558-1636). Wood how- 
ever says it was so called from the residence there of Henry Caesar, 
afterwards dean of Ely, Sir Julius' brother. This building was not taken 
down till some years after 1840. Having got the name "Cesar," an 
opposite stack of buildings was naturally called " Pompey." Pompey 
was pulled down shortly after 1830.' Chalmers says it was 'an area on 
the north-west consisting of several detached lodgings.' Wood says that 



202 



CAESAR'S LODGINGS. 



Julius and Henry were the sons of ' Caesar Dalmarius of the city of 
Trevignie in Italy, doctor of Physick and Physician to Qu. Mary and 
Qu. Elizabeth, Son of Pet. Maria Dalmarius of the said City Doctor of 
Laws, but descended from those of his name living at Frejus or Cividad 
del Eriuli'm the confines of Italy 1 ? As regards Sir Julius, ' In the begin- 
ning of 1 58 1 he was created Doctor of [Civil] Law in the University of 
Paris and had Letters testimonial for it, under the Seal of that University, 
dated 22 Apr. 158 1 , wherein he is stiled Julius Caesar alias Dalmarius, 
Dioc. London in Anglia, filius excellentissimi in Art. &* Med. Doctoris 
Caesaris Dalmarii, in Universitate Paris, etc. This Julius Caesar, who 
was also Doctor of the Canon Law, was afterwards Master of the 
Requests, Judge of the Admiralty, in the time of Qu. Elizabeth, a Knight, 
Chancellour and under- Treasurer of the Exchecquer, Master of the Rolls, 
and Privy Counsellour to K. James, and K. Ch. I. He gave way to fate 
at the Rolls in Chancery lane, 16. April, 1636, and was buried in the 
Chancel of Great St. Ellen's Church in Bishopsgate- Street in London, 
near to the grave of his father before mention'd, Caesar Dahnare or 
Athelmer, who was buried there in 1569 2 .' He sate in parliament for 
Westminster, Middlesex, Reigate, Bletchingley, New Windsor, and 
Maiden. He was connected by marriage with Bacon, who died in his 
arms. His sons, Sir Charles, Sir John, Julius, Robert, and Thomas, 
were all men who played a leading part. 

Lloyd {State Worthies) describes Sir Julius as ' a person of prodigious 
bounty to all of worth or want, so that he might seem to be Almoner- 
general of the Nation. . . . The story is well known of a gentleman who 
once borrowing his Coach (which was as well known to poor people as 
any Hospital in England) was so rendezvous'd about with Beggars in 
London that it cost him all the money in his purse to satisfie their impor- 
tunity ; so that he might have hired twenty Coaches on the same terms.' 
He bore Gules, three roses arg., on a chief of the 1st so many roses 
of the 2nd, ' embleming the fragrancy of the Memory he hath left 
behind him.' 

In the eighteenth century Caesar's Buildings were threatened with 
demolition. In a poem recited in the Sheldonian on July 8, 1773, at the 
installation of Lord North, decrying changes that were taking place, the 
author says : — 

' Ignoscant Baliolenses 
Si verum fatear. Quanquam nitidissima surgat 
Fisheri moles, mihi sit cum Caesare semper 
Pompeiove locus ; veteri gratoque recessu 
Et studiis apto. Sed ni malus auguror, ipse 
Cum Pompeio una Caesar mox concidet. Unam 
Haec aetas utrique feret malesana ruinam.' 



1 Athenae, i. 738. 



2 Ibid. i. 753. 



CHARTER FELLOWS. 



203 



NOTE B. 
Charter Fellows and Scholars. 

The first of the original fellows was Thomas Godwyn, already known 
as a learned writer. He entered Magdalen Hall, May 7, 1602, aged fifteen 
(second son of Anthony, of Wookey, Somerset, pleb.) ; demy of Magdalen 
1604-10 ; B.A. 1607; M.A. 1609. He was then chosen Chief Master of 
Roysse's School, which he brought into a flourishing condition. He 
printed 'for the vse of Abingdon Schoole' a Florilegium Phrasicon 
(1613? or 1614), and also in 1613, published at Oxford, his Romanae 
Historiae Anthologia. Finding the pedant's profession too laborious for 
his strength, he left Abingdon in 1616 to become chaplain to Bishop 
Montague. In that year Godwyn proceeded B.D., and dedicated to his 
patron Synopsis Antiquitatum Hebraicarum (Oxford, 4to, three books). 
While at Abingdon he espoused Philippa Tesdale, whom I cannot 
trace, and afterwards Elizabeth Tesdale. Wood thinks he was in 1624 
still master of Abingdon School. His Moses and Aaron, put forth the 
next year, attracted a good deal of learned notice and went through many 
editions. Bishop Montague in 1626 presented him to Brightwell, Berks, 
where he died March 20, i64§, and is buried in the chancel. His wife 
survived him. An Arminian work of Godwyn's — Three Arguments to 
prove Election upon Foresight of Faith — embroiled him in a warm con- 
troversy with Dr. William Twiss of Newbury. According to Samuel 
Clarke, ' Dr. T. promptly whipped the old schoolmaster.' Godwyn had 
taken D.D. Nov. 18, 1637. 

Robert Payne (matr. Christ Church, July 5, 161 1, aged fifteen ; B.A. 
July 4, 1614 ; M.A. July 4, 1617) was the second Charter fellow. He 
came from Abingdon. He was canon of Christ Church 1638-48; created 
D.D. Nov. 1, 1642. Dr. Payne seems to have been sequestered in 1646 
from the rectory of Tormarton by the Westminster Assembly, because 'he 
hath deserted the Cure for the space of three years past, and resided 
in y e garrison of Oxon.' 

Christopher Tesdale was at first at New College (matr. Feb. 22, 
161^, aged nineteen ; B.A.Oct. 29, 1614; M.A.June 10, 1618). In 1626 he 
was made canon of Chichester, and in 1628 preferred to a stall at Wells; 
parson of Rollstone, Wilts, 1633 5 of Hurstbourne Tarrant, Hants, 1638 ; 
of Everleigh, Wilts, 1646. He sate in the Westminster Assembly, with 
his cousin John Tesdale, and preached before the House of Commons 
a fast sermon — 'Jerusalem, or a Vision of Peace' — Aug. 28, 1644. His 
son and grandson were fellows. 

Nicholas Coxeter was also an Abingdonian. He had been a member 
of Broadgates (matr. Nov. 10, 1615, aged eighteen; B.A. from Magdalen 
Hall 1619; M.A. 1622). In 1625 he became vicar of Dunstew, Oxon. 

Charles Sagar was probably the son of Charles Sagar, parson of 
South Morton (ob. 1602), and himself rector there, dying 1637. 

Thomas Westley entered Christ Church June 2, 1617, aged nineteen 



204 CHARTER FELLOWS AND SCHOLARS. 

(of London, gent.) ; B.A. 1617 ; M.A. 1620. In 1625 he was preferred to 
Marcham, Berks; in 1634 to Wells St. Cuthbert ; and in 1635 to East 
Brent. At the Restoration he was made canon of Wells. 

William Lyford, son of W T illiam Lyford, rector of Peasemore (ob. 1632), 
entered Magdalen Hall April 28, 161 5, aged seventeen ; demy of Magdalen 
1617-20; B.A. 1618; fellow of Magdalen 1620-33; M.A. 1621 (incor- 
porated at Cambridge 1623); B.D. 1631. He succeeded his father at 
Peasemore (1632-7) ; vicar of Sherborne, 1632. He sate in the West- 
minster Assembly. Died Oct. 3, 1653. There were Lyfords at Stanford 
Deanly, and William was doubtless a Tesdale fellow. 

Henry Wightwicke was afterwards Master ; vide infra. 

John Price was on the Wightwick foundation. Probably B.A. from 
Magdalen July 7, 1627. 

William Griffith was a member of Broadgates(matr. Nov. 10, 1621, 
aged eighteen ; of com. Gloucester, gent,). He proceeded B.C.L. March 
17, i62f. 

Scholars. 

John LEE, son of John, of a good Abingdon family, entered Balliol 
as a Tesdale scholar Oct. 1 1, 1622, aged nineteen ; B.A. Oct. 19, 1622. At 
Pembroke, ' as at Balliol, he was an indefatigable Student and of proficiency 
answerable. He wrote an enterlude, but never acted or published, and 
hath a Lat. Speech in print V M.A. July 2, 1625. The speech is that 
delivered at the inauguration of the College. He died shortly after. ' It 
may be said of all the other five together compared to him,' writes Savage 
of the Tesdale scholars, 'as was answered of Mercuries Picture in the 
fable compared to Jupiter's and Juno's, viz. That he that would buy these 
two, should have the third into the bargain.' 

William Reade was also an Abingdonian, and placed at Balliol 
(matr. Oct. 26, 1621, aged seventeen; B.A. Oct. 16, 1623). 

Francis Dringe took B.A. from Balliol Feb. 6, 162I; M.A. from 
Pembroke, July 6, 1626. Kin to Tesdale. 

Richard Allen, from Abingdon, plebeii films, entered Balliol July 
16, 1 62 1 ; B.A. June 10, 1624. He was afterwards fellow of Pembroke ; 
M.A. April 17, 1627. Allen was beneficed near Ewelme. He wrote 
An Antidote against Heresiej or a Preservative for Protestants against 
the Poyson of Papists, Anabaptists, etc., Lond. 1648, dedicated to his 
uncles, Sir Thomas Gainsford, Knt., and Humphry Huddleston, Esq. 

JOHN Bowles took B.A. from Balliol June 22, 1626. He became 
a fellow of Pembroke ; M.A. 1629; created B.D. 1642. For his warfare 
with the Parliamentary Commissioners vide infra. 

John Grace. 

Thomas Millington, son of Walter, of Hopton Castle, Salop, pleb. 
Matr. June 15, 1627. 
Humphrey Gwynne. 



1 Ath. Ox. i. 851. 



BISHOP GRIFFITH. 



205 



Richard Kirfoote. 

George Griffith, afterwards Bishop of St. Asaph, entered Christ 
Church, as a Westminster student, Nov. 12, 1619; B.A. June 26, 1623; 
M.A. May 9, 1626; B.D. Oct. 23, 1632; licensed to preach 1633 ; D.D. 
Nov. 4, 1634. He was the third son of Robert Griffith, of Carreylwyd, 
gent., and was born at Llanfaethlu, Anglesey, Sept. 30, 1601. He was 
distinguished as a college tutor and as a preacher. He became chaplain 
to Bishop Owen, who made him Canon and Archdeacon of St. Asaph 
(1632), and rector of Newtown, Llanfechain, Llandrinio, and Llanymyrach. 
In the Convocation of 1640 he urged the need of a new edition of Bishop 
Morgan's Welsh Bible, himself afterwards undertaking a translation of 
the revised Common Prayer of 166 1 into the British tongue. He described 
himself as an ' episcopal presbyterian ' ; and in a public disputation with 
Vavasour Powel, in 1652, argued that * mixt ways 5 were better than 
separation. Dr. Griffith had much controversy with the Itinerants. 
' Keeping up the Offices and Ceremonies ' of the Church he was deprived 
of 'most or all of his Spiritualities,' and 'therefore rewarded after his 
Majesties Restauration.' By Sheldon's influence he was nominated to 
St. Asaph, and consecrated Oct. 28, 1660, with four others. The see, 
however, had very meagre revenues. Griffith took some part in the 
Savoy Conference, ' speaking but once or twice a few words calmly.' 
Lloyd affirms that the new form of Adult Baptism was composed by him. 
Certainly he was one of three prelates charged with the task. In his 
diocese he restored order and cared for sacred fabricks. He died Nov. 
28, 1666. The short inscription on his tomb in his cathedral church 
ends, ' Qui plura desiderat, facile investiget.' 

The last four of these scholars were named on the Wightwick 
foundation. 



CHAPTER XVI. 



KING, CHANCELLOR, AND PRIMATE. 

The charter granted to the College designated it as ' of the founda- 
tion of King James V Kings, at any rate in more recent centuries, 
have not usually been able to give more than their favour and name to 
any institution ; or if, like Henry VIII, they have bestowed more, it 
has been taken from Peter to enrich Paul. If James I gave Pembroke 
nothing but his patronage, Charles I presented it with a substantial 
endowment, and his Grand-daughter augmented the income of the 
Mastership with a canonry. 

There is perhaps some disinclination to claim the shrewdest of 
Sophomores as Founder, as there is at Christ Church disinclination to 
own the greatest and most erudite of Robbers. But James I's many 
unkingly qualities have created a disposition to do him less than 
justice as an acute patron of letters, who attracted many learned men 
to England. When he visited Oxford he came, Mr. Goldwin Smith 
remarks, to ' a seat of learning where he felt supreme, and, to do him 
justice, was not unqualified to shine V Southey quotes Burton : 
' When he went into the Bodleian he broke out into that noble speech : 
" If I were not a king I would be an University man ; et si unquam 
mihi in fatis sit ut captivus ducar, si mihi daretur optio, hoc cuperem 
carcere concludi, his catenis illigari, cum hisce captivis concatenatis 
aetatem agere." ' He would have been pleased to know that, though the 
chains of that priceless captivity have long been struck off the books, 
a fellow 3 of his own College succeeded in defeating the conversion 
of the Bodleian into a lending library. At the Hampton Court Con- 
ference the king excelled both sides not only in good temper but in 

1 In a document of 1636, 'of the foundation of James late king, in the charge 
and custody of Thomas Teasdell and Richard Whitwick.' 

2 Christopher Trevelyan reports to his father that the King showed great learning 
in his disputing and moderating : ' who always graced the University exceedingly ' 
(Trevelyan Papers). ' He was not more pleasant at no time since he came into 
England.' 

3 The late Professor Chandler. 



A ROYAL FOUNDATION. 



207 



learning. It was to James that Shakespeare paid the fine compliment, 

'Knowledge makes a king most like his Maker'; 

and he wrote with his own royal hand a letter to the playwright. If 
the splendid panegyric at the end of Henry the Eighth is flattery, to 
have been flattered by Shakespeare is glory enough. This prince was a 
considerable benefactor of the library of St. Andrews. For the Bodleian 
he procured the valuable right to a copy of every book issued. He loved 
to connect himself with the universities of his kingdoms and concern 
himself with their minutest affairs. He visited Oxford within two 
years of his accession. He confirmed it and Cambridge in their privi- 
leges, and gave them their representation in Parliament and patronage 
of Romanist livings. James augmented the Regius professorship of 
Divinity, and the chairs of Law and Physic. This set an example, 
and in his reign Saville founded two Mathematical lectures, Camden 
a History chair, Sedley one in Natural Philosophy, Dr. White one in 
Moral Philosophy, Tomlins an Anatomy lecture ; the Physic Garden 
was inaugurated, and the noble structure of the Schools built. Besides 
the two new Oxford foundations, Harvard was endowed by a Cam- 
bridge man not long after James's accession. His wish, therefore, to 
be considered the founder of a new College at Oxford was not an 
unmeaning whim, but one of many proofs of an enlightened enthusiasm 
for the promotion of the arts and knowledges. 

Over the south entrance of Wilton church, now destroyed, under 
the many-quartered arms of Herbert, was the following inscription, as 
given by Sir Richard Hoare 1 : — 

'Be it remembered, that at the 8th day of April 1589 [1580?], on 
Friday, before 12 of the clock at night of the same day, was born William 
Lord Herbert of Cardiffe, first child of the Noble Henry Herbert, Erie of 
Pembroke, by his most dere wyfe Mary, daughter of the Right Hon ble Sir 
Henry Sidney, Knight of the most noble order, &c. and the Lady Mary 2 , 
daughter to the famous John Duke of Northumberland, and was Xt'ned 
the 28th day of the same month, in the mannour of Wilton. The God- 
mother, y e mighty and most excellent Princess Elizabeth, by the grace of 
God Queene of England, by her deputye the most virtuous Lady Anne 
Countice of Warwick ; and the Godfathers were the Noble and famous 
Erie Ambrose, Erie of Warwick, and Robert Erie of Lycester, both great 
uncles to the infant by the mother's side, Warwick in person, and Lycester 
by his deputye Philip Sydney, Esq., uncle, by the mother's side, to the fore- 

1 History of Wiltshire, Hundred of Branch and Dole, p. 143. 

2 The Countess Mary was that ' Subject of all verse, Sidney's sister, Pembroke's 
mother,' of whom Jonson sings, and to whom the Arcadia was dedicated. 



208 



THE EARL OF PEMBROKE. 



named young Lord Herbert of Cardiff, whom the Almighty and most 
precious God blesse, with his mother above-named, with prosperous life 
in all happiness, in the name of God. Amen' 

The petition of the burgesses of Abingdon to King James had been 
presented by the Chancellor of the University, William Herbert, third 
Earl of Pembroke, the most eminent of a family, Welsh in origin, in 
which that title had been twice revived, viz. by Edward IV and by 
Henry VIII. It was resolved to name the College after him. Aubrey 
styles him ' the greatest Maecenas to learned men of any peer of his 
time or since.' He and his brother Philip, the Puritan libertine, are 
the ' incomparable pair of brethren ' to whom Shakespeare's first folio 
was dedicated by the editors in 1623. Mr. Gardiner calls him 'the 
Hamlet of Charles's Court.' In his ' Observations on the Life of 
William, Earl of Pembroke,' Fuller says : — 

' He was an ancient gentleman of good repute, and therefor well 
esteemed ; a proper person well set, and of graceful deportment, and 
therefor well beloved of King James and queen Anne ; his inclination 
was as generous as his extraction, and manners ancient as his family. 
One of his ancestors is renowned, for that he would condescend to deliver 
his embassies in no language but Welsh ; he is commended for that he 
would comply with no customs in his converse but the old English — 
though his contemporaries make that his defect rather than his ornament, 
proceeding from his want of travel rather than his observance of antiquity : 
he having had only (saith the historian) the breeding of England, which 
gave him a conceited dislike of foreign men their manners and mode, or 
of such English as professed much advantage thereby ; so that the Scots 
and he were ever separate; and therefore he was the only old courtier 
that kept close to the commonalty and they to him, though never suspected 
by either of his sovereigns ; not because he was not over-furnished with 
abilities (as that pen insinuates) to be more than loyal, but because he 
had too much integrity to be less. 

' Being munificent and childless, the University of Oxford hoped to be 
his executor, and Pembroke Colledge his heir — Pembroke Colledge, I say, 
called so not only in respect to, but also in expectation from him, then 
chancellor of the university ; and probably had not our noble Lord died 
suddenly soon after (according as a fortune teller had informed him, whom 
he laughed at that very night he departed, being his birth-night), this 
colledge might have received more than a bare name from him. " He 
was (saith one of his own time 1 ) the very picture and Viva Effigies of 
nobility ; his person rather majestick than elegant ; his presence, whether 
quiet or in motion, full of stately gravity ; his mind generous and purely 
heroick ; often stout but never disloyal ; so vehement an opponent of the 
Spaniard as, when that match fell under consideration, he would some- 

1 Anthony Wood, Athenae, i. 795. 



THE EARL OF PEMBROKE. 



209 



times rouze to the trepidation of king James, yet kept in favour still ; for 
that king knew plain dealing as a jewel in all men, so was in a privy- 
councellor an ornamental duty. . . . The same true-heartedness com- 
mended him to king Charles, with whom he kept a most admirable 
correspondence, and yet stood the firm confident of the commonalty ; 
and that not by a sneaking cunning but by an erect and generous 
prudence, such as rendered him as unsuspected of ambition on the one 
side as of faction on the other, being generally beloved and regarded V ' 

The story of his death on April 8, 1630, is thus referred to by 
Clarendon : — 

At a meeting 'of some Persons of Quality, of relation or dependence 
upon the said Earl of Pembroke (Sir Charles Morgan, Dr. Feild Bishop 
of St. David's, and Dr. Chafin the Earl's chaplain) at Supper one of them 
drank a health to the Lord Steward ; upon which another of them said 
that he believ'd his Lord was at that time very Merry, for he had now 
outliv'd the day which his Tutor Sandford 2 had prognosticated upon his 
Nativity he would not outlive ; but he had done it now, for that was his 
Birth-day, which had compleated his age to fifty years. The next morn- 
ing, by the time they came to Colebrook, they met with the news of his 
Death.' 

He died at Baynard's Castle, his house in London. Aubrey says 
that he ' intended to prove a great benefactor ' to the College. ' He was 
master/ says Clarendon, ' of a great Fortune . . . but all serv'd not 
his Expence, which was only limited by his great mind and occasions 
to use it nobly. ... He was rather regarded and esteem'd by King 
James than lov'd and favour'd. ... As his Conversation was most with 
men of the most pregnant parts and understanding, so towards any 
such who needed support or encouragement, though unknown, if fairly 
recommended to him, he was very liberal.' Every New Year's day 
Jonson received £20 from Pembroke to buy books. Inigo Jones 
visited Italy at his charges. Massinger was trained up at Wilton and 
supported by the Earl at St. Alban Hall. He was the friend of Donne. 
Chapman, Davison, and others dedicated grateful poems to him. 
Bacon thanked him for ' the moderation and affection his lordship 
shewed in my business,' and solicited his future favour ' for the 
furtherance of my private life and fortune.' Across the ocean the 
Virginians spoke of the Pembroke River, now the Rappahannock, and 
part of the Bermudas was named after the powerful and princely 
noble. He died leaving no child to inherit, and the young College 
that bore his name may have hoped to be regarded as his issue. 

1 State Worthies, ii. 230. 

2 Similar predictions were made by Ellinor Davies, and by Thomas Allen of 
Gloucester Hall (Atkenae, i. 866). Wood there says he died April 10th. 



2IO 



THE EARL OF PEMBROKE. 



'O that you were yourself! But, love, you are 
No longer yours than you yourself here live. 
Against this coming end you should prepare, 
And your sweet semblance to another give.' 

If so, such expectations were shattered by his sudden and intestate 
death. The year before he had purchased the famous Baroccio 
library of 250 Greek MSS. brought from Venice by a London 
stationer, and 'by the Perswasion of Archbishop Laud' presented it to 
the University. It was thought to be ' the most valuable Collection 
that ever came into England/ He gave it ' remembering the obliga- 
tion he had to his Mother the University, first for breeding him, after 
for the honour they did in making him their Chancellor.' He was 
elected January 29, 161 7. 'Following Laud's direction/ says Prof. 
Margoliouth, Pembroke was both a benefactor and reformer of the 
University. His escutcheon is over the south gateway of the Schools. 

There is a brass statue of this earl, designed by Rubens and carried 
out by Lesceur, in the Bodleian Gallery, once at Wilton, and a full- 
length painting by Vandyck — in a black dress with George and 
Garter, holding his white wand of office. In this and in the fine 
portraits at Wilton by Vandyck and Mytens he is seen not in 'the 
lovely April of his prime,' or in that first melancholy beauty of 
' a woman's face with Nature's own hand painted,' the ' seemly 
raiment ' of the poet's heart — 

'The flowers I noted, yet I none could see 
But sweet or colour it had stolen from thee ' — 

but he appears in the early autumn of noble manhood a little before 
his untimely death, not yet 'crush'd and o'erworn' by decay's 
' injurious hand/ or dimmed by ' age's steepy night,' and ' wreckful 
siege of battering days.' 

'Time, carve not with thy hours my love's fair brow, 
Nor draw no lines there with thine antique pen.' 

William Herbert lies with his mother, with Sidney, and others of 
his house, in Salisbury Cathedral, in front of the present high altar ; 
but no ' marble herse ' marks the spot. 

'Your monument shall be my gentle verse, 
Which eyes yet not created shall o'er read ; 
And tongues to be your being shall rehearse, 
When all the breathers of this world are dead.' 

' O Muse, it lies in thee 
To make him much outlive a gilded tomb, 
And to be praised of ages yet to be.' 



PEMBROKE; ARCHBISHOP ABBOT. 211 



It is related that, when his body was opened for embalming, he lifted 
his hand, ' affording a presumption that he died of apoplexy.' ' A 
singular lover of learning and of the professours thereof,' says Wood. 
' Himself learned, and endowed to admiration with a poetical genie, 
as by those amorous and not inelegant Aires and Poems of his 
composition doth evidently appear ; some of which had musical Notes 
set to them, by Hen. Lawes and Nich. Laneare! Pembroke's poems, 
mingled with verses by Raleigh, Dyer, Carew, and others, were edited 
in 1660 by Donne, and reprinted in 1817. They are graceful but not 
sinewy. Clarendon, in a fine study of his character, of which he does 
not conceal some darker features, styles this nobleman ' the most 
universally loved and esteemed of any man of that age.' 

There is an older Foundation of the same name at Cambridge — 
which claimed in Wood's time to be the oldest in the land — Ridley's 
'own dear College,' called from the number of its prelate sons 
' collegium episcopate,' and by Elizabeth apostrophized as 1 domus 
antiqua et religiosa.' Spenser, Gray, and Pitt were there. Pembroke 
Hall, which has dropped that honourable style for the commonplace 
1 College/ was founded in the fourteenth century by Mary, widow of 
Aylmer de Valencia, Earl of Pembroke, and was long called ' the Hall 
or House of Valence Mary.' These earls of Pembroke were 
unconnected with the later family which bore and bears that title. 

Tesdale's noble bequest had been suggested by Dr. George Abbot 
(1562-1633), then Bishop of London — 'ad hanc munificentiam,' 
wrote Clayton to him on the morrow of the inauguration of Pembroke 
College, ' per Te edoctus, animatus Tisdallus.' ' Patronus noster 
colendissimus,' he styles him. Abbot had been Fellow of Balliol (1583) 
and Master of University (1597). The deanery of Winchester, which 
Elizabeth gave him in 1599, had connected him with New College. 
As principal trustee under Tesdale's will he could have secured the 
£5,000 for one of these societies. His promotion of the Pembroke 
project may have been actuated by the wish to please the King. The 
statement in the Dictionary of National Biography that the archbishop 
' contributed largely to the new foundation of Pembroke ' must not be 
understood of pecuniary benefaction \ nor was he in sufficient favour 

1 Abbot gave £100 to the Balliol Library, £100 to University, and £150 to the 
Schools building. He founded the hospital for decayed tradesmen at Guildford 
(where his father had been a clothworker), and built a conduit at Canterbury. 
Heylin however asserts that ' marks of his benefactions we find none in places of 
his breeding and preferment.' Onslow says, ' he was eminent for piety and a care 
for the poor, and his hospitality fully answered the injunction King James laid on 
him, which was to carry his house nobly, and live like an archbishop.' 

P 2 



212 



ARCHBISHOP ABBOT. 



at Court in 1624 to do much for its fortunes. Yet he stood in a very 
fatherly relation to the new College. 1 Paucis habeto gratitudinem 
Tuorum Pembrochiensium/ writes the Master, ' rationem redditam 
actorum in natalibus Collegii hujus nuperi, in honorem & solatium 
Tuum, qui benefacta Tui Tisdalli non male locata laetabere.' The 
Primate is humbly prayed to number the members of the College, 
bereaved of their Founder, his friend, among his sons. As Tesdale's 
beneficiaries they were committed to his guardianship. While Vice- 
Chancellor, Abbot had endeavoured to check the rising Laudian 
movement, and Clarendon remarks that he was 'totally ignorant of 
the true constitution of the Church of England V But he did not 
impress any puritan character on the newly founded College. Wood 
says that the archbishop ' was a learned man and had his erudition all 
of the old stamp.' ' King James/ remarks Speaker Onslow, ' had too 
much affectation that way to prefer any one to such a station who had 
not borne the reputation of a scholar. His parts seem to have been 
strong and masterly, his preaching grave and eloquent, and his style 
equal to any of that time/ Clarendon ambiguously observes, ' He 
had been master of one of the poorest colleges in Oxford, and had 
learning sufficient for that province/ Abbot's best known work is 
his Exposition of Jonah, delivered between 1594 and 1599 in 
St. Mary's early on Thursday mornings, ' sometimes before daybreak.' 
But his chief glory must be his part in the sacred and deathless 
English of the Four Gospels. He seems to have been an honest but 
tactless ruler, who had the art of making enemies and shooting at 
the wrong quarry. ' According to his desire his body was buried in 
the Chappel of our Lady within Trinity Church in Guildford. Over 
his grave was soon after built a sumptuous Altar, or Table-monument, 
with his proportion in his Pontificalia lying thereon, supported by six 
pillars of the Dorick order, of black Marble, standing on six pedestals 
of piled books with a large inscription.' 

1 1 He considered the Christian religion no otherwise than as it abhorred or 
reviled popery.' Clarendon speaks of his morose manners and sour aspect. Wood, 
who however praises his piety and gravity, remarks that ' he, having never been 
Rector or Vicar of a parish, and so consequently was in a manner ignorant of the 
trouble that attended the ministers of God's word, was the cause (as some think) 
why he was harsh to them, and why he shew'd more respect to a Cloak than 
a Cassock ' {Athenae, i. 499). His services however in restoring apostolic 
discipline in Scotland, while in attendance on the Earl of Dunbar, had caused 
James to nominate him to the see of Lichfield and Coventry. He strongly dis- 
approved his brother Robert's second marriage just after his consecration as 
bishop. 



CHAPTER XVIL 



MASTERSHIPS OF CLAYTON AND LANGLEY. 

The last Principal of Broadgates and first Master of Pembroke 
was a man of considerable mark, Dr. Thomas Clayton, Regius 
Professor of Medicine. The previous century had been one of much 
advance in physical studies. In 1524 Thomas Lynacre had endowed 
two lectures in that science, hitherto in monkish hands. Edward VI 
consolidated the two lectureships in one, and a royal endowment 
was added to the chair by James I, who in 161 7 annexed to it the 
Mastership of Ewelme Hospital. Dr. Clayton, who had been made 
King's Professor of Physick March 9, 161 1, was the first to hold 
the Ewelme preferment, when it fell vacant in 1628. In 1623, 
shortly after Harvey's great discovery of the circulation of the blood, 
Mr. Richard Tomlyns, of Westminster, endowed a praelectorship in 
Anatomy, and the first reader nominated by him 1 was Dr. Clayton, 
who delivered his inaugural lecture March 12, 1624. Clayton was 
also Musick Professor in Gresham College, 1607-11. He had 
originally 2 been a member of Balliol (matr. Oct. 15, 1591, aged 
sixteen; B.A. Oct. 17, 1594), but took M.A. from Gloucester Hall 
(where he had pupils) March 31, 1599. In 1605 he disputed in 
Natural Philosophy before the King. He was licensed to practise 
medicine in 1610; M.B. and M.D. from Balliol June 20, 16 n. On 
June 14, 1620, in his capacity of Professor of Medicine, he was 
nominated by the Earl of Pembroke to succeed Budden as Principal 
of Broadgates. What part Clayton took in bringing about the 
transformation from Hall to College we can only surmise. It has 

1 The Regius Professor of Physick was always to be the Reader. The salary of 
£25 was enlarged in 1638. 1 The chief office of the Reader is every Springtime, 
immediately after the Assizes are ended, to procure an intire and Sound body of 
one of the Malefactors then condemn'd or hang'd ; or, if that cannot be done, to 
get an intire and sound Body of some other Person ; which being thus procur'd he 
is oblig'd to have it prepar'd and cut up by some Skillful Surgeon ' (Hearne, 
ii. 379)- He was to lecture four times on the corpse and have it decently buried, 
' for which he is to allow fourty shillings.' Every term he must ' read publickly 
upon the Bones ' thrice. 

2 Gutch in a note (p. 617) says he was first at Gloucester Hall. Clayton had 
his schooling at Newcastle-on-Tyne. 



214 



DR. CLAYTON. 



already been mentioned that he built the upper end of the refectory. 
He saw a large part of the quadrangle erected. ' The limits of the 
College being too small,' he acquired, in 1626, for £350 Cambey's 
for a Master's residence; in 1629 the lease of Summaster's (Minote 
Hall) was conveyed to the College by Richard Evans, barber and 
innholder ; that of the All Souls tenement 1 by Thomas Ray of New 
Woodstock ; that of Wylde's Entry and that of Dunstan Hall by 
John Glover of New Woodstock; and finally (for £120) the lease of 
Beef Hall by Evans, Ray, and Glover. The dismantled Library over 
Docklinton's aisle was 'for some years before the Grand Rebellion 
broke out partly employed for chambers'; in Clayton's Mastership 
this desecration was put an end to, and the room was ' furnished 
and repaired by several Benefactors.' He himself gave £20 'for the 
setting up of four pews or repositories, besides several books as well 
printed as written/ ' William Gardiner of Linton, sometime of the 
University, gave most of, if not all, his Study of books. Sir Robert 
Hanson 2 of London, knight, and Dr. John Wall, sometime 3 Rector 
of St. Aldate's church, did give divers others/ Francis Rous ' did 
intend to give his whole Study, but being dissuaded to the contrary 
gave only his own works and some few others/ 

Clayton was one of Laud's Delegates for reforming the University 
in 1633. In 1647, j ust before his death, he was placed on the 
Delegacy for resisting the parliamentary Visitation and the imposition 
of the Covenant. He died July 10, 1647, an d was buried on the 
morrow in St. Aldate's, where two of his daughters and a son-in-law 
also lie. By his wife 4 , daughter of his predecessor in the Chair of 
Medicine, Dr. Bartholomew Warner (1558-16 19), he had three sons, 
Sir Thomas, William, and James (of whom the first two were at the 

1 So Gutch's Wood, Colleges and Halls, p. 623. But rather on Oct. 28, 1634; 

2 Lord Mayor 1672-3; born 1608. His great-grand-daughter, Elizabeth Wayte, 
of Dauntsey, was married to ' Mr. Harry Whitwick ' (fellow of Pembroke, rector 
of Ashley, near Malmesbury), at Broad Somerford, Wilts, Dec. 9, 1715. Their 
mourning rings are in the possession of a descendant, Miss Theresa Pitt, of 
Malmesbury. The portraits of Sir Thomas and Lady Hanson, dated 1638, belong 
to Mrs. Sarah Wightwick, of Codford St. Peter, Wilts. A son, Berkeley, entered 
Pembroke Aug. 6, 1662; buried in the Temple church, Nov. 9, 1679. 

3 161 7. Canon of Christ Church 1632; of Sarum 1644; vicar of Chalgrove 
1637. He was also chaplain to Philip Lord Stanhope. His sermons, Alae 
Seraphicae, were partly preached in St. Aldate's. He gave £2,040 to Oxford City 
for charitable uses. (See Athenae, ii. 259.) He was ' a quaint Preacher.' Arch- 
bishop Williams said he ' was the best read in the Fathers of any he ever knew.' 

4 One of his sisters-in-law was married to John Speed, M.D., son of c the 
Chronologer ' ; another to William Taylor, M.D. ; a third to Anthony Clopton, 
S.T.P., rector of Stanford Dingley, Wood's godfather. 



SIR THOMAS BROWNE. 215 

College and physicians), and four daughters, Bridget, Jane, Susanna, and 
Elizabeth \ Clayton bore — Argent, an owl ; a chief indented, sable. 

Under Dr. Clayton were fostered, in an inquiring age of faery and 
imaginative Baconianism, the medical studies of that last of the great 
nurslings of Broadgates and first of the eminent sons of Pembroke, 
Sir Thomas Browne — most strange and fascinating of our prose 
writers, ' the cardinal example/ according to Mr. Saintsbury, ' of 
the thought and manner of his time,' ' uniting in an extraordinary 
degree' (says another writer) 'fantastic speculation with scientific 
research, exquisite imaginative subtlety with patient common sense, 
unquestioning faith with calculating accuracy of thought, childlike 
reverence with minute questioning of strange mysteries, and blending 
many contradictory elements into harmony through the sweetness of 
a spirit of meditative gentleness.' His father, Thomas Browne, of 
worshipful Cheshire descent, had settled in London as a mercer, 
and died, leaving £9,000. The widow gave her hand to Sir Thomas 
Dutton, and left her boy to the care of rapacious guardians. A family 
group by Dobson, which is, or was, at Devonshire House, represents 
him in childhood. He was sent, however, to Winchester, and on 
December 5, 1623, entered Broadgates, aged eighteen. Mr. Foster 
(Alumni) says that he was a fellow of Pembroke ; I do not know 
on what evidence. One of the treasures of the College library is the 
MS. of the Religio Medici, presented in 1783 by the Rev. T. Wrigley, 
M.A. A letter to Dugdale on receipt of the second volume of the 
Monasticon, dated 'Sept. xi [1661] Norwich,' was given in 1895 by 
Dr. G. Birkbeck Hill. It was in the Dawson-Turner Collection till 
1859. Browne took B. A. Jan. 31, 162^; M.A. June 11, 1629, having, 
on July 10, 1637, incorporated D.Med, from Leyden (Padua, Foster). 

After practising medicine for a time round Oxford, he was induced by 
Dr. Lushington, his college tutor, then rector of Burnham Westgate, to 
settle at Norwich, where he was much resorted to for his skill. He is 
also described as sometime of Shipden Hall, Yorks. In 1641, though 
he held woman to be 'but the rib or crooked part of man,' and had 
wished the race of men might be propagated like trees, he espoused 
Dorothy Mileham, who bore him twelve children. The following year 
Religio Medici, written in 1634, was surreptitiously given by a friend to 
the world, and in a Latin version excited attention throughout Europe by 

1 Elizabeth Clayton = John Milbourne, of Alleston, Glouc, gent. One of her 
sons, Thomas, was fellow of Merton ; ob. 1676, aet. 23 ; the other, Clayton, 
represented Monmouth in Queen Anne's reign. Dr. Clayton's sister, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Lee, collected donations in 1620 from merchants living on London Bridge for the 
' new hall ' of Broadgates. His brother James was also a donor. 



2l6 



SIR THOMAS BROWNE. 



its paradoxical orthodoxy, its curious learning, its rich and lofty senti- 
ment. Guy Patin writes from Paris in 1645, 'On faict icy grand dtat du 
livre intitule" Religio Medici' The recondite erudition displayed in these 
musings of ' a philosopher most inward to nature ' would be more widely 
appreciated than the stately and strange charm of Browne's style. Kenelm 
Digby admired the book, and feared for his own literary pre-eminence. 
Salmasius said, however, that it ' contained many exorbitant conceptions 
in religion, and probably would find but frowning entertainment, especially 
among the ministers.' Buddaeus enrols Browne among English atheists. 
The Religio was indexed at Rome. On the other hand he was accused 
of Romanism. The book has been called ' a tour de force of intellectual 
agility; an attempt to combine daring scepticism with implicit faith in 
revelation.' His questionings indeed are those of an inquisitive child. 
'There is nothing,' he says, 'more acceptable unto the ingenious World 
than this noble Eluctation of Truth ; wherein against the tenacity of 
Prejudice and Prescription this Century now prevaileth V Browne 
represents the double reaction, conservative and latitudinarian, against 
Calvinism. The Quakers, because of his mysticism, hoped he would join 
them. He says of himself : ' I am naturally inclined to that which mis- 
guided zeal terms superstition, my common conversation I do acknowledge 
austere, my behaviour full of rigour, sometimes not without morosity ; 
yet at my devotion I love to use the civility of my knee hat and hand, 
with all those outward and sensible motions which may expresse or 
promote my invisible devotion. I should cut off* my arme rather than 
violate a Church window, than deface or demolish the memory of a Saint 
or Martyr. At the sight of a Crosse or Crucifix I can dispence with my 
hat, but not with the thought or memory of my Saviour. I cannot laugh 
at the fruitlesse journey of Pilgrims or contemne the miserable condition 
of Friars, for, though misplaced circumstances, there is something in it of 
devotion. I could never hear the Ave Marie Bell without an oration 
[prayer]. ... At a solemne procession I have wept abundantly, while my 
consorts, blind with opposition and prejudice, have fallen into an accesse 
of scorne and laughter. There are, questionlesse, both in Greek, Roman, 
and African Churches, solemnities and ceremonies whereof the wiser 
zeales do make a Christian use, and stand condemned by us, not as evill 
in themselves, but as allurances and baits of superstition to those vulgar 
heads that look asquint on the face of truth, and those unstable judge- 
ments that cannot consist in the narrow point and centre of justice, 
without a reele or stagger to the circumference.' 

He speaks of himself as ' sworn subject to the faith of the Church 
of England ': — 

' It is an unjust scandall of our adversaries, and grosse error in our 
selves, to compute the Nativity of our Religion from Henry the eight, 
who though he rejected the Pope refused not the faith of Rome, and 
effected no more than what his own Predecessors desired and assaied 
in ages past. It is as uncharitable a point in us to fall upon those 

1 Christian Morals, ii. § 5 (p. 189). 



SIR THOMAS BROWNE. 



217 



popular scurrilities and opprobrious scoffes of the Bishop of Rome, to 
whom as to a temporall Prince we owe the duty of a good language. 
I confesse there is cause of passion between us ; by his sentence I stand 
excommunicated. Heretick is the best langue he affords me; yet can 
no eare witnesse I ever returned to him the name of Antichrist, man of 
sin, or whore of Babylon. It is the method of charity to suffer without 
reaction.' ' I am of that reformed new-cast Religion, wherein I dislike 
nothing but the name ; of the same beliefe that our Saviour taught, the 
Apostles disseminated, the Martyrs confirmed, but by the sinister ends of 
Princes, the ambition and avarice of Prelates, and the fatall corruption 
of times so decaied, impaired, and fallen from its native beauty that it 
required the carefull and charitable hand of the times to restore it to 
its primitive integrity. . . . Yet have I not shaken hands with those 
desperate Resolvers, who had rather venture at large their decaied 
bottome than bring her in to be new trimd in the dock ... as to stand 
in diameter and swords point with them. We have reformed from them, 
not against them ; for, omitting those improperations and termes of 
scurrility betwixt us which only difference our affections and not our 
cause, there is betwixt us one common name and appellation, one faith 
and necessary body of principles common to us both ; and therefore 
I am not scrupulous to converse and live with them, to enter their 
Churches in defect of ours ; and either pray with them or for them.' 

But together with this Laudianism there is something of the school of 
Hales and Chillingworth in our author. Browne was a student of Dante. 
He was of course an alchemist and an astrologer. In 1664 he was 
chosen socius honorarius of the College of Physicians, and when 
Charles II visited Norwich in 167 1 he was knighted. Though a royalist, 
Browne had taken no part in the literary controversies of the Rebellion. 
His daughter Anne married Edward Fairfax, grandson to Thomas Lord 
Viscount Fairfax. The uneventful tenor of his life has caused specula- 
tion as to the meaning to be attached to his own account of it : ' For my 
life, it is a miracle of thirty years, which to relate were not a history but 
a piece of poetry, and would sound to common ears like a fable.' 
Perhaps he means that every life is a string of mysteries. 

Johnson, who was unlikely to appreciate the Rabelaisian fancy of this 
great and learned knight, or the quaint humour which could contrive 
a dialogue between twins before birth as to their future prospects in this 
world, writes somewhat slightingly of Browne, and criticizes even his racy 
Latinisms, which had, Boswell says, influenced his own diction. Lamb, in 
his charming way, is a direct imitator, and he was among Coleridge's first 
favourites. ' Rich in various knowledge, exuberant in conception and 
conceits, contemplative, imaginative, often truly great and magnificent 
in his style and diction. . . . Whatever happens to be his subject he 
metamorphoses all nature into it. He seems like no other writer, and 
his vast and solitary abstractions, stamped with his peculiar style, like 
the hieroglyphic characters of the East, carry the imagination back into 
the primaeval ages of the world and forward into the depths of eternity.' 
A later critic says that the last chapter of Urn Burial is ' a solemn 



SIR THOMAS BROWNE. 



homily on death and immortality unsurpassed in literature for sustained 
majesty of eloquence.' The Garden of Cyprus, or the Quincunxial 
Lozc?igc is the most fantastical of Browne's writings. A very delightful 
one is his Pseudodoxia Epidemica, or Inquiry into Vulgar Errours, 
published amid the clash of arms in 1646. Johnson observes justly : 
' He fell into an age in which our language began to lose the stability 
which it had obtained in the time of Elizabeth, and was considered by 
every writer as a subject on which he might try his plastick skill 
by moulding it according to his own fancy.' He has, Prof. Spalding 
observes, i all the distinctive characteristics of the last age of the Old 
English period in a state of extravagant exaggeration.' I give another 
specimen of his manner from Urn Burial: — 

' Time hath endless rarities . . . and a large part of the Earth is still in the 
Urn unto us. . . . Egyptian ingenuity was more unsatisfied, contriving their 
bodies in sweet consistencies, to attend the return of their Souls. But all 
was vanity, feeding the wind, and folly. The Egyptian mummies which 
Cambyses or time hath spared avarice now consumeth. Mummy is become 
merchandize, Misraim cures wounds, and Pharaoh is sold for balsams.' 

Browne died on his seventy-seventh birthday, Oct. 19, 1682, after 
eating too plentifully, Stukeley says, of a venison feast, and was buried 
in the great church of St. Peter Mancroft. A monument placed by his 
relict on a pillar south of the sanctuary, at the foot of which he lies, or 
lay, states him to have been ' Schola primum Wintoniensi, postea in 
Coll. Pembr. apud Oxonienses bonis literis haud leviter imbutus.' Dame 
Dorothy died in 1685. The skeleton was accidentally exposed in 1840, 
and his skull was 1 knaved out of its grave ' by the sexton, and found its 
way into the Norwich Hospital museum, with a portion of the beard. 
His hair was 'profuse and perfect and of a fine auburn colour,' but this 
doubtless was a periwig. The skull, on which Dr. Charles Williams of 
Norwich, a learned Brownian, has written a pamphlet, was toothless, 
dolichocephalic, the forehead remarkably low and depressed, the back 
deep and capacious. In 1893 the vicar of St. Peter Mancroft (Rev. W. 
Pelham Burn, a Pembroke man) was requested by the vestry to beg the 
hospital to repair the sacrilege by restoring Browne's remains, but with- 
out result. i Who,' he asks himself, ' knows the fate of his bones, or how 
often he is to be buried ? Who hath the oracle of his ashes, or whither 
they are to be scattered?' Browne's three-quarter presentment in the 
Bodleian used to hang in the Anatomy School. An oil painting was 
presented to St. Peter's church by Dr. Edw. Howman a Pembrochian, 
who in 1739 was living in the Brownes' house at Norwich. It hangs 
in the board-room of the hospital. His friend Whitefoot tells us : ' his 
complexion and hair was answerable to his name ; his stature was 
moderate, and a habit of body neither fat nor lean, but evaapKos. . . . He 
was always cheerful, but rarely merry. ... His modesty was visible in 
a natural habitual blush.' The College of Physicians has a half-length 
portrait. Lord Erskine was a direct descendant of Sir Thomas. 

1 Ob. 1753. His monument is in St. Stephen's church at Norwich. Edward 
Browne sold the house in 1685 to Dr. Roger Howman,' his father. 



OTHER PHYSICIANS ; DEAN JACKSON, 219 



Another pupil of Dr. Clayton's was Dr. George Joliffe, who 
migrated from Wadham to Pembroke 1638; M.A. 1643; incorpo- 
rated at Cambridge 1650; M.D. from Clare Hall 1652. His 
anatomy lectures in the College of Physicians, about 1653, got him 
' a great name.' ' He made some discovery of that fourth sort of 
Vessels plainly differing from veins, arteries, and nerves, now called 
Lympheducts 1 .' Joliffe, who served as lieutenant under Lord Hopton, 
was buried in St. James', Garlickhithe, 1655. An eminent man in the 
same art whom Clayton had attracted to Broadgates was Dr. Edward 
Dawson, Anthony Wood's godfather, originally at Cambridge and 
afterwards (1620) of Lincoln College; M.D. 1633; Fellow of the 
College of Physicians 1634. He, like Joliffe, died young, Dec. 16, 
1635. Clayton and Dawson took the leading part in the inauguration 
on July 25, 1622, of the Physick Garden 2 . In a Latin Epistle printed 
with John Day's Concio ad Clerum, Clayton's care for souls as well as 
bodies is spoken of. Day styles him ' Oxoniensium medicorum decus.' 
A testimony from a foreigner is contained in the dedication by Dr. 
James Primerose of his Academia Monspeliensis, 1 clarissimo viro et 
amico singulari Thomae Clayton.' Savage styles him ' a good Lin- 
guist, to whom great Avicenne might speak and be understood without 
an Interpreter.' 

Dr. Clayton was fortunate in securing for the new College the 
services of Dr. Thomas Jackson of C. C. C, afterwards President of 
that society, Dean of Peterborough, and Chaplain to King Charles I — 
'not more noteworthy/ Walton says, 'for his learning than for his 
strict and pious life, testified by his abundant love and meekness and 

1 Athenae, ii. 100. 

2 Described by Mons. Sorbiere in 1664 as 'small, ill-kept, and more like an 
orchard than a garden.' This however and the Apothecaries' Garden at Chelsea 
were the earliest public gardens in England. A garden attached to a University 
was formed at Pisa in 1545, and at Padua still earlier. With a gift of ^250 from 
Henry Earl of Danby to buy a piece of ground for ' a nursery of phisicall simples,' 
Oxford University purchased in 162 1 the Jews' cemetery. 'Afterwards much soil 
being conveyed hither for the raising of the ground, the day for the laying the first 
stone therof was designed. Which being come, viz. S. Jeamses day, 1622 [162 1, 
Life and Times, iv. 149], the Vice-cancellor, D 1 ' Peirce, about 2 of the clock in the 
afternoone togeather with the proctors and most of the doctors of the University 
solemnized it with great ceremony. For in the first place Mr. . . . Dawson, a 
phisitian of Broadgates, speak there an elegant oration ; then Dr. Clayton, the 
King's Professor of Phisick, another ; and last of all the Vice-cancellor ; with the 
offering severall sums of money according to the antient fashion. Afterwards 
the said Earl proceeded in building of it, and enclosing it with a very faire wall of 
freestone, and in the front therof next to East Bridge Street a comly gatehouse. 
Then caused to be planted therin divers simples for the advancement of the 
faculty of phisick' (Wood's City, i. 291). 



JACKSON ; SIR THOMAS CLAYTON. 



charity to all men.' Wood styles him ' the ornament of the University 
in his time.' Bishop Home speaks of Jackson as ' a magazine of 
theological knowledge, everywhere penned with great elegance and 
dignity, so that his style is a pattern of perfection.' He was logician, 
mathematician, philologist, orientalist, and much more, but all his 
attainments were ' as Drudges and Day-labourers to Theology.' His 
biographer, Vaughan, records that Dr. Jackson ' read a lecture of 
divinity in [his] college every Sunday morning, and another day 
of the week at Pembroke College (then newly erected) by the instance 
of the, Master and Fellows there/ As however he went to his 
northern preferment in 1625 \ he cannot have done this for any 
length of time, unless he resumed his lecture on his return to Oxford 
in 1630. Jackson was much esteemed by the King and by Laud, 
and his profound patristic studies weaned him from Puritanism — 
' transported beyond himselfe,' writes Prynne, ' with metaphysicall 
contemplations, to his owne infamy and his renowned Mother's 
shame, I meane the famous University of Oxford, who grieves for his 
defection, from whose duggs he never suckt his poisonous doctrines.' 

Dr. Clayton was followed in his chairs 2 by his son, Dr., afterwards 
Sir, Thomas Clayton, Fellow of Pembroke, who had submitted to 
the Visitation, and taken the Engagement — a ' poore-spirited fellow,' 
says Wood. At the Restoration he made himself useful to the 
winning side, and partly owing to his absence from Oxford on 
'public employments' the Act of June, 1660, was omitted. He was 
placed now himself on a commission to visit the University. Through 
the solicitations at Lambeth of his brother-in-law, Sir Charles Cotterel, 
Master of the Ceremonies, Clayton was made, in 1661, Warden of 
Merton. His forcible entry on his office is a well-known episode. 

'All seniors that had known what Thomas Clayton had been, did look 
upon him as the most impudent fellow in nature to adventure upon such 
a place, that had been held by eminent persons. They knew him well 
to have been a most impudent and rude fellow. They knew him to have 
been the very lol-poop of the University, the common subject of every 
lampoon that was made, and a fellow of little or no religion, only for 
forme-sake. They knew also that he had been a most lascivious person. 

1 Dr. F owler's Memorials of Corpus Christi College, p. 186. He vacated his fellow- 
ship Jan. 3, 162^ , and was dispensed to hold Newcastle with Winston May 12, 1625. 

2 Matters were not quite smooth, though Clayton had ' cringed to the men of 
the intervall. ' On June 12, 1649, Rous and the London Committee ordered ' That 
the Visitors of the Universitie of Oxon doe represent the whole state of the businesse 
concerning the place of Physicke Professor.' On July 11 the Visitors ordered 
' That Dr. Clayton be required to give a full accompt touchinge this businesse, 
imediately on his retourne to Oxoft.' 



SOME WARDENS OF MERTON. 221 



. . . The fellows of Merton Coll. did usually say, in the hearing of A. W., 
that as the College was dissolv'd in the time of the grand rebellion, so 
'twas no matter to them if it was dissolv'd againe, rather than Tom 
Clayton should be warden thereof.' 

Dame Bridget's pride and frivolity made her even more odious 
than her husband. Women in College had been hitherto looked 
upon as ' a scandall and an abomination V Everything had to be 
altered for her, while for Sir Thomas, a man of great stature, the 
wicket gate had to be made higher, and a bedstead large as King Og's 
to be bought for £40 out of the College bag. Clayton was Regius 
Professor till 1665, but had resigned the Anatomy Chair in favour 
of his deputy, Sir William Petty, in 1650. He can hardly have been 
fit for the post, since, ' being possest of a timorous and effeminate 
humour, he could never endure the sight of a mangled or bloody body.' 
Though, or because, he had ' sided with all parties/ the University 
chose him its burgess in the Restoration Parliament. Pepys mentions 
meeting Clayton at the Swedish Agent's. ' Much extraordinary noble 
discourse of foreign princes.' He died Oct. 4, 1693, at his country 
seat, The Vach, near Chalfont, bought by him from the king's brother, 
and formerly the place of Fleetwood the regicide 2 . He was buried with 
his lady 3 in 1 a little vault of bricks ' under the tower of Merton. 

It is curious that in the next century also Pembroke supplied 
Merton with a quarrelsome physician for Warden, Dr. Robert 
Wyntle, an 'excellent scholar,' and one of the two first Radcliffe 
Travelling Fellows. He was chosen fellow of Merton at the ' Golden 
Election' of 1705. In Elizabeth's reign, James Gervase, D.C.L. 
(Proctor 1555), after being Principal of Broadgates, returned to 
Merton as Warden, and held office in an atmosphere of discord. 

A later Regius Professor of Medicine (1729) was Dr. William 
Beauvoir, a Guernsey man, Fellow of Pembroke 1704. 

SIEGE AND VISITATION. 
The Rebellion broke out in August, 1642. On September 1 the 
University was notified by the King that he had sent a troop of 

1 In 1 56 1 'the quen['s] grace has commondyd that all cathedralles and coleges 
and studyans places that they shuld putt ther wyffes from them owt of the serkutt 
of evere colege ' {Diary of Henry Machyn). 

2 One of this family, Harvey Fleetwood, son of Sir William Fleetwood 
(comptroller of Woodstock Park, and cupbearer to James I and Charles I), took 
B.A. from Pembroke in 1674. 

3 By her he had James and Bridget. The former (matr. at Merton 1666, aet. 15) 
wedded Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Richard Howe, Knt., who died in childbed 
in Merton College, April 9, 1661, and is buried in the chapel. 



222 COLLEGE PLATE; THE SIEGE. 

horse for its defence, and a council of twenty-eight was appointed, 
on which Pembroke was represented by John Bowles, M.A. On 
October 29 Charles, defeated at Edgehill, entered Oxford. The follow- 
ing January the King's first request for plate was sent to the Colleges 
and Halls. It has to be remembered that the King was fighting the 
cause of Oxford at least as much as Oxford was defending his. Wood 
expressly says, ' All sent, except New Inn/ Mr. Clark thinks this 
beyond doubt. But in the list preserved in the Tanner MSS. only twelve 
Colleges are named. The others were probably a little behind-hand in 
responding. Pembroke has silver going back to 1655, but nothing 
earlier. Aubrey says that William Earl of Pembroke gave the College 
a great piece of plate. It is unlikely that this should have been lost, 
and no doubt it went with whatever else the young society possessed 
to the mint at New Inn Hall 1 . The King's letter is preserved in the 
College archives. When a money contribution was being raised, the 
College collected £8 ijs. — almost as much as any other. In April, 
1643, a nst of scholars able and willing to serve the King was prepared. 

On 'die Sabbati 13 0 Jan. 1643' (1644), the war now drawing 
nearer, an order was issued for fortifying, victualling, and cleansing 
the city. Edward Heath was ordered to visit St. Aldate's, Pembroke, 
and New Inn Hall, and to call to him for assistance the constables, 
churchwardens, and any other persons he should think fit. The 
College was to supply sixty persons to work at the fortifications, to be 
called together by beat of drum. Defaulters were to pay one shilling 
per diem. The Heads of Merton, Brasenose, Lincoln, and Pembroke 
were 'quickened' by orders from London, early in 1645, to supervise 
the ' training of the scholars in martial discipline 2 .' 

In a return of all strangers within the city, Pembroke was shown 
to contain seventy-nine men, twenty-three women, and five children. 
While the King was in Oxford, the Secretary of State, Sir Edward 
Nicholas, had his lodging in the College, to which posts galloped up 
constantly, bringing stirring news. His second son, Edward, married 
Bridget, daughter of Sir Thomas Clayton. 

1 Pembroke College, Cambridge, has an ' Anathema Cup,' given by Dr. Layton, 
Bishop of Winton, and inscribed Qui alienaverit anathema sit, which accordingly 
was not given to King Charles. Pyxes and other sacramental vessels were, it 
would seem, respected. But no great sanctity would be felt to attach to Lord 
Pembroke's gift. The Rev. Henry Nowell Barton (scholar 1840-4, fellow 1844-9) 
tells me that he heard, but heard only, that a quantity of plate was found, when 
the new buildings were being erected, in an old privy. The silver was supposed 
to have been hidden in the Rebellion. 

2 Clarendon State Papers, i. 255. 



OXFORD BESIEGED.— THE SIX MINISTERS. 223 



On Midsummer Day, 1646, the city was surrendered, the royal 
army marching out with drums beating and colours flying. The 
victors were accompanied by their chaplains, who took possession of 
the pulpits. In September six (originally seven) ministers arrived 
from the Parliament ' to draw off from their loyal Principles and 
orthodox Religion the Scholars and inhabitants ' : ' their names — 
Cornish and Langley, two fooles ; Reynolds and Harrys, two knaves ; 
Cheynell and rabbi Wilkinson, two madmen.' The second, Henry 
Langley, M.A. (son of Thomas Langley, an Abingdon shoemaker), 
had been at Pembroke 1 , of which he was afterwards the de facto 
Master. These preachers were sent to prepare the way for a par- 
liamentary Visitation. In spite of Wood's description of them — ' their 
prayers and sermons were very tedious ; they made wry mouths, 
squint eyes, and scru'd faces, quite altering them from what God and 
Nature had made them. They had antick behaviours, squeaking 
voices and puling tones, fit rather for Stage players and country 
Beggars to use than such that were to speak the Oracles of God ' — 
or possibly because of these qualities, they seem to have had a good 
deal of success. * Those of the Gown that could not brook such 
persons did either leave the University or abscond in their respective 
houses till they could know their doom by the approaching Visitation.' 
But great numbers flocked to the Thursday conferences at the 
' Scruple Shop,' near the Saracen's Head, where doubting brethren 
had hard cases of conscience resolved, as well as to the Sunday 
exercises. Langley was one of the rising hopes of the New Model. 
In Oxonii Lacrymae, 1649, ne is described as 'one Langley, a Novice, 
run so giddy in his wheels that he usually stuffs his Pulpit-peece with 
rare hyperbolicall Non-Sence.' The Presbyterians, however, were not 
likely to have everything their own way, and the Six were extremely 
embarrassed by an Independent regimental chaplain, Erbury, some- 
time of Brasenose, who not only held rival meetings but interrupted 
theirs. A conference was arranged for November 12, at which Erbury, 
the ' champion of the Seekers,' backed by a carpenter-captain, a shoe- 
maker-colonel, and a crowd of preaching troopers, was triumphant 
over the ministers, whom he challenged to say whence they had their 
call. ' At which the Doctors were unresolved what to answer, for if 
they should say from the Bishops they feared to displease the people, 
to whom they had often preached that they were antichristian, and 

1 He entered Nov. 6, 1629, with his cousin William Langley, afterwards 
preferred by the Assembly of Divines. 



224 



AN INTRUDED MASTER. 



yet they could not deny it, they having been all episcopally ordained 1 .' 
Langley in especial is described as reduced to muteness, though ' 'twas 
thought he reserved his resolutions for the other sex.' A month later 
Erbury undertook to prove that the fulness of the Godhead dwelt 
bodily in himself and the other saints in the same measure as it dwelt 
in Christ on earth. On this point the ministers had another disputa- 
tion with him in St. Mary's, but finding they could make no head 
against this blasphemous fanatic they complained of him to Fairfax. 
Erbury disappeared, but Langley and his fellows had already, in 
Wood's phrase, let Hell loose, and pulpit and rostrum rang with the 
profane harangues of illiterate buff-jackets. The young scholars, idle 
and debauched through soldiering, were scattered. The seniors were 
soon to be displaced. Scarcely the face of a University remained 
amid that wreck of honour and learning — the Schools deserted, the 
Colleges ruinous, their treasure-chests empty and libraries pillaged. 

Within a week of the surrender of Oxford the parliamentary 
Committee for the University, presided over by Francis Rous, of 
whom more will be said among the Pembroke benefactors, ordered 
that no person be admitted into any mastership, governorship, 
fellowship, scholarship, or other preferment. This was directly in 
contravention of the treaty for the surrender of the garrison. On 
July 10, 1647, Clayton, Master of Pembroke, died, and three days 
later the fellows proceeded in all haste to elect Henry Wightwick, one 
of the original fellows. At the end of August, however, came a par- 
liamentary ordinance. In the Journals of the House of Lords, 1647 
(23 Car. I), die Jovis, 2 6° die Augusti, is this entry: — 

' Whereas Thomas Clayton, Doctor of Physic, and Master of Pembrook 
Colledge, Oxon, is lately deceased ; and whereas the said College is not 
yet visited, according to an Ordinance of Parliament, whereby the Fellows 
are not yet so constituted as that it is fit for them to execute such a Trust 
as to make Choice of a new Master; and whereas we have perfect Assur- 
ance of the Sufficiency, Abilities, and good Affection to the Parliament, 
that are well known to be in Mr. Henry Langley, of that College, and 
One of the Seven Preaching Ministers sent by the Parliament to that 
University, whereby he is rendered very fit for the Government of that 
College: It is therefore Ordered and Ordained, by the Lords and 
Commons in this present Parliament assembled, That the said Mr. 
Henry Langley be Master, and that the said Mr. Henry Langley from 
the Day of the Date of these Presents is Master of Pembrook Colledge in 
Oxford, in the room of the said Dr. Clayton deceased ; and that he is 
therefore to enjoy all Salaries, Lodgings, Benefits and Emoluments of what 



1 Gntch, Annals, ii. 499. 



WIGHTWICK'S DEFIANCE. 



225 



Sort or Nature soever, that do or ought to accrue thereby, to all Intents 
and Purposes, in as full and ample Manner as the said Dr. Clayton did or 
ought to have enjoyed the same, by virtue of the said Place ; and all 
Fellows, Scholars, Commoners, and all Manner of Students, Officers and 
Servants, belonging to the said College, are to give full Obedience 
and Conformity hereunto, as they, or any of them, will answer their 
Neglect to the Parliament.' 

By Michaelmas everything was ready for the Visitation to begin. 
On Sept. 30 all Heads were summoned to send in their books, and 
delegates were nominated for each College and Hall to inquire into 
the behaviour of its members. Langley and Samuel Bruen (incor- 
porated July, 1647, from St. Andrews; afterwards put into a fellow- 
ship at Brasenose ; Proctor 1655) wer e appointed for Pembroke. On 
October 6, the Heads (except Dr. Fell, the Vice-Chancellor) appeared 
without their books to demand sight of the Visitors' commission. 
On the 7th the first blood was drawn. Wightwick came before 
the Visitors, and gave in the following answer, ' whereby,' says 
Walker, ' he won that Honour of being the first Person that dropp'd 
in this Noble Conflict ' : — 

' I do here appear according to Summons ; I have seen your Commis- 
sion and examined it. I find his Majesties name in it, the date of the 
year of his Reign, and a great Seal annexed unto it ; but whether this 
Commission were granted and issued by his Majesties royal assent 
I desire to know ; and I desire leave to repair to his Majestie to that 
end, and rather because if it were not granted and issued with his 
Majesties knowledge and assent I cannot with a safe conscience submit 
to it, nor without breach of oath made to my Sovereign, and breach of 
oaths made to the University, and breach of oaths made to my College. 
4 Et sic habetis animi mei sententiam. 

' Henry Wightwicke.' 

Accordingly next day there was fastened up in the Hall of Pem- 
broke, ' An Order to all the Members of Pembroke College for their 
personall appearance in their Colledge Hall ' : — 

'We the Visitors of this University doe require you and every of you 
to appear in your Colledge Hall to-morrow morning, between the hours 
of 7 and 8, to hear our Order read concerning the Maistership of your 
Colledge. As you will answere the contrary.' 

On Oct. 9 (Sat.) the Visitors 'thrust out Mr. Whightwicke from 
his Headship by virtue of an Instrument stuck up in the Common 
Hall, by Tipping 1 , one of the Visitors, and [John] Langley the 
Mandatary.' The following was the 'Order of the Establishing 
Mr. Langley Maister of Pembroke Colledge ' : — 

1 William (' Eternity ') Tipping. 
Q 



226 THE COLLEGE HAS A PURITAN VISITOR. 



'We, the Visitors authorized by severall Ordinances of Parliament and 
a speciall Commission under the great Seale of England for regulation 
and reformation of this Universitie of Oxon, Haveing this day taken 
into serious consideration the business between Mr. Hen. Langley and 
Mr. Hen: Whitwicke concerning the Maistership of Pembroke Colledge 
in the same Universitie, doe find that the sayd Mr. Langley by Ordinance 
of Parliament dated the 26th of August 1647 was ordained Maister of the 
sayd Colledge and that the pretended election of the sayd Mr. Whitwicke 
was made after severall Inhibitions from the Parliament duely executed 
to the contrary. Wee therefor after a full and serious consideracion had 
of the premises doe hereby declare that the pretended election of Mr. 
Whitwicke being unduely made as afore said is voyd, and that the sayd 
Mr. Whitwicke is no Maister of the sayd Colledge : And that Mr. Langley 
is rightly constituted and appoynted Maister of the same Colledge accord- 
ing to the sayd Ordinance. In pursuance wherefor We doe by these 
presents require the Fellowes, Schollers, Commoners, and all Officers 
and Servants belonging to the sayd Colledge to give full obedience and 
conformitie to the sayd Mr. Langley as Maister of the sayd Colledge 
according to the severall Statutes and Customes. As they will answere 
the contrary.' 

On May 9, 1648, Langley was appointed by the new proctors one 
of twenty delegates 4 to answer and act in all things pertaining to the 
publique good of the University.' 

The fortunes of Pembroke during the Visitation did not differ 
from those of the other Colleges. It was not likely to be protected 
by its proper Visitor, Laud's successor, the Roundhead Earl of 
Pembroke. 

In Barlow's ' Pegasus or the Flying Horse from Oxford : Bringing 
the Proceedings of the Visitours and other Bedlamites there 1 / there is 
an account of the Earl's state entry on April 11, 1648. ' There was 
a Gentleman prepared to make a speech in the high-street at Christ 
church gate over against Pembroke Colledge, where all the well- 
affected Schollers who could not get horses stood in their gownes 
ready to entertaine their Chancellour with cheerfull acclamations, but 
a fierce shower hindred that solemnitie. . . . The Speech intended 
between Christ Church and Pembroke was to this effect. My Lord 
. . . You are welcome to us, the Genius of the place salutes you 
Chancellour, the severest Muses smooth their brow, and all the 
Graces begin to smile : Muses and Graces cry, Welcome Pembroke : 
hearke how your Colledge sounds : the Schollers learne of the 
buildings to Eccho forth your praises and welcome. Hearke how it 
rings againe. Thrice welcome Noble Chancellour, welcome Pembroke! 

1 'Printed at Montgomery, heretofore called Oxford,' 1648. 



BACHELORS FROM CAMBRIDGE. 227 



The mockery was to lie in the silent walls. ' The long-Legg'd 
peece of impertinency which they miscall Chancellor ' was succeeded 
by Oliver (1653), an d ne by 'the titmouse Prince called' Richard 
Cromwell 1 , but there is no record of any personal intervention on 
their part in the affairs of the College. The more presbyterianly 
inclined members of the College no doubt looked for special favours 
from the Earl, and when he went to the Schools the day- after his 
entry to be admitted to office, the graduates who accompanied him 
were 'chiefly of Pembroke College, Magd. Hall and New Inn, who were 
now expectants V In the subsequent convocation seventeen Masters 
were created from those two halls and four from Pembroke, ' most 
of which had lately come from Cambridge and entred themselves 
in those Houses in hopes of preferment 3 .' The next day (April 15), 
a paper was stuck on the gates of all Colleges and Halls prohibiting 
the use of the Common Prayer and establishing the Directory. The 
next step of the Visitors was to summon the members of each House 
and require their formal submission. On May 5, Wood says, 
'appeared 19 Members of Pembroke Coll. all which did positively 
submit except Franc. Brickenden Bac. of Arts,' who desired time to 
give in his answer. In the Visitors' Register, under date May 5, 
1648, there is an entry : — 

' This day Sr. Brickenden 4 of Pembrooke Colledge, Batchelor of Arts, 
was suspended from the profitts of his place (for behaveing himself con- 
temptuously towards the Vice-gerent of the said Colledge) untill he gave 
satisfaction for his offence.' 

On May 15 he was declared expelled. Besides Henry Wightwick, 

1 ' Durante tyrannide Parliamentary Philippo comite Pembrochiae, Olivario et 
Riccardo Cromwelliis Cancellariorum nomine sese hie venditantibus ' (Decree of 
the Restoration Convocation). 2 Gutch, ii. 564. 

3 Walker {Sufferings of the Clergy) writes : ' A Rabble from Cambridge came 
to their Assistance [i. e. of the Visitors], without which perhaps they could scarce 
have found enough to have filled up these Wide and Ghastly Breaches they made 
in the severall Houses.' He says they were Presbyterians or Independent Novices 
who had flocked to Cambridge after it had been reformed into confusion. Wood, 
describing the chamber frolics and closet tippling of the Saints, adds : ' Nay, such 
that had come from Cambridg and had gotten fellowships would be more free of 
entertainment than any, and instead of a cup of college beare and a stir'd machet 
which use to be the antient way of entertaining in a College at 3 or 4 in the 
afternoon, they would entertain with tarts, custards, cheescaks, or any other 
junkets that were in season ; and that fashion continued among the generalitie till 
the restauration ' {Life and Times, i. 298). They did not then, in private, 
' blaspheme custard through the nose.' The ' Cambridge bachelaurs ' also brought 
in a new cut of gowns (ibid. i. 300). 

4 He was afterwards Fellow and M.A. ' Mr. Francis Briggenden ' died Jan. 
14, i66f, aged forty, and is buried in St. Aldate's (ibid. ii. 70). 

Q 2 



228 THE PARLIAMENTARY VISITATION. 



the extruded Master, there were four others of the name of Wightwick 
in residence. One of them, George, answered, ' We submitt.' Three 
other fellows, Peter Jersey, William Brage, and Paul Darand, replied, 
' I doe submitt.' Four bachelors (one being Peter Pett) made the same 
answer, and nine undergraduates. Samuel Bruen answered, ' I humbly 
submitt to the power of Parliament restinge in the Visitors, wittnesse 
my hand.' In all twenty-two seem to have given their submission. 
George Wightwick was made B.D. that year ' ex regis gratia.' 

On May 24, 1648, the following questions were proposed c to Mr. 
Boulds, of Pembrooke Colledge ' : — 

1. Doe you submitt to the authoritie of Parliament in this Visitation ? 

2. Doe you submitt to the present Government of this Universitie by 
the Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, and Proctors established by the imediate 
authoritie of both Houses of Parliament ? 

3. Doe you submitt to Mr. Langley as Master of Pembrooke Colledge ? 

4. Doe you observe the Directory in all the publique exercises of 
religion in your parish ? 

The Answere of Mr. Boulds. 

I cannot submitt to this Visitation, but only to the power of his Majestie 
in generall and of our lawfull Visitor in particular, which is according to 
our Statutes unto which I am sworne, besides I doe not hear of any 
satisfactory Answere given to the Reasons of this Universitie. 

As concerninge the Directory I did use it, and was inforced upon my 
conscience to use againe the Book of Common Prayer, or els I had lost 
the major part of my parish. 

To the 2d. I, John Boulds, doe referre myselfe to the Answere of the 
Universitie. 

On May 26 it was 

'Ordered that Mr. John Bowles, Fellow of Pembrooke Colledge, be 
hereby suspended from all power and priviledge of a Fellow or Member 
of Pembrooke Colledge. And from all and singular the profitts and 
emoluments of his Fellowshipp.' 

On June 29 he was, with others of other Colleges, expelled the 
University. But three years later, on Feb. 4, 1651, the Visitors say : — 

1 Being informed that the said Mr. Boules is againe retourned to Oxon, 
to the parish of St. Giles, and takes upon him the cure as formerly ; we 
therefore hereby require and command the said Mr. Boules to desist from 
officiating as pastor or minister of the said parish, and to depart from the 
University as he will answer the contrary at his perill.' 

On July 12, 1648, a further summons was put out to all who had not 
yet appeared and answered. On July 14 William Collier, the butler, 



SUBMITTERS AND NON-SUBMITTERS. 229 



Schollers. 



and Thomas Turner, the cook of Pembroke, replied : 1 1 referre myselfe 
to the Master and Fellowes, and will submitt as farre as it concernes 
mee in my place/ John Kingsley made answer : ' I humbly conceive 
that I manifested my submission by waiting on the Worshipfull Mr. 
Langley, as present Master of Pembrooke Colledge, to whom I shall 
for the future as formerly acknowledge myselfe servant, being Member 
of the said Colledge.' These three answers were taken as negative. 
The following were reported to Rous's committee of Lords and 
Commons as not appearing, and were expelled: — 

Pembrooke Colledge. 
Mr. [Henry] Whitweeke, the pretended Master. 
Mr. [Henry] Whiteweeke j 
Mr. [John] Darby Socii. 
Mr. [Thomas] Carey J 
Mr. [Thomas] Whitewicke 
Mr. [Thomas] Daffy 
Ds. [Thomas] Whitweake 
Ds. [Henry] Wyatt 
Ds. [Francis] Brickendine 
Ds. [Silas] Blisset 
[Richard] Dew 
[Robert] Paine. 

As well as Collier, Turner, and Kingsley. These places had to be 
filled. Walker, in his Sufferings of the Clergy, says : ' By February 
nth, 1649, the Visitors had chosen into this College at Five several 
Elections Fourteen Fellows and Scholars : Which may serve to give 
some Light into the Number of those they had ejected from it. The 
list and dates are in the Visitors' Register 1 . 

The Navies of such as are chosen into Colledges. 
Pembrooke Colledge. 

Aug. 11, 1648. S r [Nathaniel] Lane ) FeU . 
S r [Joshua] Tompkins 
Rob. Steele 
[Philip] Potter 
Oct. 10. Jo: Hoy, Fell: [a Cambridge B.A.] 

Paul D'Arand [M.A. 1648 ; afterwards Minister of the 

French church at Southampton]. Ob. 1669. 
Jo: Powell [a Cambridge M.A. ; afterwards Fellow of 
Merton]. 

Pet: Jersey [appointed Aug. 13, 1649; one of the 
assistants to the Delegates ; proctor 1642 ; rector of 

1 Camden Society, ed. Burrows, p. 176. 



Schol: 



2 3 0 



PLACES OF THE EJECTED FILLED. 



St. Peter's, Jersey, 1662, and of St. Andrew's, 
Guernsey, 1663]. 

Oct. 16. [Thomas] Roswell, Schol: 

[Nathaniel] Brownesword [matric. Nov. 27, 1650 ; B.A. 
1652. It was ordered, April 11, 1654, 'Whereas 
Nathaniel Brownesword, Bachelor of Arts, was elected 
into a voyd Scholarship in Pembrooke Colledge, Oxon, 
and hath absented himselfe from the Colledge for the 
space of two years last past : the Visitors of the Uni- 
versity of Oxon doe hereby require the said Nath: 
Brownesword to repair to the said Colledge within the 
space of one moneth from the date hereof ; otherwise 
his Scholarship aforesaid shall be disposed of to 
another person ']. 

Jan. 4, 1649. Fouke, Schol: 
Potter, Fell: 

Feb. 11, 1649. Robert Parr, Schol: 

April 22, 1650. John Hall, Schol: [afterwards Master]. 

July 24, 1650. Hall, Fell: 

Oct. 1, 1656. Jo: Huntbache, Schol: 

On Sept. 25, 1648, 'at a meetinge of the Visitors' it was 

' Ordered : That all the allowances and dues of the persons undernamed, 
not haveinge appeared, or submitted to the authority of Parliament in 
the Visitation, be suspended, and detayned from them untill further 
Order : And the Master, Bursers, and other Officers of the said Colledge 
are required to take notice hereof, and to forbeare the payment of such 
allowances or dues to them accordingly : 
Mr. Henry Whightwicke \ 

Mr. William [?] Darby Fellowes of Pembrooke 

Mr. Tho: Cary \ colledge. 

Mr. Tho: Whightwicke, Jun: 
Mr. Hen: Wyatt: Ba: Art: 



Mr. Fran: Brickendine L Scholl = <£ Pembrooke 

Mr. Rich: Dew Colledge. 
Mr. Robert Payne 
However, Henry Wightwick, jun., submitted. 

Oct. 2, 1648. ' Ordered : That Mr. Henry Whightwicke of Pembrooke 
Colledge procuringe his submission (to the authoritie of Parliament in 
this present Visitation) attested by good and sufficient witnesses in the 
countrie where he now lives, Ordered to be accepted of and approved.' 

Not however till Feb. 19, 164^, was it 

' Ordered : That the Suspension of Mr. Henry Whitwicke be taken of 
(his Submission being receaved), and that hee shall receave his stypends 
and dues belonginge to his place in Pembrooke Colledge, both the arrears 



THE COLLEGE EXHAUSTED. 231 

due to him for tyme past, and the profitts thereof for future tyme, as fully 
as if noe Suspension had beene made.' 

Henry Wightwick, the lawful Master, and others held out. 
Among ' Persons removed from their places ' on the above Oct. 2, 
1648, are : — 

'Tho: Carey: for his Non-appearance and his enjoyment [of] a benefice 
contrary to the Statute of that Colledge. 
Mr. Darby: for his contempt. 
Mr. Henry Whitwick, Sen: for his high contempt.' 

On the following Jan. 4 it was 

' Ordered : That all proceedings in Mr. Wyatt's case of Pembroke 
Colledge be stayed till the Maister of the Colledge be acquainted with it 
and his Answeare receaved : And that Mr. Wyatt shall have allowance 
of Battles in the Colledge till the matter be determynd.' 

The next day, 

' Ordered : That the suspension of S r Wyatt, Schollar of Pembrooke 
Colledge, be taken off : And that hee be left to the Maister and Fellowes 
of the House to be admitted Fellow into the Abbingeton place (lately voyd 
by the death of Mr. Steede), accordinge to the Statutes of the House, 
unlesse cause be shewed to the contrary within this month : and in the 
meane tyme hee is to enjoy the profitts of his Schollar's place.' 

The Visitors put Daniel Harford and William Hann, who had 
become members of Pembroke, into fellowships at All Souls and New 
College respectively. 

The College soon subsided into obedience under the resolute rule 
of Langley. It had suffered greatly, Professor Burrows remarks, in 
the war, ' in which its members had engaged with more than usual 
ardour on the king's side/ furnishing fifty officers to the royal army. 
Whereas the annual average of matriculations up to 1644 had been 
fourteen, from 1644 to 1650 only two names were entered. Naturally 
the College was greatly exhausted. In 1650, however, there were 
twenty-two matriculations, and again in 1651, a number exceeded by 
six Colleges only. There were then 169 students. Twelve years 
later the average entries had sunk to six annually. 

By the statutes of Pembroke, as of some other Houses, on 
Saturdays after prayers the juniors were to declaim publicly and the 
graduates to exhibit themes. This rule was abrogated from April 18, 
1651, in order that all might prepare themselves for the Lord's Day. 
After the battle of Worcester the Visitors ordered all scripture 
histories or figures painted, carved, or in glass, of our Lord, our Lady, 
and the saints to be defaced, crosses to be destroyed, and the King's 



232 A CAVALIER PLOT. 

arms removed. Even the tables of the Ten Commandments were 
sometimes wrecked by ignorant hands among the ' monuments of 
superstition.' Doubtless Docklinton's aisle shared the general fate 1 . 
In 1653 a further clearance was made of all tutors not certified 
to be 'godly,' and candidates for fellowships and chaplaincies 
had to bring testimonials to that effect. After their own fashion 
the Visitors seemed to have striven to promote religious learning. 
Sermons were their specific for everything. On November 24, 
1653, the Heads and Governours of every College were ordered 
to render an accompt what preaching or divinity exercises take 
place therein. When the Visitors met on Nov. 14, 1657, 'it was 
certified by the Master and Fellows of Pembroke College, who doe 
at present, in their turnes, uphould preaching every Lord's Day, doe 
intend to maintaine that exercise untill they receive an Order from 
the Visitors, requiring all Masters of Arts in the College to join with 
them.' It was ordered that all Masters in this, as in other Colleges, 
should perform and continue the exercise of preaching once a week 
on the Lord's Day, beginning at seven o'clock in the forenoon, in 
their respective courses. 

In July, 1650, William Collier, the College butler, supposed to be 
expelled, took a prominent part in a plot ' of the remaining cavaliers 
to seize on the garrison, Visitors, and all the armes they could find, to 
the end that they might joyne them selves to others that had plotted 
in the same manner in other parliament garrisons, to relieve the 
distressed cavaliers that were besieged in Colchester. The plot was 
discovered by one or more of them when they were in their cups, 
which made every one shift for themselves as well as they could V 
Hearne writes to Thomas Rawlinson, Dec. 20, 1717 : — 

' As to your querie at Num. 33 of Rustica Descrifttio Visitationis 
fanaticae Oxon., Mr. Collier (commonly called honest Will. Collier) was 
strangely tortured in New College, where he was imprisoned and con- 
demned to be hanged, but freed after he was up the ladder. . . . The 
foresaid Will. Collier, who was a right Cavalier, (and therefore made 
yeoman beadle 3 , Dr. Peter Mew, and others, having a true value for his 
loyalty, which made Dr. Peter Mew always use him as a familiar, as well 
before as after he was made bishop ; I say this Will. Collier) being a hard 
drinker 4 had a room at the tavern which was always called Will. Collier's 

1 In every window were Docklinton's arms, and in the window above Noble's 
tomb ' was the Proportion of a Man kneeling, with Four Children behind him ; 
and by it was written Will. Noble ' (Peshall, p. 149). Among other coats of arms 
in the church was that of Bishop Beckington. 

2 Wood's Life and Times, i. 146. 3 Of Law ; elected Dec. 18, 1666. 

1 Wood says of Wyat's election to be Public Orator, March 26, 1679 : * Wyot, 



DISPOSSESSED CLERGY. 



233 



room, and often old Collier's room, which nobody whatsoever was to use 
but himself and such as came to him. Here he constantly sat when the 
business of the University was over, unless he was obliged to go to some 
other place, and would drink and be very merry. There are many stories 
going about this honest old Cavalier.' 

Wood says that it was another of the conspirators who actually 
mounted the ladder at the Catherine Wheel, near St. Mary Mag- 
dalene's. Collier was shut up in one of the chaplains' chambers 
under New College hall, and there tortured by placing a lighted 
match to his hands tied behind his back, in order to wring from him 
the names of the persons privy to the plot ; but he managed to ' escape 
through the window and over the high embattled wall adjoining, and 
so saved the hangman a labour.' He died Nov. 9, 1692, 'in his 
house in Pennyverthing Street V 

The third Visitation, begun in 1654, was finally ended by the King's 
return, and the waking of Oxford and England from their long 
sick dream. On June 4, 1660, it was 'ordered by the Lords in 
Parliament assembled that the Chancellors of both Universities shall 
take care that the several Colleges in the said Universities shall be 
governed according to their respective Statutes. And that such 
persons who have been unjustly put out of their Headships, Fellow- 
ships, or other Offices may be restored according to the said Statutes 
of the Universities and Founders of Colleges therein.' 

Among clergy dispossessed of their benefices during the Rebellion 
were such as Dr. George Gillinghame, chaplain to Charles I and 
canon of Windsor ; William Dowdeswell, rector of Brinkworth and 
canon of Worcester, sequestered from Streynsham and Croome 
d'Abitot ; Robert Joyner, from Chew Magna ; Peter Allen, from 
Tollesbury ; William Pargiter, from Carlton ; William Lane, from 
Aveton Gifford ; Edward Moorey, from a Magdalen chaplaincy ; 
John Eedes, from Honiton ' 2 . 

Mention has been made of Sir Anthony Hungerford (half- 
brother of Sir Edward, the parliamentary commander), who entered 
May 9, 1625, aet. 15. He sate for Malmesbury in the Long 
Parliament until disabled in 1644. He was then heavily fined for 

a bib and smoking companion ; a keeper of inferior company (. . . Collier and 
others in St. Ebbs parish).' Life and Times, ii. 446. 

1 Rather Beef Hall Lane. His wife, Katherine Lane, was buried in St. Aldate's, 
March 26, 1672 ; his mother Ursula, ' wife of Will. Collier the elder,' Feb. 20, 
1665. He and Turner the cook seem to have been partisans of Sir Thomas 
Clayton's (ibid. i. 385). 

2 See Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, ii. 237. 



L ANGLE Y AFTER THE RESTORATION. 



delinquency, though he had not borne arms for the King, and thrown 
into the Tower. In 1648 his estates were seized. Cromwell wrote 
him a sympathetic letter in 1652 \ The next year he succeeded to 
Farleigh Castle. The site of the present Charing Cross Station, 
where the old family mansion stood, was sold by his spendthrift son 
Edward, and became the Hungerford Market. Sir Anthony, dying in 
1657, was buried in Black Bourton church. 

Langley, who on April 12, 1648, had been placed by Lord 
Pembroke and the Visitors into the stall at Christ Church from which 
Morley, afterwards Bishop of Winton., had been thrust, retired from 
Oxford at the Restoration to his house at Tubney ' in Bagley Wood,' 
where he took ' sojourners (fanaticks' sons), taught them logic and 
philosophy, and admitted them to degrees V He ' oftentimes preached 
in Conventicles at Abendon V Metford of C. C. C. says he was looked 
on as insipid and dull both in preaching and conversation, and 
' tedious even when shortest V and that he made his hearers smile by 
his affected sighings. He may have had some learning, however. In 
1648 he had been placed on a committee, with Cornish and Button, to 
examine all candidates for fellowships and scholarships 5 . After the 
putting forth of the Declaration of Toleration in March, 1671, 
Langley, together with John Troughton, Henry Cornish, B.D., and 
Thomas Gilbert, B.D., was ' appointed by the principal heads of the 
Brethren to carry on the work of preaching within the City of Oxon. 
The place where they held their meetings was in Thamestreet without 
the north gate, in a house which had been built by Tom Pun, alias Tho. 
Aires*? ' Fanaticks brisk in Oxon. . . . Constant preachers in Broken 
hayes were Dr. Hen Langley ' and the others 7 . Dying in September, 
1679, he was buried in St. Helen's at Abingdon. Langley was 
originally a quirister of Magdalen (1627, a £ e d 16); he matriculated 
from Pembroke Nov. 6, 1629 ; Fellow 1635 ; B.A. 1632 ; M.A. 1635; 
B.D. 1648; D.D. 1649. He was by a parliamentary order of June 
20, 1643, made rector of St. Mary Newington. 'A judicious solid 
Divine,' says Calamy, ' not valu'd in the University according to his 
Worth.' 

In a pamphlet put forth after the Restoration, called The Lords' loud 
call to England, by Henry Jeffy, a Fifth Monarchy man, instances are 

1 See Carlyle's Cromwell, p. 216. 

2 Wood's Life and Times, ii. I. 3 Athenae, ii. 771. 
* Dr. Fowler's History of Corpus, O. H. S., p. 207. 

5 Of seven names of persons examined on March 15, 164$, one is 'John 
Ouseley, Pembr: 1 yeare, mediocriter.' 

6 Athenae, ii. 511. 7 Life and Times, ii. 244. 



ROYALIST OFFICERS. 



235 



given of judgements that had befallen members of the University who 
had re-introduced the Prayer-Book, and other anti-Puritans. One is 
that of * a Scholar of Pembroke College, who said he came purposely 
to Town to see Dr. Langley outed, and then he would give a plate to 
the College. He was invited to dinner by a Scholar and never went 
out of the room more, but died there V Wood comments on this story : 

' The Scholar's name was William Grosvenour, the only Son, as I have 
heard, of Grosvenour of Brand in Shropshire, and one of the grand- 
children of Sir Rich. Grosvenour of Cheshire ; but that he should say 
such words that the Relator reports, I could never understand of any 
person but this. He had before taken a great journey which, with the 
excessive heat of the weather, had put him into an indisposition of body, 
and being invited into a Fellow's Chamber in Oriel Coll. [John Whyte- 
hall] to whom he had brought commendations from his Relations, found 
himself much worse than before, so that his fever increasing and con- 
tinuing more and more violent upon him for 10 days space, died the 
28 July [1660], and was buried in the Chancel of St. Mary's Church 2 .' 

A somewhat noted Puritan was presented to St. Aldate's during 
the Commonwealth, no doubt by Langley, viz., Henry Hickman, the 
antagonist of Heylin and Durell, and author of Apologia pro Ministris 
in Anglia (vulgo) Nonconformistis. 

Royalist Officers. 
Wood (MS. F. 28, fol. 24) gives the following 3 — the only list made 
for any College : — 

' The names of such psons of Pembroke Coll. in Oxon who were officers 
in the army of K. Ch. I against the rebellious Parliament. 

Will. Scroggs — Captaine of a foot company — afterwards Ld. Ch. 
Just, of Engl. & a K*. 

JOH. Bennet, a capt. afterwards a k 4 & a benefactor to Pemb. Coll. 
new buildings. 

S r Edm. Bray of Geat Barrington, com. Gloc. Capt. of horse \ 
Mr. Tho. Tregunwell, collonel of a Reg. of Horse. 
Mr. Fleetwood Dormer, a Cornet una" y e Earl of Caernarvan. 
Mr. Euseb. Dormer— a Lieutenat 5 . 

1 Gutch, ii. 705. 

2 ' Beares the garbes for his armes ' {Life and Times, i. 325). Grosvenor of 
Eaton bears Az. a garb or. William Grosvenor matr. June 15, 1657 ; student of 
Gray's Inn, 1656. 

3 Printed in H. W. Chandler's ' Court Rolls of Great Cressingham.' I have 
collated Professor Chandler's list with the original. 

* Captain Edm. Bray matr. B.N.C. 1627 ; ob. Nov. 30, 1642 ; monument at 
Fyfield. 

5 Son of Sir Fleetwood, and brother of last named. Did not pay his fees for 
M.A. and was degraded, Oct. 23, 1637 (Wood). Originally at Magdalen Hall. 



236 



ROYALIST OFFICERS. 



Mr. Tho. Savage a Capt. of Foot T . 
Mr. Mordat Washington, a cornet. 

Mr. Hen. Heyty a Leivt-coll. at Worcester— afterwards a Col. — 
livinge now 1682 at Minster Lovell com. Oxon. 

Mr. Jo. PEACOCK, capt. of Foot — after y e kings returne he was made a 
major, Leivt. Coll. & at length Coll. Lives now in y e parish of Comnore, 
Berks. 

Anth. Bray Leivtenat. 

Oliver Pleydell, Capt. of Foot. 

Conway Whittern Capt. of foot 2 . 

Will. James, Capt 

JOH. Waterworth, a sea-capt. 3 

James Gunter, capt. 

Walt Winter, Leivt. 4 

Georg. Rumsey, Leivt. 

Hen. Morgan, Cornet. 

Giles Bourn, Cornet of Dragoons 5 . 

Rog. Clerk, Leivt. to y e Ld Hoptons regim. 6 

Will. Clerk, chaplayne to y e Ld Hoptons regim. 7 

Tho. Greenvill, an officer una" Sir Bevill Greenvill ? . 

HufH I Mayo, Leivtenants und the Ld Hopton. 

Will. Sandys, Capt. und the Ld Hopton 9 . 

Charles Barter— an officer. 

Tho. Martin, off. 

Joh. Birch, Leivt. of Foot. 

JOH. Bray Leivt. of Foot. 

Edm. Welsh. 

Will. Anne, Leivt. (Tho. Anne rather £.) 10 . 
Will. Hill capt. 

Will. Norreys cornet in y e Ld" Hoptons reg. 
Joh. Bower 11 . 



1 Matr. 1638. Of Elmley Castle, High Sheriff of Worcestershire. 

2 Matr. 1636 ; see page 253. 

3 Matr. 1639; of Lincoln's Inn, 1641. 

4 Orig. at Jesus College; matr. 1637. 

5 Matr. 1635 ; a kinsman, I think, of Bishop Gilbert Bourn. 

6 Orig. at Trinity College; matr. 1634. 

7 Orig. at Christ Church ; matr. 1633. ' I do not yet here y* he was an officer' 
(Wood). 

8 Or Greenfields. Matr. 1635 ; preacher, it seems, to the Hon. Society of Lin- 
coln's Inn ; rector of Combe St. Nicholas; canon of Exeter 1662. Sir Bevit was 
slain in Lansdown fight. 

9 Matr. 1623. Son of Sir Samuel Sandys, brother of Sir Edwyn. He was M.P. 
for Evesham 1640 (expelled 1641) and 1661. 

10 Thos. Anne.matr. 1634; vicar of Erchfont, Wilts, 1662. 

11 Orig. at Trinity College; matr. 1631. 



OFFICERS. MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT. 237 



Rob. Chablayne an ensigne in y e life-guard 1 . 

Georg. Jolliff, Leivtenant und y° Ld Hopton. 

Will. Quarterman . . . afterwards M.D. & the king's physit. 
i FRANC. West ye cook — a cornet of horse. 
I JOH. Skingresley ye manciple, a Leivtenant of Foot. 
' Will. Collier y e butler— a Leivt.— (from whoe I had this Cat.). 

Joh. Allen, Ensigne. 

Joh. Bragg, Ensigne. 

Joh. Boat, M.A. Leivt. 

Rob. Duke. 

John Combes capt. of Dragoons. 
Th. Twyne Leivt. 

Will. Clayton, capt. — afterwards major to Collon. Legg 2 . 
George Brett. 
Edw. Palm capt.' 

Wood adds, ' If pemb. coll w ch is the least coll in Oxon did yeild so 
many officer's to serve his maj. w* did then the other colleges doe ? ' 
He speaks, however, of but twenty officers from Christ Church out of 
the hundred Students, not reckoning the Commoners. Wood does 
not mention Sir Thomas Littleton, knight and baronet, M.P. for 
Worcestershire 1621-40, colonel of the county horse and foot, who 
was taken at Bewdley and imprisoned in the Tower ; B.A. from Broad- 
gates 1614. His father, John, was convicted of high treason in 1601. 

Some members of the College not hitherto mentioned, who sate in 
Parliaments of Charles I, were : — Sir Thomas Cotton, Bart. (Great 
Marlow 1625, St. German's 1628, Hunts. 1640); Henry Bellingham 
(Chichester 1628); Thomas Prestwood (Totnes 1628); Edmond 
Roche (County Cork 1639); Sir William Sarsfielde (Cork City 
1634); Roger Kirkham (Old Sarum 1646); Sir Nicholas Martyn, 
sheriff of Devon 1639 (Devon 1646); Edmond Fowell (Tavistock 
1646, 1659; Devon 1656; Plymouth 1660). In the next reign 
William Yorke (Wilts 1654, Devizes 1661) — he was a bencher and 
buried in the Temple Church ; John Silly (Bodmin 1659) ; Nicholas 
Dennys, bencher of the Inner Temple (Barnstaple 1660-78); 
Richard Williams (Radnorshire 1677, 1685; Brecknockshire 1678). 

The College produced, besides Scroggs, some lawyers of note, such as 
Sir William Childe(B.CL. 1632), a Master in Chancery; John Greene 
(entered 1659), treasurer of Lincoln's Inn 1693 ; or Richard Wallop 

1 Matr. 1635. His father, Peter Chamberlayne, was Physician to James I, 
Charles I, Charles II, and their consorts. 

2 Son of Dr. Clayton, the Master. Created Med. Bac. 1642. 



2 3 8 



SOME LAWYERS; PETT. 



(entered 1634), treasurer of the Middle Temple 1673, cursitor baron 
of the Exchequer 1696. He was buried in the Temple church. In 
November, 1654, Dr. Langhorne, pro-vice-chancellor, told Convocation 
that the faculty of law had been languishing for some years and was 
all but dead. Convocation therefore, as it had done half a century 
before, petitioned Parliament for its encouragement. ' As it is a distinct 
body from the Canon law wee humbly conceive it to be very sutable 
to the present government, and a profession of much use and public 
concernment.' Wood says, ' it seems the Civil Law was put down V 
' In Reg: Congreg. Q. a. fol. 61 a. is a Latin letter of the University to 
the Lord Commissioner Fiennes, dat e domo Cong is 16 Kal. Jan. 
1656 for his being a freind and patron to the Universitie and giving 
his hand for the continuing and upholding of the Civill Law, when 
readie to go to ruine or fall V At the Restoration, on Sept. 5, 1660, 
Convocation drew up a petition to the King c for the continuance and 
promotion of the Civill Law and its professors,' praying his Majesty to 
' have respect to such persons as are fit for judicature and employ- 
ment in ecclesiasticall courts, wherby such as have spent their life in 
that profession may enjoy some reasonable meanes and our yonger 
students be encouraged to endeavour the enabling of themselves in the 
same way.' Wood adds, 'If I am not mistaken, after the king's 
restauration there were severall places belonging to civil lawyers 
conferred on laymen, which caused this petition to be put up. No 
answer appears ? .' 

One of the Cambridge bachelors brought to Oxford in 1647 was the 
noted civilian Sir Peter Pett, who must be distinguished from his 
father's first cousin Peter Pett, the Chief Commissioner of the Navy. 

He belonged to a family of hereditary shipbuilders 4 . His grandfather, 
Peter Pett, was a master-shipwright at Wapping, and his father, Peter 
Pett, at Deptford. Sir Peter was baptized there, Oct. 31, 1630. From 
St. Paul's school he went to Sidney Sussex (June 28, 1645 ; B.A. March 
7, 164I). On July 4 he incorporated at Oxford, being a member of Pem- 
broke College. Soon after he was made fellow of All Souls 'by the 
Favour of the Visitors.' Pett however was one of the royalist virtuosi 
and wits who patronized the ' coffee-house ' opened by the cavalier 
Tillyard opposite All Souls. He, Sir Kenelm Digby and others, gave 
handsome entertainment in the Salutation tavern near St. Mary's to 
Davie Mell, 'the most eminent violinist of London,' B.C.L. 1650. When 

1 Life and Times, i. 187. 2 Ibid. i. 210. 3 Ibid. i. 332. 

4 In the Clarendon State Papers Sir Robert Maunsell (Aug. 3, 1620) recom- 
mends to Mr. Aylesbury Peter Pett for the building of the new pinnaces, stating 
that the family have had the employment since Henry VII 's time. 



SOME HEADS OF HOUSES. 



239 



the Royal Society was started amid much suspicion by a band of Oxford 
philosophers, Pett became an original Fellow. At the Restoration 
Charles II made him Advocate General for Ireland; in which capacity 
he received knighthood from Ormonde. He sate in the Irish Parliament 
for Askerton 166 1-6. His duties in Ireland seem to have engrossed his 
time, for on Nov. 18, 1675, he was expelled the Royal Society for 'not 
performing his obligation to the Society.' Pett occupied himself with 
much literary work, chiefly polemical, on theology and trade. In 1693 
the Memoirs of Arthur Earl of Anglesey and the Genuine Remains of 
Bishop Barlow were edited by him. He died April 1, 1679. He was 
' Heir and Executor ' to Archbishop Williams. Pett is frequently men- 
tioned in the Diaries of Evelyn and Pepys. The picture of Dr. Harmer 
in the Bodleian was presented by him in 1695. 

Another Fellow of the Royal Society was Dr. William Quarterman 
(M.D. from Pembroke 1657), physician to King Charles II. He was 
attached to the Navy, and engaged on the royal side. Fellow of the 
College of Physicians 1661 ; M.P. for New Shoreham 1662. Buried 
in St. Martin's in the Fields, June 11, 1667. 



NOTE. 

Heads of Houses who have been members of Broadgates or Pembroke 
(besides Storey, Wheare, Clayton, Wyntle, Blackstone, and Durell, 
mentioned elsewhere) are : — 

Dr. Francis Bevans. Entered Broadgates (from Caermarthenshire) 
1572; fellow of All Souls 1573; B.C.L. 1579; incorporated at Cambridge 
1581 ; D.C.L. 1583; Principal of New Inn Hall 1585-6; chancellor of 
Hereford Diocese 1587; an advocate of Doctors' Commons 1590; 
Member for Bishop's Castle 1593. He was Principal of Jesus College 
from 1586 till his death in 1602. He is buried in Hereford Cathedral. 

Dr. Richard Clayton. B.A. from Broadgates 1622; fellow of Uni- 
versity 1639; Master 1665-76; canon of Sarum 1661. 

Dr. John Morley, Rector of Lincoln 1719-1731. Having matriculated 
at Trinity Feb. 26, i68f, aged sixteen, he migrated to Pembroke ; B.A. 
1689 ; fellow of Lincoln 1689-1712 ; M.A. 1692 ; B.D. 1703 ; D.D. 171 1. 
He held the rectory of Sutton from 171 1. He died June 12, 1731. 

Dr. John Clark, Provost of Oriel 1 768-1 781. Matriculated at 
Pembroke (from Colvel, Cambs., clerici fil.) March 18, 174!, aged sixteen ; 
B.A. 1752; fellow of Oriel 1755-68; M.A. 1756; B. and D.D. 1768; 
vicar of St. Mary's 1765-8; canon of Rochester and rector of Purleigh 
1768. Died Nov. 21, 1781. 



240 



SOME HEADS OF HOUSES. 



Dr. Drummond Percy Chase, the present Principal of St. Mary Hall. 
Born at Chateau de Saulruit, near St. Omer, Sept. 14, 1820; entered 
Pembroke Feb. 15, 1838; scholar 1838; migrated to Oriel 1839; B.A. 
1841 (1st class Lit. Hum.); fellow of Oriel 1842; M.A. 1844; tutor 
1847-9, 1860-6 ; proctor 1853 ; B. and D.D. 1880 ; President of the Union 
Society 1842 ; Vice-Principal of St. Mary Hall 1848-57 ; Principal 1857 ; 
Select Preacher i860 ; vicar of St. Mary's 1856-73 and 1876-8. 

Dr. Edward Moore, now Principal of St. Edmund Hall. Born at 
Cardiff Feb. 28, 1835 ; entered Pembroke May 26, 1853, from Broms- 
grove School ; B.A. 1859; fellow of Queen's 1858-65 ; M.A. i860; tutor 
of St., Edmund Hall 1862; fifty-second Principal 1864; B.D. 1867; 
proctor 1871 ; D.D. 1878; President of the Union Society i860; Select 
Preacher 1887. Dr. Moore had a distinguished career in the Schools, 
and has filled a number of responsible posts in the administration of the 
University. The study of Dante in England owes much to his scholarly 
labours. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



PURITANS AND OTHERS. 

The change from young men of position studying law and the 
muses before entering upon life to a more plebeian and puritanical 
class of undergraduate coincides more or less with the conversion of 
the Hall into a College, but affected, it would seem, every part of the 
University \ 

In the room of the dispossessed Charter fellows others were 
appointed, but by whom is not clear. Of one of these, George 
Hughes, 1 the bright star of the west/ Calamy gives a large account. 
He was born in Southwark in 1603 2 . Having first been entered at 
Corpus Christi in 16 19, and taken B.A. there, 'he had so general 
a Reputation then for his Proficiency in his Studies that Dr. Clayton 
being made Master of Pembroke-College, upon the first Erection of it, he 
procur'd Mr. Hughes to be one of the first Fellows of it. Several 
Persons of great Eminency afterwards were his Pupils here, as Henry 
Langley, D.D., second Master of Pembroke, Tobit Garbrand, M.D., 
Principal of Gloucester- Hall, and many others.' 

He was ordained about 1628, being known in the University as a 
Puritan. For some time he preached in and around Oxford, and after- 
wards was Lecturer of Allhallows, Breadstreet, proceeding B.D. (as 
obliged by statute) July 10, 1633. Silenced by Laud, he had thoughts 
of transferring himself to New England, but was dissuaded by 'old 
Mr. Dod,' Lord Brooke made him his chaplain, he married a Gentle- 
woman of Coventry, and Lady Maynard got the Earl of Bedford to 
present him to Tavistock, where, by his endeavours, ' a mighty Re- 
formation was wrought.' Thenceforward he was, Wood says, ' the most 
noted Presbyterian (if not Independent), of his time in Devonshire? 
Having to flee before the King's forces from Tavistock and from Exeter, 

1 Lady Brilliana Harley writes in 1638 to her son at Magdalen Hall: 'I belieue 
that theare are but feawe nobellmen's sonne in Oxford ; for now, for the most part, 
they send theaire sonnes into France when they are very yonge.' 

2 His mother was then fifty-two years old, and he was her firstborn. She 
afterwards lived to a great age. 

R 



242 



A WEST-COUNTRY PURITAN. 



Hughes was appointed vicar of St. Andrew's, Plymouth, where he 
'continued in great liking among the godly parly? Calamy says 1 , ''tis 
no Wonder this excellent Person should have a share with so much 
good Company in Tony IVood's ill-Nature and Slanders ; that he should 
call in question his Degrees,' &c. He rebuts the charge of self-seeking 
and of fanaticism, and says that Hughes, though from 1654 an Assistant 
for ejecting 'scandalous' clergy and schoolmasters, did not act. He 
was accused, in a book called Foxes mid Firebrands, of making one 
Newland, a Popish ecclesiastic, his pretended butler, and calling on him 
to pray and expound. Also of living in greater power and equipage 
than any archbishop. He certainly appears to have exercised a more 
than episcopal influence in the West-country, and Calamy relates how, 
after his ejection at the Bartholomew of 1662, Bishop Gauden's Visitation 
at Totnes was forsaken by the whole body of clergy, when they heard 
that Hughes was in the town, in order to accompany him on horseback 
towards his home. Wood writes: 'Exercising his function in private, 
that is in Conventicles, among the Brethren, contrary to the Act, he 
was with Tho. Martin conveyed into S. Nicholas Island near Plymouth, 
an. 1665, where they remained about 9 Months. In which time our author 
Hughes wrote an answer to Joh. Serjeants book entit. Sure-footing. 
At length his health being much impaired, as the Brethren reported, 
and his legs black and swoln, he was offer'd his liberty, upon condition 
of giving security of 1000/. [2000/. Calamy] not to live within 20 miles 
of Plymouth : Which being accordingly effected by the Brethren without 
his knowledge he retired to Kingsbridge in Devonsh., found entertain- 
ment in the house of one Daniel Elley, a Brother, and was much 
frequented to the last by the fanatical party.' ' He hardly cared,' says 
Calamy, 'for any other Discourse but what was serious and heavenly, 
and had such an affecting Sense of the Cloud that was upon God's 
Church by the Ejection of so many eminent Ministers, that he was 
scarce seen to indulge any Mirth after that day. 5 Preaching the Lord's 
Day before his death, he ended with the words, 'And now all my Work 
is done.' ' The Evening before he dy'd, he ordered his Watch to lie by 
him, and desir'd a Relation to observe when it was two a Clock, for 
(says he) that is my Hour. And accordingly just then he expir'd, 
An. 1667: in his 64th Year.' On the monument in Kingsbridge church 
' to the fragrant ever-to-be-cherished memory of the much desired George 
Hughes,' he is described as 'Sacrae sensus paginae penitiores eruere, 
homines concione flectere, precibus Deum, mire edoctus. Qui Solis 
aemulum ab Oriente auspicatus cursum (ortum Londinas), occidentale 
dehinc sidus diu claruit, lucem in vita spargens undique, moriens luctum : 
Vitaeq; (vere vitalis) curriculo in an. lxiv perducto, optima perfunctus, 
perpessus mala, requiem tandem invenit, animo quidem in Caelis, 
corpore vero in subjacente tumulo. . . . Posuit honoris et amoris ergo 
Thomas Crispinus Exoniensis.' This Crispin founded the Kingsbridge 
Grammar School. The inscription is from the pen of Hughes' son-in- 



1 Athenae, ii. 280. 



DOOMSDAY SEDGWICKE. 



243 



law, Howe, Cromwell's chaplain. Calamy calls Hughes 'a Master in 
most Parts of Learning, especially a great Textuary and Divine. . . . An 
acute disputant, a judicious Casuist.' One of his sermons, preached 
before the Commons on a fast-day, May 28, 1647, is entitled Vae-eugae- 
tuba, or 'The Wo- joy-trumpets Another, Drie-Rod blossoming. His son 
Obadiah was imprisoned with him at Plymouth. 

A pupil of Hughes at Pembroke (entered 1624, aged 15), was 
William Sedgwicke. At College he ' profited more in Divinity than 
Philosophy/ being ' instructed in Presbyterian principles by his 
Tutor.' 

At first, as Rector of Farnham, he conformed, but in 1641 put in a 
curate there and attached himself as chaplain to the troops of Sir William 
Constable, afterwards a Regicide. After the ejection of the Loyalist 
clergy he became the chief preacher in the city of Ely, being com- 
monly styled the Apostle of the Isle of Ely. Wood says : ' He was 
a conceited whimsical person, and one very unsetled in his opinions : 
sometimes he was a Presbyterian, sometimes an Independent, and 
at other times an Anabaptist. Sometimes he was a Prophet, and 
would pretend to foretel matters in the pulpit, to the great distraction 
of poor and ignorant people. At other times having received revelations, 
as he pretended, he would forewarn people of their sins in publick 
discourses, and upon a pretence of a vision that Doomesday was at hand, 
he retired to the house of Sir Franc. Russell in Cambridgeshire, and 
finding divers Gentlemen there at Bowles, called upon them to prepare 
themselves for their dissolution, telling them that he had lately received 
a revelation that Doomesday would be some day the next week 1 .' Butler 
has some lines on him in Hudibras (part ii. canto iii. 475-8). Sidrophel, 
seeing the paper lanthorn at the end of the boy's kite through his 
telescope, says : — 

' When stars do fall 'tis plain enough 

The day of judgment's not far off ; 

As lately 'twas reveal'd to Sedgwick 

And some of us find out by magick.' 

To which an editor appends the note : 'This Sedgwick had many persons 
(and some of quality) that believed in him and prepared to keep the day 
of judgment with him, but were disappointed ; for which the false prophet 
was afterwards called by the name of Doomsday Sedgwick? He was 
Minister of Coggeshall and of Covent Garden. 

Having published The Leaves of the tree of Life for the healing of the 
Nations, the author ' went to Carisbrook Castle in the Isle of Wight, and 
desired the Governours leave to address himself to K. Ch. I. then a 
Prisoner there. Mr. fain. Harrington one of the Grooms of the Bed- 
chamber being acquainted with the occasion, told his Maj. that a Minister 
was purposely come from London to discourse with him about his 
spiritual concerns, and was also desirous to present his Maj. with a book 
he had lately written for his Majesties perusal ; which, as he said, if his 

1 Athenae, ii. 335. 
R 2 



244 



A ROYALIST EXILE. 



Majesty would please to read, might, as he imagined, be of much 
advantage to him, and comfort in that his disconsolate condition. The 
King therefore came forth, and Sedgwick in decent manner gave his 
Maj. the book. After he had read some part thereof, he returned it to 
the author with this short admonition and judgment : By what I have 
read in this book, I believe the author stands in some need of sleep. 
These words being taken by the author in the best sense, he departed 
with seeming satisfaction.' 'His Heart' remarks Calamy 'was better 
than his Head.' He preached An Arke against a Deluge and other 
Fast and Thanksgiving Sermons before the House of Commons (Wood 
MS. D. 18). 

One of the earliest Fellows was Dr. William Stampe, son of 
Timothy Stampe, of Brewern Abbey, ' of a good family/ Walker 
says, he entered April 20, 1627 (1626, Wood), aged 16. He was the 
first presented by the College to the Rectory of St. Aldate's (1637). 
In 1 64 1 he became vicar of Stepney, — 

* Where he was much resorted to by persons of orthodox principles for 
his edifying way of preaching. But when the restless Presbyterians had 
brought all things into confusion, he was violently thrust out, imprison'd, 
plunder'd, and at length forced to get away and fly for the safety of his 
life. At that time Oxford being the chief place of refuge for men of 
his condition, he made shift to get there about the beginning of 1643, 
and his case being made known to the King then there, this Order 
following was written by Lord Falkland his Secretary to the Vice- 
chancellour : " The Kings Majesty taking into his Princely consideration 
the great Sufferings of Mr. Will. Stampe, who hath not only undergone 
a long and hard Imprisonment of 34 weeks, but also is now outed of 
a very good Living, and all this for preaching Loyalty and Obedience 
to a disaffected Congregation to the extream hazard of his life : His 
Majesty being willing to repair these his Sufferings, and to encourage 
his known Abilities (for which by special favour and grace he is sworn 
Chaplain to his dearest Son the Prince) hath commanded me to signifie 
to you, that you forthwith confer on him the degree of Doctor of Divinity, 
&c." ' 1 On the declining of the King's cause Stampe followed the Prince 
beyond the seas, and afterwards was made chaplain to the King's sister, 
the beautiful Queen of Bohemia, preaching to a congregation of English 
exiles at Charenton. He died of a fever at the Hague about 1653, in 
early middle life, and (Bishop Morley told Wood) was buried in the 
church of Loesdune. 

Others of this time were : — 

Francis Goldsmith, grandson of Sir Francis, of Crayford, Kent, 
entered Pembroke from the Merchant Taylors as a Gentleman Commoner 
in 1629. Here he laid the foundation of legal studies, migrating later 
to St. John's. He annotated Grotius. Died 1655. His daughter 
Catherine married Sir Henry Dacres, Knight. 

1 Aihcnae, ii. 98. 



DIVINES AND PEDAGOGUES. 



245 



Job Roys, son of a scrivener and akin to the founder of Roysse's 
School, came from Abingdon to Pembroke in 1650, and 'soon after was 
elected one of the Post masters of Mert. Coll. where continuing under 
the tuition of a severe Presbyterian became well qualified with the spirit. 
. . . Retiring to the great City he became a puling Levite among the 
Brethren, for whose sake, and at their instance, he wrote and published 
The Spirits Touchstone, Lond. 1657, which was esteemed an inconsider- 
able canting piece. ... If you had set aside his practical Divinity, you 
would have found him a simple, shiftless, and ridiculous Person.' He 
died in 1663, 'being then weary of the change of the times, and the 
wickedness, forsooth, that followed V 

John Toy, 4 born and bred in Grammar Learning within the City of 
Worcester, became either a Servitor or a Batler of Pembroke Coll. in 1627 
[May 23, 1628, Foster], aged 16 years.' He became chaplain to the 
Bishop of Hereford, and Master of the Free and later of the King's 
School in his native town. He wrote a poem Worcesieis Elegie and 
Eidogie, Lond. 1638 ; Quisquiliae poeticae tyrunculis in re metrica non 
inutiles ; and perhaps an Encheiridion of Greek Grammar. He died 
on Innocents' Day, 1663, and was buried in Worcester Cathedral, where 
a monument with a eulogistic inscription was erected to him. Toy was 
vicar of Stoke Prior. 

Another Worcester man was Thomas Hall, uncle of Bishop John 
Hall and son of Richard Hall, a clothier, by Elizabeth Bonner his wife. 
He was 'bred up to Grammar learning in the King's School there 
under the famous Hen. Bright, who perceiving him to be a youth of 
pregnant parts, was by his perswasion sent to Ball. Coll. in 1624 
(aged 14): but being his chance to be put under the tuition of a care- 
less Tutor, he was removed to Pembroke Coll. then newly founded, 
and became Pupil to Mr. Tho. Lushington, reputed by the generality 
of scholars eminent for his Philosophical learning V 

After B.A. (Feb. 7, i62-§) he served the cure of King's Norton and was 
master of the Free School. ' Being a frequenter of the Lectures at 
Bermingham in Warwickshire maintained and held up by the old 
Puritans, they so much operated on his spirit, that he relinquished his 
former principles, and in many respects became an enemy to the Church 
of England, and in fine so rigid in his perswasion that he was disliked 
by the Brethren. ... At the turn of the times in 1641 he shew'd himself 
openly a Presbyterian and complied altogether with that party, not for 
preferment sake but because they were against Bishops and Ceremonies. 
At length in 1652, having the testimony of godly and able men, had the 
degree of Bach, of Divinity confer'd upon him by the then members 
of the University.' He appears to have been a single and humble- 
minded man, ' a lover of books and learning and of a retired and obscure 
life.' Among other treatises he wrote Histrio-Mastix, 'A whip for 

1 Athenae, ii. 220. 2 Ibid. 233. 



246 



DIVINES AND PEDAGOGUES. 



Webster 1 (as 'tis conceived), the quondam Player'; The Loathsomeness 
of Long Hair j Funebria Florae — The downfal of May-games; Reasons 
and Arguments against painting spots, naked breasts, arms, &c. ; 
Samaria's Downfall; The Beauty of Magistracy j The Font guarded 
with xx arguments, against antipasdobaptism ; The Pulpit guarded with 
xvii arguments, proving the sinfulness of private persons preaching 
without a call; The Collier in his colours, &c, 'wherein you have the 
filthy, false, heretical and blasphemous tenents of one Collier an Arrian, 
Arminian, Socinian, etc. The said Tho. Collier was a husbandman, 
sometime Teacher to the Church at York and at West bury? Hall was 
however, as times went, a lover of peace. Calamy says he was ' often 
accused, curs'd, threatened with Death, many times plundered and five 
times imprison'd,' during the War. Other of his works were devotional. 
He translated Ovid under the titles, Phaeton's Folly and Wisdont's 
Conquest. He died in deep poverty, April 13, 1665, and was buried 
at 'his beloved King's Norton.' He had prevailed on the parishioners 
to build a school there, to which in his lifetime he gave his study of 
books. He was a benefactor also to the library of Birmingham School. 
'A very hard Student, a considerable Scholar, a well furnish'd Divine, 
of an holy and unblamable Life,' says Calamy. 

Thomas Hunt, also from Worcester, entered Jan. 29, i6§# (1628, Wood, 
Ath. ii. 547), aged seventeen; M.A. 1636 (B.A. from Wadham 1632). After 
teaching at Salisbury and in the Church of St. Dunstan in the East, he was 
preferred to the Mastership of the Free School of St. Saviour's, Southwark, 
where he was a successful pedant. He wrote (1661) '■Libellus Ortho- 
graphicus, or the Diligent Schoolboy's Directory, very useful for grammar- 
scholars, Apprentices, etc. or any that desire to be exactly perfect (especially) 
in the English Orthography ' — an art then in some need of elucidation. 
Also c Abecedarium Scholasticu?n : or the Grammar Scholars Flower- 
garden, wherein are these following flowers : to wit Proverbs, proverbial 
Sayings, Sayings also on several subjects.' Dying Jan. 23, 1682, he was 
buried in St. Saviour's 2 . 

1 John Webster, chaplain in the rebel army. His Academiarum Examen was 
also answered by Seth Ward's Vindiciae Academiarum. 

2 The lot of many of these collegian pedagogues is described in The Schollers 
Complaint, 1641 (Rous) : — 

' All in a mellanchollike study, None but my selfe, 
Me thought my muse grew muddy, 

After seaven yeeres reading, and costly breeding, 
I fell and could find no pelfe. 
Into learned rags I've read my plush and satten 
And now am fitte to begge in Greeke and Latine, 
Instead of Aristotle I would I had a patten [patent ?]. 
Alas, pore scholler, Whither wilt thou goe? 

The tongues and arts I've skill in, Divine and humane ; 
But all 's not worth a shilling. 

When the women heare me, They will but jeere me, 
And say I am profane. 



A PREACHER CAPTAIN. 



247 



Edmund Hall, younger brother of Thomas Hall mentioned above, 
entered in 1636, aged 16. Leaving without a degree, he took the 
Covenant and became a parliamentary captain. After the victory of the 
Parliament he retired to the College, and was made fellow in 1647. 

In 1649 he proceeded M.A. 'about which time he express'd himself 
an Enemy to Oliver for his diabolical proceedings and was thereupon 
committed to custody 1 .' He had written three pamphlets called Lingua 
Testium, Manns Testium, and DigiUis Testium to prove that Cromwell 
'had slain the Witnesses, was very Antichrist, and impossible for him 
to raign above three years and a half.' He was released after a twelve- 
month on giving bail. 'About that time he became, tho a Calvinist, 
a conceited and affected preacher several years in these parts, kept pace 
with the leading men during the Interval, complemented with the times 
at his Majesties restauration, and endeavoured to express his loyalty, 
yet could not endure to be called Captain. Afterwards he became 
Minister of a Market Town in Oxfordsh. named Chipping- Norton, where 
being much frequented by the neighbourhood obtained the character, 
from some of a fantastical, and from others of an edifying, preacher.' 
He was presented, in 1680, by Sir Edmund Bray, a royalist who had made 
him his chaplain, to Great Risington, and, though of elderly years, 
wedded 'a fair and comely wife.' 'His Sermons preached before the 
University of Oxon had in them many odd, light, and whimsical passages, 
altogether unbecoming the gravity of the Pulpit : And his gestures being 
very antick and whimmical did usually excite somewhat of laughter in 
the more youthful part of the auditory.' One of his works, Lazarus's 
soares lick'd, was against Dr. Lazarus Seamon who had affirmed, about 

Once I remember I preached with a weaver ; 
I quoted Austin, he quoted Dod and Cleaver. 
I nothing gotte, he got a cloake and beaver. 
Alas, pore scholler, Whither wilt thou goe? 

Shippes, shippes, shippes I discover, Crossing the maine; 
Shall I in them saile over, 

Be Jew or atheist, Turke or papist, 
To Geneva or Amsterdam ? 
Bishoprickes are voide in Scotland. Shall I thither ? 
Or shall I after Finch or Windebanke, to see if either 
Want a priest to shrive them ? Oh no ! 'tis blustering weather, 

Alas, pore scholler, Whither wilt thou goe ? 

Hoe, ho, ho ! I have hitt it ; Peace, Goodman foole, 
Thou hast a trade will fitte it ; 

Draw the indenture, Be bound at a venture 
An apprentice to a free-schoole. 
Here thou art king, by William Lillies charter ; 
Here thou maist whip and strip, hang, draw, and quarter, 
And committe to the redde rodde Tom, Jack, Will and Arthur. 

I, I ! 'tis thither, Thither will I goe.' 

1 Aihenae, ii. 609. 



248 



A SCRUPULOUS CONSCIENCE. 



1648, that a usurper ought to be submitted to. He printed a sermon 
preached at Stanton Harcourt at the funeral of the Lady Anne, mother 
of Lord Chancellor Harcourt (1664), with a Funeral Speech spoken at 
her grave. Hall died in August, 1687, and is buried at Great Risington. 

The dispossession of so many preachers on St. Bartholomew's Day, 
1662, was a necessary deduction, less from their nonconformity or 
from justice to the clergy whom they had displaced, and to the 
majority of their flocks to whom they refused to minister, than from 
the essential principles of the Church as regards ordination. The 
Church could not but insist that they should receive apostolic com- 
mission. Of those more honest and consistent men who could not 
in conscience accept this slur upon the ' call ' they had already 
received, none draws our respect more than John Humphreys, of 
whom Calamy gives a long account. He matriculated March 22, 163!; 
M. A. 1647. When the King was at Oxford, he went thither from 
the parliamentary quarters ; but we find him later a moderate Presby- 
terian,receiving from the existing powers the vicarage of Frome-Selwood. 

Writing in favour of free admission to the Lord's Supper, he 'was here- 
upon counted a Man of the Old Stamp, and no Favourite of those Times. 
As he never took the Covenant, so did he never joyn in the Association 
with the Presbytery. He was all along for bringing in the King : And 
one Day openly alluded to that Text of the Prophet, / will overturn, 
overturn, overturn, imtil he co7ne whose right it is, and I will give it 
him. Hereupon a Warrant was sent for him from Okey, for a seditious 
Person. But his Danger blew over when the King return'd and Episco- 
pacy came in with him. Some at Court were willing to remember him 
for preferment.' The King having said in his Declaration that the 
Bishop should call in some rural presbyters to help him in examining 
and laying on of hands, the Bishop of Bath and Wells invited Humphreys 
on an occasion of the kind. He told the Bishop frankly that he had 
received orders from a classis of Presbyters, and thought that sufficient ; 
but after some friendly conference, indenting only for some little variation 
in the formula and that he should not be put upon any subscription, after 
two days he complied and was ordained deacon and priest. Humphreys 
had already written in favour of the lawfulness of re-ordination ' in order 
to the securing of ministerial usefulness,' and an Irish prelate told Dr. 
Williams that ' he converted all Ireland (excepting two Scotts) with that 
book.' But when he considered it now in his own case, he remembered 
not only that the Councils and Fathers condemned re-ordination as 
sacrilegious, but that the circumstances of his yielding had been such 
as to cast doubt on his former ordination, especially as he had submitted 
to be made deacon. 'His Soul was hereupon wounded, diseased, 
oppressed.' Not content with a public profession of his ' penitent Grief 
and Sorrow,' in which he did 'retract, revoke, renounce and reject' his 
re-ordination, he went in much distress to the Bishop's Registrar, and, 



RE-ORDINATION. TOUCHING FOR THE EVIL. 249 



before witnesses, tore his paper of Deacon's Orders and threw it into the fire. 
He yet reserved the evidence of his priestly character, not knowing but it 
might serve him in the exercise of his function ; but, when the Act of 
Uniformity made it clear that he could not continue to minister without 
accepting the Prayer Book, he took 'an honest Man' as witness into his 
chamber, tore his Priest's Orders also, threw one part into the flames, 
and wrapped up the other part in a letter to the Bishop, ' that you may 
see unto what a pass the Trouble of a Man's Mind some Times may 
bring him, to get his Peace again when he hath forgone it ; which the 
Lord of his Mercy make use of to your Honour for Caution and Tender- 
ness towards others.' During Charles IPs reign he wrote a vast number 
of pacificatory pamphlets ; for one paper of counsel to Parliament he was 
committed to the Gate-house, and one, The Sacramental Test, was voted 
to be burnt. At the Revolution he addressed to the Convention a 
breviate, Advice before it be too late. He died about 1 719, having 
almost fulfilled the expectation that he would be ' the longest Liver of all 
the Ejected.' Nathan Denton survived him. When Calamy pressed 
him for an autobiography he replied that he ' desired no more than to 
go to his Grave with a Sprig of Rosemary.' In all his life of ninety-nine 
years ' this good man,' says Calamy, ' has never been able to be of the 
rising side.' Perhaps Thomas Humphries of Pembroke, the 'block- 
head,' whom Hearne (iii. 458) asserts to have preached a stolen sermon 
before the University on the Divine Authority of the New Testament, 
was his son. 

Thomas Rosewell, of an old Somerset stock, entered Dec. 9, 1650. 
B.A.July 6, 1651. 

Being presented by Lady Hungerford to Rhode, he was there 'Solemnly 
Ordained by M r Strickland (whose Daughter he Married) and others,' 
in July, 1654. In 1658 he moved to Sutton Mandeville, Wilts, whence he 
was ejected after the Restoration. But his interest belongs to a later 
date. After ministering privately for ten years at Rotherhithe, he was 
arrested, Sept. 23, 1684, by the warrant of Chief Justice Jeffries, for High 
Treason and committed to the Gate-house. In the trial at the King's 
Bench bar, Nov. 18, it was alleged that in a sermon on Sept. 14 Rosewell 
had said 'that the People made a flocking to our said Sovereign Lord 
the King, upon pretence of healing the King's Evil, which he could not 
do ' ; but that they ought rather to resort to himself and other Traiterous 
persons, for that ' we are Priests and Prophets, that by our Prayers can 
heal the Dolours and Griefs of the People. We have had Two wicked 
Kings (meaning the most Serene Charles the First, late King of England 
and our said Sovereign Lord the King that now is) who have permitted 
Popery to enter in under their Noses, whom we can resemble to no other 
Person, but to the most wicked Jeroboa7n? If his hearers would stand 
to their principles, he did not fear but they would overcome their enemies, 
as in former times, ' with Ram's Horns, broken Platters, and a Stone in 
a Sling.' Three women swore to these words, who, Calamy says, were 
afterwards pilloried for perjury. In spite of a good defence, the prisoner 



250 



EJECTED MINISTERS. 



was convicted and sentenced, but ' Sir J0I171 Talbot, who was present at 
the Tryal, was plcas'd, of his own accord, to represent the Passages of 
it, with his Opinion, to King Charles; who gave Direction to the Lord 
Chief Justice Jeffreys, that he should have Council assign'd him, to plead 
to the Insufficiency of the Indictement, in Arrest of Judgment. Accord- 
ingly on Nov. 27, M r Wallop, M r Pollexfen, and M 1 ' Thomas Bamffield 
Argu'd upon the Case, and the Court took time till the next Term to 
consider of Judgment : And King Charles in the meantime granted him 
a Pardon, which he pleaded some few days after that King's Death, and 
was discharg'd. He outliv'd his Tryal Seven Years; and dy'd Feb. 14, 
i69^, and was Interr'd at Bunhill. His Funeral Sermon was preach'd 
by M r Matthew Head? Rosewell's Life was published by his daughter, 
1718. 

Thomas Riseley, made fellow by the Visitors in 1654 (matric. 
Dec. 9, 1650; B.A. 1652; M.A. 1655), resigned or was ejected at 
the Restoration. Calamy says, — 

' There is some Account of him in a Preface prefix'd by M r Howe to 
a Treatise of his, intituled, the Cursed Family, 8vo. 1700. In the Univer- 
sity he pass'd his time as a Recluse ; and after his Ejectment, he liv'd as 
obscurely in the Country, as he did before in Oxon. He rather aim'd 
at acquiring solid useful Knowledge, and Learning, than Fame : and was 
contented rather to shine to himself, than the World. His little Book of 
the Curse belonging to Prayerless Families, shews him to have been a 
valuable Man.' A MS. note in my copy of Calamy adds : ' A large 
account of his Life is publish'd by M r Charles Owen who preach'd his 
Fun 11 Serm n 1716.' Riseley was born near Warrington, Aug. 27, 1630. 

Calamy also gives particulars of the following : — 

George Trosse (son of Henry Trosse, Esquire, counsellor at law), 
born at Exeter, entered Aug. 6, 1658, aged twenty-seven. His tutor was 
Thomas Cheseman, the Nonconformist. He became ' Pastor of a con- 
siderable Congregation in ExonJ where he suffered a six months' im- 
prisonment in South Gate. 

William Reeves, B.A., after his ejection from Resbury, Bucks, 
' preach'd no where Statedly but here and there Occasionally, and pretty 
much at Abingdon. He was once much Troubled on occasion of a 
Charge of Treasonable Words, sworn upon him in a Sermon he preach'd 
on Psal. 2. 1. But upon a Tryal he was Acquitted. He dy'd Aft. 1683.' 

William Crosse (matr. July 25, 1655, born at Frinkford, Oxon), was 
'ordain'd by the Presbytery at Nottingham and call'd to Attenborough^ 
and to Beeston, Notts. 'After his Ejectment he liv'd at Loughborough, 
where he preach'd when the Law allow'd him. He dy'd Pastor of a 
numerous Congregation in Derby in 1698. He was a good practical 
Preacher ; and exemplary in his Conversation. The Seventh Sermon in 
the Collection of Farewel Sermons of the Country Ministers (upon 1 Sam. 
30. 6.), is his.' 



EJECTED MINISTERS. 



John Langston went from the Free School at Worcester to Pembroke 
as a servitor in 1655, and spent some years there. He was thrust into 
the benefice of Ash Church, but made way for the old incumbent on the 
King's return. Retiring to London he taught a private grammar school 
near Spitalfields, was disturbed, and went into Ireland as chaplain to 
Captain Blackwell, returning to his school again in 1663. Here he wrote 
his Lusus Poeticus Latino-Anglicanns in usum Scholarum (1675), and 
his Poeseos Graecae Medulla (1679). He at length accepted an invitation 
from a dissenting congregation at Ipswich. He met with a great deal of 
violent usage there, and was forced to publish a Vindication to prove that 
he was not a Jesuit. ' He shew'd great sweetness of Spirit towards his 
own People, and towards People of different Perswasions, untill he fell 
asleep on Jan. 12, i7of. sEtat. 64.' 

Thomas Cheseman, the blind tutor and preacher, was ejected from 
East Garston, Berks. ' No sooner did he step into this World than he 
trod upon the Thorns of a very sharp Affliction, being depriv'd of his 
Eye-sight by the Small Pox before he was four Years Old. He was bred 
in the School at Tunbridge, and went thence to Pembroke College Oxon ; 
where he continu'd till he was Master of Arts [July 9, 1656], and had 
among others M 1 * Timothy Hall (whom K. James made a Bishop) for his 
Pupil. When he was ejected by the Act, he came up to Lo?idon and 
Preach'd frequently in the Churches here, and was never apprehended. 
He afterwards returned into the Country, and Preach'd in his own House 
at Market-Ilsley, to such as would venture to hear him ; And he con- 
tinu'd it, till a Writ de Excommunicato capiendo came out against him ; 
by virtue of which he was a Prisoner in Reading for 1 5 Weeks, but he 
was Releas'd by an Order of King and Council procur'd for him by 
some Friends in London. After King Charles's Indulgence he Preach'd 
openly ; and held the Exercise of his Ministry to a good Old Age. He 
was a good Scholar and useful Preacher.' 

Other ' ejected or silenced ministers ' mentioned by Caiamy in 
Baxter s Life ajid Times were : — 

Francis Mence (entered 1660), who suffered, however, chiefly at the 
hands of fellow sectaries. In 1694 he published ' Vindiciae Foederis with 
some seasonable Reflections upon various unsound and Cruel Passages 
taken forth of two Furious Books of Mr. H. Collins printed against 
Infant's Baptism. By Fran. Mence, some time of Pembroke College in 
Oxjord, now an unworthy Pastor of a Church of Christ in Wapping near 
London:— Thomas Walrond (1633), ejected from Woolfardisworthy ;— 
■ a very learned Man. He quitted a considerable Place, and incurr'd the 
Displeasure of his Family, which was much to his Damage.' — James 
Rawson (B.A. 161 8), 'a Conformist in the Time of King Charles I ; but 
counted the Terms of Conformity too rigorous after the Restauration.' 
He had been put by the Earl of Northumberland into the rectory of 
Haselbury Bryant. Rawson wrote a quarto on Election and Reprobation, 
dated 1658.— James Perry (1641), dispossessed of Micklemarsh, Hants. 
* His Living was worth 300/. per Annum. He was a very popular 



252 



CHIEF JUSTICE SCROCGS. 



Preacher, and continu'd the Exercise of his Ministry at Odiham in this 
County grails, 'till Sickness disabled him.' — Thomas Kentish (1651), 
ejected from Overton ; ' a very serious, useful, friendly, candid Person.' 
He 'came to London, and was Pastor of a Society that met for Divine 
Worship in Cannon Street' — John Malden (1638), ejected from 
Newport. He was ' a Man of great Learning, an excellent Hebrician, 
one of exemplary piety, and a solid Preacher. As he liv'd, so he dy'd, 
very low in his own Eyes.' — Edward Warre (1650), dispossessed of 
Cheddon, Somerset, but ' preached in private in the Parish after he was 
Ejected.' — Richard Sargent (1640), removed from Stone, Worcester- 
shire ; ' a Man of extraordinary Prudence, Humility, Sincerity, Self-denial, 
Patience, and Blamelessness of Life.' — To these may be added Henry 
Coxe, ejected from Bishopstoke, Hants, and Nathaniel White (1623) 
from Market Lavington, Wilts. 

We have a very different kind of person from the foregoing in the 
famous Sir William Scroggs, born at Deddington, Oxon, at the end 
of James I's reign. His father William was affirmed by Dugdale (to 
whom Scroggs had refused to pay the usual fees of knighthood) to 
have been ' a one ey'd Butcher near Smithfield Bars, and his Mother 
a big fat Woman with a red face, like an Alewife 1 ;' also that the 
father was ' a very ill-humour'd man ' and would never pay his tithes. 
He gave his son however a good education, and sent him, aged 16, 
to Oriel (matr. May 17, 1639). Thence he migrated to Pembroke, 
4 where, being put under the tuition of a noted Tutor, he became Master 
of a good Latine stile and a considerable Disputant.' B.A. Jan. 23, 
1 6f % . ' Soon after, tho the Civil War broke forth, and the University 
emptied thereupon of the greatest part of its Scholars, yet he continued 
there, bore arms for his Majesty, and had so much time allowed him, 
that he proceeded Master of Arts in 1643/ 

' About that time he being designed for a Divine, his Father procured 
for him the reversion of a good Parsonage ; but so it was that he being 
engaged in that honorable, tho unfortunate, expedition of Kent, Essex, 
and Colchester, an. 1648, wherein, as I have been credibly informed, he was 
a Captain of a Foot Company, he was thereby disingaged from enjoying 
it' (Athenae, ii. 565). He had been entered of Gray's Inn, however, in 
Feb. 1640, but, owing to the turmoil of the State, was not called till June 
1653. As a lawyer, a 'bold front, a handsome person, an easy allocution 
and a ready wit' (Foss), enabled him to push his way quickly. Wood 
however says that his fluency as a speaker was spoiled for listening to by 
' some stops and hesitancy.' He was 1 a person of very excellent and 
nimble parts,' but of debauched morals. Soon after the Restoration he 
was knighted, and chosen counsel for the Corporation of London. But 
in April 1665 he made petition alleging that it being his duty to walk 

1 So in the Tom Tickle-foot and Justice Clodpate lampoons. 



CHIEF JUSTICE SCROGGS. 



253 



before the Lord Mayor on certain days of solemnity, but being unable to 
do so from wounds sustained in the late King's cause, he had been there- 
fore suspended from his place, and praying redress. In April, 1668, he was 
assigned as counsel for Sir W. Penn, and the next year was bencher of 
Gray's Inn and King's Serjeant. Roger North says that Chief Justice 
Hale detested Scroggs and refused him his Serjeant's privilege when 
arrested under warrant for assault and battery. Lord Danby was his 
chief patron, through whom he was made a Judge of Common Pleas, Oct. 
23, 1676, and on May 31, 1678, Lord Chief Justice. As a judge he showed 
himself able, but ignorant, arrogant, and brutal. In his conduct of the 
State trials arising out of the 1 Popish Plot,' he thought he was gaining the 
favour of the Court by riding the Protestant horse, browbeating the 
prisoners, and backing Oates and Bedlow. One day however, says North, 
'the Lord Chief Justice came from Windsor with a Lord of the Council 
(Chief Justice North) in his coach, and among other discourse Scroggs 
asked that Lord if the Lord Shaftesbury (who was then Lord President 
of the Council) had really that interest with the King as he seemed to 
have. No, replied that Lord, no more than your footman hath with 
you. This sank into the man, and quite altered the ferment, so as that 
from that time he was a new man V Luttrell asserts his conversion to 
have been due to Portuguese gold. Being now on the unpopular side, 
Scroggs (nicknamed ' the Mouth ') was indicted by Oates and Bedlow for 
encouraging popery, and for profanity, drunkenness and corruption ; but at 
the hearing before the King and Council in January, 1600, he triumphantly 
beat down and outre viled his accusers. In the next parliament the 
Commons impeached him (Jan. 1681) for getting rid of a presentment in 
the King's Bench against the Duke of York for absenting himself from 
Church, and for issuing illegal warrants ; but the Upper House refused 
to concur. When a new parliament met at Oxford the following March, 
the attack was renewed ; Scroggs pleaded Not Guilty, and that parliament 
also was dissolved. But the King thought it prudent to remove him, 
granting him a pension of ,£1,500, and a patent of King's Counsel to his 
son Sir William (1652-1695, treasurer of Gray's Inn 1686-8). Scroggs 
retired to his estate at Weald Hall near Burntwood, Essex, where 
he died Oct. 25, 1683, and was buried in Southweald Church. Wood 
speaks of his 1 courage and greatness of spirit,' and ascribes his change of 
front to patriotism ' when he saw this Popish Plot to be made a shooing- 
horn to draw on others.' One of his daughters was married to Lord Chief 
Justice Wright, the other to a son of Lord Hatton. 

Some members of the College mentioned by Wood among the 
Writers, or as otherwise noted, about this time, are : — 

Conway Whitterne, created Med. Bac. Dec. 20, 1642, when the King 
after the battle of Edgehill retired to Oxford, and declared his pleasure that 
there should be a creation (sometimes called the Caroline Creation) in all 
faculties of such as had done him service in that fight. Whitterne was at 



1 Examen, 568. 



2 54 



WRITERS AND OTHERS. 



one time Captain of a Company of Foot. He also fought for Charles II at 
Worcester. Rector of Kingham (1676) and Daylesford (1680).— William 
Norreys, afterwards a Cornet in the Lord Hopton's army, was made 
B.A. in the same creation. — WILLIAM DOWDESWELL, perhaps the canon 
of Chichester of that name, ' accounted a learned man among those of his 
Society,' was created M.A. at the same time, as one of those who ' had 
retired to the King at Oxon to avoid the barbarities of the Presbyterians.' 
At the Restoration he received a prebend at Worcester. — John Wyberd 
(entered 163!, ae ^ 2 4)> a mathematician, who left England when the 
troubles began, travelled in Germany, and was made Doctor of Physick 
(being styled ' Trinobans Anglus ') at Franaker in West Friesland, whence 
he incdrporated at Oxford in 1654. He wrote ' Tetagmenoinetria, or 
the Geometry of Regulars practically proposed,' Lond. 1650. — Philip 
Marinell, a Channel Island fellow (matr. 1653), translated (1660) from 
the French The Hinge of Faith and Religion, written by Ludovicus 
Capel, professor of Divinity at Samur. He was buried in St. Aldate's 
churchyard, near the south door. — Paul Lathom (matr. 1654) ; created 
M.A. 1661 at the Clarendonian Creation ; prebendary of Sarum and 
a writer. — Dr. Andrew Dominick, ' originally of Trin. Coll. where he 
had in a manner been drawn off from his Religion to that of Rome but 
reclaimed by the endeavours of Dr. Christoph. Wren, afterwards Dean of 
Windsore? Created D.D. in 1661, when Lord Clarendon the Chancellor 
visited Oxford, being then beneficed in Wilts. He published among other 
things Dies Nefastus (1662). — In the same Creation Samuel Cotton, and 
Lawrence Hungerford vicar of Hambledon, were made Doctors of 
Divinity. — Wood does not mention Dr. Elisha Coysh (matr. 1650), 
fellow of the College of Physicians 1673 (buried in St. Mary Aldermary 
1685). — Dean Samuel Crossman, author of ' Jerusalem on high ' and 
other 1 Sacred Poems,' is assigned by Professor Palgrave in his Treasury 
to this House, but appears to have been bred at Pembroke Hall in 
Cambridge. 



CHAPTER XIX. 



MASTERSHIPS OF WIGHTWICK AND BISHOP HALL. . 
DISSENSIONS. 

Clayton's de jure successor in the mastership, Henry Wightwick, 
had in his salad days set the University by the ears. . At the end of 
1613 1 

' a spirit of sedition possessed certain of the Regent Masters against 
the Vicechanc. and doctors. The chief and only matter that excited 
them to it was their sitting like boys bareheaded in the Convocation 
House, at the usual assemblies there, which was not, as 'twas thought, so 
fit, that the Professors of the Faculty of Arts (on which the University 
was founded) should, all things considered, do it. The most forward 
person among them, named Henry Wightwicke, of Gloucester Hall, 
having had an intimation of a Statute which enabled them to be covered 
with their caps, and discovering also something in the large west window 
of Saint Mary's Church, where pictures of Regents and Non-Regents 
were sitting covered in assemblies before the Chancellor, clapt on his 
cap, and spared not to excite his brethren to vindicate that custom, now 
in a manner forgotten ; and having got over one of the Regents to be 
more zealous in the matter than himself, procured the hands of most, if 
not all, of them to be set to a Petition (in order to be sent to the 
Chancellor of the University 2 ), for- the effecting and bringing about the 
matter. But the Vicechancellor, D r Singleton, having had timely notice 
of the design, sends a full relation of the matter to the Chancellor; where- 
upon answer was returned that he should deal therein as he should think 
fit. Wightwicke therefore being called into question for endeavouring to 
subvert the Honour and Government of the University, whereby he ran 
himself into perjury (he having before taken an Oath to keep and maintain 
the Rites, Customs, and Privileges of the University) was banished ; and 
his party, who had proved false to him, severely checkt by the Chancellor. 

'At length Wightwick's friends laying open to him the danger that he 

1 Gutch, Annals, ii. 317. 

2 Thomas, Lord Ellesmere. A little earlier, in 159 1, Dr. James the Vice- 
Chancellor, an anti-puritan, pronounced John Vicars, a regent-master of Broad- 
gates, deprived for a year of the liberties of the University for brawling in Con- 
gregation (Gutch's Wood, ii. 247). 



256 



HENRY WIGHT WICK. 



would run himself into, if he should not seek restauration and submit, did, 
after his peevish and rash humour had been much courted to it, put up 
a Petition (subscribed in his behalf by the Bishop of London 1 and Sir John 
Bennett) to the Chancellor of the University, for his restauration, which 
being with much ado granted, but with this condition, that he make an 
humble recantation in the Convocation, sent to his Vicechancellor what 
should be done in the matter, and among other things thus. " For the 
manner of his submission and recognition which he is to make, I will not 
take upon me to direct, but leave yt wholy to your wisdomes, as well for 
manner as for the matter ; only thus much generally will I intimate unto 
you that the affront and offence committed by Whittwicke in the Con- 
gregation House by his late insolent carriage there, was verie great and 
notorious, and that offence afterwards seconded and redoubled by another, 
as ill or worse than the former, in his seditious practizing and procuring 
a multitude of handes, thereby thinking to justifie and maintain his former 
errors, and his proud and insolent disobedience and contempt. I hold yt 
therefore very requisite that his submission and recognition, both of the 
one fault and of the other, should be as publique, and as humble, as 
possible with conveniencye may bee. Which being thus openly done, 
as I hope yt will bee a good example to others, to deter them from com- 
mitting the like offences hereafter, so I do also wishe this his punishment 
may be only ad correctionem et non ad destructionem." ' 

He made his submission on the morrow of St. John Baptist's Day, 
1614, in the middle of the chancel of St. Mary's. In it he says, after 
acknowledging that he had put on his cap, 

i Scitote quaeso praeterea, me supradictum Henricum a sententia 
domini Vicecancellarii ad venerabilem Domum Congregationis provo- 
casse, quod nec licitum nec honestum esse in causa perturbationis pacis 
facile concede Scitote denique me solum manus Academicorum egregie 
merentium Theologiae Baccalaureorum et in Artibus Magistrorum in hac 
corona astantium Collegiatim et Aulatim cursitando rescripto apponendas 
curasse.' 

He writes himself both ' Whitwicke ' and ' Wightwicke.' The sub- 
mission was followed by his restoration. Wood adds : — 

'This person could never be convinced when he became Master of 
Pembroke College, 46 years after this time, that he made any submission 
at all, but carried the business on and effected it against all the Univer- 
sity : as to his young acquaintance that came often to visit him and he 
them (for he delighted in boyish company) he would after a pedantical 
way boast, supposing perhaps, that having been so many years before 
acted, no person could remember it : but record will rise up and justify 
matters, when names and families are quite extirpated and forgotten 
among men.' 

1 Abbott. These names seem a link between Tesdale and the Wightwick 
family. 



EXPULSION FROM THE MASTERSHIP. 257 



In 1620. six years after Wightwick's rebuff, Prideaux being Vice- 
Chancellor, the Regent Masters, including Gilbert Sheldon, Peter 
Heylin, Robert Newlyn, and many others, renewed their claim to be 
covered, and the Chancellor, Lord Pembroke, recommended Con- 
vocation to allow it, 'it being no where seen that those that are 
admitted Judges are required to sit bare-headed.' It was accordingly 
agreed that all Masters might wear square caps, any one bringing in 
his hat to lose his suffrage. Before half a century had elapsed how- 
ever the privilege was disused, the masters finding it troublesome to 
bring their caps and preferring to sit bare-headed. By an ordinance 
of June 1, 1 62 1, undergraduates were to stand uncovered before 
masters. 

Dr. Ingram considers Henry Wightwick's reply to the parliamentary 
Visitors only equalled by Hough's stand against James II. His 
career had not a very edifying sequel. He was advanced in life when 
restored to the Mastership in 1660. On the Epiphany (Sunday) 
1 66 1, ' Mr. . Whighwick) M r . of Pemb. Coll. Oxon, preached at 
S. Maries on this text, Master, what shall I doe y* I might inherit 
eternall life? Where he, striving too much his voice might be 
heard, fell in sownn. This I took notice of here, in case the 
phanaticks may take advantage of it hereafter, to publish it as a 
speciall judgment of God, as they did on some occasions last Aug. 
Mr. Whitwicke, as I was told, eat not a bit from Saturday noon 
before, neither took rest that night, and besides he is an old man 1 .' 
On Dec. 21, 1664, he was removed from his place as Master by an 
order from the Earl of Clarendon read in the College hall. ' Mr. 
Whitwick's place pronounced void by the Chancellour for severall 
misdeameanours. This man had been absent from the Universitie 
many yeares and had forgot an Universitie life and the decorum 
belonging to a governour. Testy, peevish and silly. Drinks with 
yong Mrs. and Bachelors. Visit . . . Ewre of C. C. Coll. 2 , a fat 
drunken Bachelor, and hath been discovered at his chamber in 
a morning smoaking and drinking. His preaching at St. Marie's 
ridiculous. His person ridiculous, like a monkey rather than a 
Christian V There was a bibbing Rector at Exeter College after the 
Restoration, for whom Wood makes a similar excuse, that he had in 
his long exile and ' extreme misery ' unlearnt the habits of a scholar 
and divine ; and the restored President of Corpus, Dr. Newlyn, seems 

1 Wood's Life and Times, i. 379. 

2 Probably Henry Ewer, matr. 1662. 

3 Life and Times, ii. 25. 

S 



2 5 8 



APPEAL TO THE CHANCELLOR. 



also to have been demoralized by adversity. Wightwick was rather 
high-handed and autocratic, as the following appeal against his en- 
forcement of the Statutes seems to show. The appellant is a different 
Henry Wyat from the intruded fellow of that name. 

'To the Right Hono rble Edward Earle of Clarendon Lord high 
Chancelo r of England Chancel 1 ' of y e University of Oxon & by y e Statute 
of Pemb. Coll. their peculiar Visitor 

'The humble peticon of Henry Wyatt D r in physick & fellow of 
Pemb. Coll. 1 

'Humbly sheweth 

' That yo r peticon r was continally persecuted & threatned expulsion 
in y e time of D r Langlys M r ship for adhering to y e King but is now 
actually expeld by M 1 " Wightwick y e present M 1 ' upon pretence of a 
certain clause in y 9 statutes w ch obliges those of y e foundation to be 
ordaind Ministers w th in 4 yeares after they are m rs of Arts whereas all 
y* time there was noe episcopall and lawfull ordination to be had & since 
to be ordained will not fulfill y e statute and therefore upon a full debate it 
was ordred 3 by y e Visitors appointed by his Ma*? for regulating the 
Univ r sity that yo r peticon 1 ' should be restord to his fellowship & y 9 
profitts thereof and had time granted till Michaelmas next to resolve 
whether he would enter into Orders or not But y e M r in a peremptory 
Contempt of y e said Order hath in yo r peticon rs absence proceeded not- 
withstanding to a full expulsion & admitted another into his place & not 
only done this but many other rash and imprudent Acts against y e 
Consent of all y e fellows to y e great prejudice & almost ruine of y e whole 
society 

' Yo r peticon 1 " therefore most humbly prayeth (forasmuch as he is a kins- 
man to y e Founder & hath been alwaies faithfull to his Ma*y & a great 
sufferer both att home & abroad & hath as yett no other preferment) that 
yo 1 ' Hon 1 ' would be pleasd to restore him to his fellowshippe & y e profits 
thereof that he may have y e same favour w ch others injoy & a longer time 
granted him before he be compeld to take Orders the statutes allowing 
a yeare of grace even to those who have other certaine preferment. 

' And yo r peticon r shall ever pray etc ' 

'Oxford Sept. 23, 166 1 
' This Petition having been delivered to Me so late before my going out | 
of Town that I have not time to send for the Master of Pembroke Coll: j 
I desire M r Vicechanceller to examine the Business & to see if He can, j 
by calling both Parties before him, settle it ; If not to make a speciall j 
Report of it to Me. ' Clarendon C 

1 Tanner MSS. 338, fol. 405. 2 Viz. on April 9, 1661. 



THE REQUIREMENT OF ORDINATION. 



Minutes of the Hebdomadal Board. 

' Upon reading y e Pembroke Coll. Statute touchinge y e tyme for fellowes 
to be invested into holy orders, forasmuch as M r Henry Whitwick Master 
of y e said coll: did upon his owne power, without y e consent of y e fellowes 
of the said Coll: or application to the Visitor then beeing pronounce 
D r Henry Wyat fellowe of the said Coll: Non Socius and did con- 
sequently expell him his said fellowPP the Board Upon due debate and 
consideracon of the matter did revoke and null y e said Act of M r Henry 
Whitwick as to the expulsion of the said D r Henry Wyatt And did 
decree him to be restored and did then restore him to his said fellowP and 
all the rights and profites thereunto belonging with the arreares from the 
time he was pronounced Non Socius to the present, And did give farther 
tyme to the said Doctor Henry Wyat to enter into holy orders for satis- 
faction of the said statute till Michaelmas next.' 

Dr. Wyatt afterwards applies for further extension of time and 
urges, 

' The Statute does not say I shall be expell'd if not in Orders but only 
thus : Omnes obligabuntur ad studium theologiae et erunt Presbyteri 
intra 4tuor annos a suscepto gradu Magistri. And I believe in some 
cases this may alsoe be dispensed w th , as in case of Travell w ch is 
allowed by y e Statute ; It is not to be imagin'd y* a man should take 
Orders whilst he is in y e Catholique Countries. Add to this if a man be 
employed in any publique service either in y e Church or State a dis- 
pensation is allowable by Statute, as I am and can procure y e King's hand 
for it, as well as M 1 ' Williamson of Queens Coll: has done in y e like case. 
I should like wise be readie to thinke y* if y e ffounder were now living 
(whose kinsman I am and therefore might expect as much if not more 
favour than any other) y* he would not presse y e statute so rigorously 
against mee, especially in such times when men were not only driven 
from their preferm ta but their professions alsoe, w ch I was compelld to 
do for my present mayntenance at y e time. And my being a Phisitian 
now does not prevent me from taking Orders, w ch for ought I know I may 
doe (if preferm* falls for mee) y" next publique Ordinacon.' 

Dr. Wyatt had been made Doctor of Physic at the special Restora- 
tion creation in all faculties ' of such that had suffer d for his Majesties 
Cause, and had been ejected from the University by the Visitors 
appointed by Parliament.' He met with a tragic fate, May 3, 1664, 
near Tangier, whither he had gone in the capacity of physician with 
the Earl of Teviot, at the hands of the Moors. 

Wightwick became rector of Kingerby, Lincolnshire, and died and 
was buried there in June, 167 1. 

In place of the fallen Wightwick, John Hall was chosen Master on 
New Year's Eve, 1664 — 'bred in the Interval; a presbyterian ; 

s 2 



260 BISHOP HALL'S MASTERSHIP. 



clownish, covetuous, and quarrelsome among the fellowes ; some good 
preachers bred under him.' He was presented soon after to 
St. Aldate's, where he drew large congregations 'of the precise people 
and scholars of the University by his edifying way of preaching.' 
This prelate was born in 1633 at Bromsgrove, where his father, John 
Hall ( 1 599-1 657; son of Richard Hall, clothier), was vicar. He 
entered Merchant Taylors' School in June, 1644, and four years later 
went to Wadham. On April 22, 1650, having submitted to the 
Visitors, he was put by them into a Scholar's place at Pembroke, 
where his uncle Edmund was his tutor. B.A. 1551; M.A. 1653; 
B.D. 1666 ; D.D. 1669. He received presbyterian ordination in 
1655 l , but must have been re-ordained after the Restoration. In the 
College books his signature appears, Aug. 15, 1660, as praelector 
Graecus. ' Reed, then of Dr. Langley for reading y e Greek Lecture three 
termes ending with Easter term last past, y e surhe of thirty shillings, 
I say rec. By me Jo: Hall.' Langley was still acting as Master. In 
1658 Hall had moderated the philosophy form, receiving 13^. Sd. 
for one quarter. To conciliate the Puritans, the King made Hall his 
chaplain. In 1676, May 24th, he was chosen Margaret Professor of 
Divinity, though, Wood says 2 , ' Mr. Rowson was cried up to be the 
man/ Next, ' Grows proud ; forsakes by degrees his old companions, 
viz. — Walker, and — Stone ; ' probably Obadiah Walker and William 
Stone, principal of New Inn Hall, both suspected papists. In 1678, 
' Dr. Hall of Pembroke (presbyterian) preached sharply and bitterly 
against the papists on 5th Nov. at St. Marie's. Quaere whether Dr. 
Hall was originally appointed to preach. The same night the pope, in 
the shape of an old man, was burnt at a fier at Edmund Hall . . . (his 
belly being full of crackers) 3 .' This was after the Plot. Wood states 
that on December 23, Dr. Hall treated him very rudely and tried to 
pick a quarrel about religion. ' A malepert presbyterian since this 

1 In the Visitors' Register, July 17, 1655, is ' The Testimoniall of John Hall, 
Master of Arts, of Pembrooke Colledg : — Wee whose names are underwritten, by 
our knowledg of John Hall, Master of Arts of Pembrooke Colledge, doe hereby 
testifie to all persons whom it may concerne that we judg him godly studious and 
for his standing in the University of good proficiency in learning. 

' Ra. Fenton Sam. Bruen 

Hen. Hoy Jo. Spilsbury 

Edm. Hall Phil. Potter.' 

John Spilsbury (ejected from Bromsgrove Vicarage in 1662) married Bishop Hall's 
sister, and their son John, nonconforming Minister of Kidderminster, was Halls 
heir. Fenton was of All Souls. The rest were of Pembroke. 

2 Life and Times, ii. 346. 

3 Ibid. ii. 422. 



WHIGGISH PROCLIVITIES. 



plot, nothing of malepertness before V When Stephen Golledge, the 
' Protestant Joiner,' was to be drawn and quartered by John Ketch 
before Oxford Castle, Aug. 31, 1681, 'Dr. John Hall, Master of 
Pembroke Coll. and Dr. George Reynell of C.C.C. had several times 
prayed with him 2 .' Prideaux writes to John Ellis, Sept. 22, of this 
year, ' Somebody hath lately scattered about the town a Catalogue of 
Whigs, or those which he thinks soe, in every Colledge, which hath 
put us into some disorder, several very honest men being inserted 
among them with ill characters which doe not belong to them. . . . 
Dr. Bathurst and Dr. Hall are the two that begin y e list.' On 
July 16, 1683, however it was ordered by the Hebdomadal Board 
that Dr. Hall, as Margaret Professor, with Jane the Regius Professor 
and the three senior Doctors of Divinity, should ' consider of 
those principles and grounds which did encourage, produce, and carry 
on the damnable association designe and conspiracy against the life 
of his sacred majestie, his royal brother, and the being of the govern- 
ment established in church and state; and with all possible speed 
deliver in Latin to the vice-chancellor what they have resolved upon.' 
Several condemned articles were on July 21 read in Convocation, 
' taken from severall rebellious and seditious authours,' and the books 
burnt in the Schools quadrangle, the scholars of all degrees and 
qualities who surrounded the fire giving ■ severall hums ' while they 
were burning. Dr. Hall with others had an audience of the King 
three days later to present an address from the University congratu- 
lating the King and the Duke on their delivery from the Protestant 
Plot. In April 1685 he had so far redeemed his character from the 
charge of whiggery that, with Dr. Mill, he was chosen by the clergy of 
the diocese of Oxford to be clerk of the Convocation for the parlia- 
ment about to begin. ' This John Hall is to preach the Coronation 
sermon at St. Marie's and takes all occasions (being a Presbyterian) 
to shew himself loyall 3 .' But the sermon, which was preached in 
English on St. George's day, the day of James IPs Coronation, did not 
give satisfaction. In it he persuaded the auditors ' not to hearken in 
the least after popery,' and to ' pray for the King that God would open 
his eyes to see the right.' Wood calls it a * lukewarm, trimming 

1 Life and Times, ii. 428. 

2 Ibid. ii. 553. The plot against the King's life was to have been carried out at 
Oxford. Burnet doubts the plot. Golledge, he says, suffered with great constancy 
and with appearance of devotion. His last words were to Mr. Crosthwaite, 
? Pray, Sir, my service to Dr. Hall and Dr. Reynell, and thank them for all their 
kindnesses to me.' 

3 Ibid. iii. 137. 



262 



DISPUTES WITH THE FELLOWS. 



sermon/ When it ended there was a great bonfire at the door of 
St. Mary's, and the day was celebrated ' with great solemnity V 

After the Revolution, Hall was one of those chosen to fill the 
places of the non-juring prelates, succeeding Dr. Ironside, who had 
been translated to Hereford, in the see of Bristol. He was con- 
secrated Aug. 30, 1 691, in St. Mary-le-Bow Church by Tillotson 
with four assistants, and Burnet preached the sermon 2 . When 
Tillotson died, Nov. 20, 1694, Hall (according to Tanner) was, 
together with Trelawny of Exeter, proposed by William to his Council 
for the Primacy. The Latitudinarians favoured Hall and their op- 
ponents Trelawny ; so that W T illiam at last pitched upon Dr. Tenison 3 . 
There were not many Whigs of eminence to choose among ; but, if 
he really was thought capax summi imperii, Hall cannot have been 
the clown that Wood, who had the fortune to write his enemies' lives, 
represents him to have been. 

Noble (who calls him Joseph) speaks of Hall as £ a faithful and 
munificent head of a college.' Wood's charge of ' quarrelsomeness 
among the fellows ' seems to relate to the disputes referred to in the 
following correspondence 4 , not yet printed, except the last letter. The 
favour of the Master with the new Government did not make the 
fellows, probably, more loyal to him. On the other hand the Visitor 
was bound to stand by Hall against high-church disaffection. 

' A defence of the procedure of the ffellows of Pern. Coll, together w th 
their petition humbly presented to the High & Noble Prince, his Grace 
the Duke of Ormond, their hon rd Visitour. 

'Tho' the grievances we lye under, are such as must of themselves 
very sensibly affect us, yet this is the most unsupportable aggravation 
of all afflictions to Us, y* they s d occasion this frequent trouble to yo r 
Grace And now specially after a cofhission granted for inquiry into 
the causes of our complaints We are extreamly concerned least any 
further application to yo 1 ' Grace may possibly make us liable to be 
censur'd as importunate & litigious men. We were so apprehensive of 
this danger, & carefull of avoyding yo 1 ' Grace's ill opinion on this 
occasion, that we could probably have been perswaded quietly to have 

1 Under date July 1688, Wood mentions an odd circumstance of an Irishman 
named Connor, who made a hermitage in Bagley wood ' for devotion and reading 
sake, continuing much in abstinence from beare, ale, or meates. Carried home at 
the desire of Dr. Hall, because then many people flock'd to him.' Life atid Times, 
iii. 273. 

2 Burnet says that the fifteen bishops named by William in 1689-90 c were 
generally looked on as the learnedest, the wisest, and the best men that were in the 
Church' {History). 

3 Life and Times, iii. 474. 

* Wood MS. F. 28, foil. 242-5, and Carte MSS., foil. 689 sq. 



RESENTMENT AGAINST LORD OSSULSTON. 263 



resign'd up our own privileges if they had not been so interwoven w th y e 
rights of yo r Grace y* we could not have the happiness of being y e only 
sufferers.' 

The Master had made allegations against one of the Wightwick 
Fellows, Henry Wood l , ' as to his plentifull fortune and bad manners.' 
The petitioners point out that the Commission did not pretend that 
these charges were made out. It was not the case that they had set 
up Mr. Wood in opposition to the Master. ' And indeed our former 
compliance w tn his orders had been so great and extraordinary, that 
it can hardly be imagin'd we would now seek an unjustifiable occasion 
of disobeying him/ His Grace had further to decide on the Master's 
claim, grounded on a private statute which they had never seen, to 
a necessary voice, equivalent to a negative voice, in elections to 
Fellowships on Lord Ossulston's foundation. This was ' a new and 
hidden law,' ' directly repugnant to our fundamental statutes.' Under 
those statutes elections must take place s/a/im, and therefore need not 
await the return of the Master, if absent. The petition goes on: — 

' We cannot [but] be very apprehensive of y° L d Ossulstone's inter- 
position in this affair, because we have no reason to think y* yo r Grace 
will consent to any forrain visitatoriall power, w ch will be strangly 
derogatory to y e rights of yo r Grace. We have all imaginable respect 
for y e L d Ossulston, but can pay him no more than w* is consistent with 
our duty to our Visitour and to y e Founders. We purchased not his 
Fellowships w th the loss of y r jurisdiction. The contract made between 
his Lordship and this College hath been religiously observ'd, but as one 
party never had nor desir'd a liberty of Retrenching the conditions of it, 
so ought not the other to claime a Right of augmenting them.' 

They ask for a new Commission to consist partly of Fellows and 
Heads of Colleges : — 

'For since we understand from M r Vice-Chancellour y* many busy & 
ill men have censur'd the Cofhissioners justice in this affair, We who 
have been & still are very carefull in preserving y e credit of yo r Grace's 
Cofhissioners, do humbly desire That such Visitours may be appointed 
as even those ill mens jealousies canot possibly charge w th any suspition 
of partiality.' 

Among other matters for which they are humble suitors to the 
Visitor is this : — 

' That since y° Statutes of y e Coll. are allow'd by the Com. to direct 
such an alteration in y e Burser's proffits as the Fellows desire yo r Grace 
would be pleased to take away a grievance of so antient a date, the 

1 Chaplain of Magdalen, 1690-3 ; Rector of Aldridge, Staffs., 1693 ; Canon of 
Lichfield, 1700-18 ; Vicar of Wellington, Salop, 1709. 



264 COLLEGE BICKERINGS. 

redress of w ch even from y e time of our Founders hath been happily 
reserv'd for yo r Grace.' 

They beg that, Mr. Thomas Horne's 1 neglect not appearing to the 
Duke's Commission, his pupils may be restored to him, and that 
Mr. Foxall be reinstated in the College. For Dr. Hall having ' com- 
manded the Vicegerents and Mr. Coxeters Pupils to leave their 
Tutours/ as well as Mr. Horne's, he ' expell'd a Young Gentleman of 
this house, Mr. John ffoxall 2 for not leaving his Tutour on that 
command, tho he hath yet been able to charge him with noe other 
contumacy to the Master than a due Obedience to his Mothers and 
Guardians appointment, and a just respect to his Tutour.' These 
pupils Dr. Hall had ' assign'd to that very Person, his late Servitour, 
whom the ffellows had allmost unanimously rejected/ They further 
allege that the Master had twice within a year been proved guilty of 
neglect in the administration of the Holy Sacrament, and their ac- 
cusation of him in this particular was therefore neither frivolous nor 
groundless. The Manciple also had confessed to preaching in con- 
venticles and ' did not at any time resort to the prayers of the Church 
of England/ The Statutes command the yearly visitation of the 
College lands. This had not been done. They require the keys of 
the College chest to be reposed in other hands during the Master's 
absence. He had taken them away. Lastly, they had accused the 
Master of rendering no account of moneys deposited with him. They 
pray that 1 yo r Grace would give such orders for y e removall of these 
grievances as you in yo r prudence shall think fitt/ 

The Duke apparently called on Dr. Hall to answer these allegations 
before a new Commission. 

' To his Grace the Duke of Ormond Chancellor of y e University of 
Oxford & Visitor of Pembroke Colledg. 
{ May it please y T Grace 

' Not long since upon a Complaint of the Vice-gerent & fellows of 
Pembroke Colledg you were pleased to give us a letter to be sent to our 
Master to signifie the complaints made against him and to demand an 
answer from him to the said complaints ; but after the strictest enquiry 
that we can make after Our Master we cannot find him, that we may 
deliver y r Graces letter to him ; we have sent a messenger at least a 
hundred miles after him, & he c d get no intelligence either where he was 
or when he w d be at the Colledge. Our request therefore to y r Grace 
is y* considering the greivances w ch we at present ly under, you w ld be 

1 Matr. 1679, from Stratford-on-Avon ; M.A. 1685 ; Chaplain of St. Mary Overie, 
Southwark, and buried there within the altar rails 1728. 

2 Son of Matthew of Wolverhampton. Probably a Wightwick scholar. 



HIDE AND SEEK WITH THE MASTER. 265 



pleased to issue forth a citation that Our Master & Fellows may appear 
before y r Grace, or any other persons w m y r Lordship shall think fit to 
depute, so y* our Case may be heard & our grevances adjusted, before 
y r Lordships conserns may call you out of this kingdom. We wish y r 
Grace all health & happiness & remain 

' Y r Graces most humble Servants 

Y e Fellows of Pembroke Colledg. 
(Signed) ' Henry Wood deputed by them.' 
Endorsed : * Address of y e Fellows of Pembrok: Colledg: 
March 9th 

From one of the Fellows to the Duke's secretary : — 
' Hon rd S r 

' Upon y e gratefull remembrance of y e service you did us in o r 
business, & y e freedom you were pleas' d to permit us of writing to you, 
I presume to give you y e trouble of y e following relation. 

' O 1 ' M str having deny'd himself w n o r messenger came (as we are since 
inform'd) to y e place where he was, and after a long absence on y t 
occasion, arriv'd here on friday night : we were several times to wait 
upon him & could not get admittance ; at length we sent to acquaint 
him y* we had business of moment & must speak w th him, but would not 
detain him two minutes ; y Q he sent to us to know w* it was, we sent him 
word y* it was from o r visit 1 ', & we must deliver it o r selves : he return'd 
us y s answer, if it was so, we might send it by his man, for he was not at 
leisure, neither should be y* day : w ch was yesterday. Notwithstanding 
his emergent occasions, y e same day in y e afternoon o r vice-gerent 
surpriz'd him as he was coming out of his lodgings & deliver'd him y e 
L r . I suppose by y e time Mr. Wood has waited upon you, by these 
proceedings, its more than probable y 1 y 6 M str designs to put off y e 
business till y. e Duke is gone, & y n to tyrannize ; therefore 'tis y 6 humble 
request of y e whole Society y* you would use y r interest with my L d Duke 
y* there may be a speedy citation both for him and us ; for if any persons 
should be deputed we suppose they will be Heads of houses w ch most 
people here do look upon as parties, insomuch y* y e statutes of some Coll 3 
provide against y m . We are satisfied, s r , y* 'tis in y r power to free us from 
y 8 yoke, and we have no reason to doubt of y r good will 

f I am S r 

' Y f most obliged humble Serv* 
'Tho. Home 

'Pemb: Coll: Mar: 9.' 

Addressed : ' To Mr. Gascoin at the Duke of Ormond's in St. James's 
Square, London.' 

Endorsed: 'Pembroke Colledge. Ms. Home. Rec d . nth March.' 

From the Dean of Christ Church to the Duke's secretary : — 

' My Lord Duke commanded me yesterday to send you the five names 



266 



A COMMISSION OF INQUIRY. 



following of those prsons whome his Grace designcs to inquire into the 
affair of Pombrook College, viz. 

' Dr. Jonathan Edwards Vice chancellor 

1 Dr. Henry Aldrich Dean of Christchurch 

' Dr. William Jane Canon of Christchurch 

* Dr. John Hough President of Magdalene 

' Dr. John Rudston Fellow of S 1 . Johns which lasts y e D r of Law ; all 
the rest Doctors of Divinity. 

4 Or any three of them, the Vice chancellor being one. 
'lam S r 

' Your very humble Servant 

< t, ' . ' H. Aldrich. 

Bow street April 2. 1690. 

' For Henry Gascoin Esq. at his Grace the Duke of Ormond's house in 

S*. James's Square.' 

Endorsed : ' Dean of C h Church Rec d . 5 Apr. 90.' 

From Mr. Home to the Duke's Secretary : — 

' Hon rd S r 

* Pardon me if I am further troublesome to you : We are very 
desirous to know w n we may expect my L d Duke's determination of o r 
affair, & a line or two to y* purpose would be extremely obligeing. The 
M str is very severe upon us, & takes all advantages to starve us out of 
y e Coll : he put another of my Pupills out of y e house but last week only 
for being absent prayers, tho' y e young man had not been well for two or 
three days together : & we expect he will expell y e rest of y e pupills if 
y e case be not taken notice of. The University has a quite different 
notion of o 1 ' business from w* some people talk in London. W* we 
chiefly insist on viz: y e case of y e Election, manciple, & Pupills are 
thought highly reasonable on o r side : y e last of these y e Comm rs 
acknowledge to be so, since o r ffellowships are so small : and some of y m 
promis'd to represent it, tho' we do not find it in their Report. I am very 
well satisfied y* tis in y r power S r to do us no small kindness we shall be 
very gratefull, & as will y e whole society so shall I more especially 
acknowledge my self S r 

' Y r most obliged hum: Serv* 

'Tho: Home 

' Pemb Coll May 18 

' To M r Gascoigne Secretary to his Grace the Duke of Ormond in S*. 
James's Square London' 

Endorsed : ' Mr Home of Pembrok Colledge Rec d 23 rd of May 1690' 

From the Visitor to the College 1 : — 

'To Dr. Hall Master and to the Fellowes of Pembroke College 
' Whereas We have lately received a Complaint from the Fellows of 
Pembroke College in Oxford and appointed Commissioners to heare and 
make Report of the difference between the Master and the Fellowes of 
the said College, After due Consideration of the whole matter, W r e have 

1 College Register. 



DETERMINATION BY THE VISITOR. 267 



thought fitt for securing the future quiett of the College, to determine as 
followes. 

* I. That upon any Vacancy of Fellowship or Scholarship of my Lord 
Ossulston's Foundation an Election shall be made within three Months at 
farthest. 

' 2. That in all Elections into the said Foundation noe person shall be 
reputed duely elected without the consent of the Master. 

' 3. That upon disagreement between the Master and Fellowes con- 
cerning such Election the sole Right of Nomination to such Fellowship 
or Scholarship shall be in the Founder during his lifetime, and after his 
Death, in the Vicechancellor of the University of Oxford, the Dean of 
Christ Church, and President of Magdalen College for the time being, or 
any Two of them ; And in case either the Dean of Christ Church 
or the President of Magdalen College happen to be Vicechancellor, then 
the Vicechancellor shall have but one Vote, and to supply that defect, the 
King's Professor of Divinity shall be added to the Number. 

' 4. That whereas the Master and Fellows have some years since agreed 
upon a Rule to be observed about administring the holy Communion, 
We do strictly require that Rule to be carefully observed for the future by 
the Society, whether the Master be present or not. 

' 5. That whereas there are good grounds of Suspition of the Manciple's 
disaffection to the Service of the Church, We do strictly require the 
Master in the presence of the Fellowes to admonish the Manciple, carefully 
and regularly to attend at the beginning of Divine Service, and frequently 
to receive the holy Communion, so as not to administer any further 
occasion of Suspition which he hath hitherto lain under. 

' 6. We declare that We are fully satisfyed with the Master's Integrity 
and Care of y e College Concerns, and the Injustice of the Fellowes 
suggestion to the Contrary, and do require the Fellowes to repair this 
Injury by a dutifull behaviour for the future ; and We do desire the 
Master that forgetting what is past he will treat the Fellowes with the 
same Kindnesse and tendernesse as he should have done if this difference 
had never happened. 

' Lastly We do strictly require these our Injunctions to be entred in the 
College Register that they may be punctually observed for the future. 
Given under my hand and Seale the 2 d Day of June 1690. 

' ORMONDE.' 
' Concordat cum Originali facta, debita Collatione per Me 

Ben: Cooper Notarium pulbcum.' 

Things did not go altogether smoothly, in Dr. Hall's Mastership, 
with Abingdon. On February 15, i6f§, it was ordered by the 
Corporation, 

'That M r Recorder (togeither with M r Hawe) be desired to goe to 
the Master of Pembroke Colledge in Oxen and treate with him concerning 
the not performing of the will of Thomas Tesdale, Esq., as to soe much of 
the same will as doth concerne the Scholars of M r Tesdale's foundacion, 




268 



DISPUTES WITH ABINGDON. 



and that the Chamberlcn doe waite on M r Recorder with his fee of xx.r. 
And it is further ordered that, in case the said Master doe not give them 
an answere to their satisfaction, that then (for redresse therein) they 
waite on the Visitours appointed by the same will.' 

The following also are among the Borough Records, which it is to 
be hoped the citizens will cause to be printed : — 

'23° Novembris, 1671 [James Curten, Mayor]. 
' Forasmuch as wee were this day informed by Dr. Hall, Master of 
Pembrooke Colledge in Oxon, that a greate parte of the revenewes of the 
Fellowes and Scholers of the said Colledge, of the gift of M r Thomas 
Tesdale, is withheld by the Deane and Prebendes of Windsor, to the great 
impoverishing of the said Fellowes and Scholers, who have desired our 
assistance in their just defence of the said suite, wee, therefore, conceiveing 
ourselves obliged, as Trustees of the said M r Tesdale's will, doe order 
that the summe of twenty poundes be paid to the handes of the said Dr. 
Hall, to be by him layd out towardes the prosecucion of the said suite for 
recovery of the same revenewes soe withheld, as aforesaid, before the first 
day of the next Hillary terme.' 

' ij° Maii, 1673 [John Claxon, Mayor]. 
'This day ordered that M r Jonathan Hawe be, and is appointed, by this 
Corporacion, to attende his Grace the Duke of Ormond, Visitor of 
Pembrooke College in Oxon, and exhibite a complaint against Dr. Hall, 
Master of the same Colledge, for refuseing to admitt into the same 
Colledge, Richard Mayott, Master of Arts, into the Fellowshipp of William 
Barnes, clarke, nowe vacant, and that the said M r Hawe doe then use his 
endeavour to obteyne from His Grace a commission for visiting the said 
Colledge.' 

'xxij 0 Aprilis, 1674 [Simon Hawkins, Mayor]. 
'Ordered that M r James Curten, th' elder 1 , and M r Hawe doe goe to 
London the next terme in the busines of Pembrooke Colledge and M r 
Wrigglysworth his gifte.' 

'xix° Maii 1674 [Simon Hawkins, Mayor]. 
' Ordered that M r Jonathan Hawe, M r John Payne, M r Robert 
Blackaller, and M r Richard West, or any three or two of them, doe 
attende the Commissioners who are authorized by his grace the Duke of 

1 Fined 5«r. in 1649 for refusing the mayoralty and committed to gaol till he 
should pay it. His father (?) Richard, whose portrait is at Christ's Hospital, of 
which he was the ' pious Benefactour,' married Tesdale's sister-in-law. Richard's 
epitaph in St. Helen's is worth printing : — 

'Our curtaine in this lower Press 
Rests folded up in Naturs Dress. 
His dust p-fumes his Vrne, and He 
This Towne with Liberalise.' 
Among other charitable bequests in his will (June 20, 1641) was a dole to be 
taken from a table near his tomb. 



HALL THE 'LAST PURITAN BISHOP. 1 269 



Ormond to visite Pembrooke College in Oxon, and that five pounds be 
delivered by the Chamberlen to M r John Payne ; to be by him layd out 
in the prosecucion of this matter at the discrecion of the persons above- 
named.' 

Dr. Hall did not resign his place of Master on being raised to the 
Episcopate, and resided at the College, where, as we shall see, he 
procured the building of an imposing Master s House. As Margaret 
Professor he enjoyed a stall, annexed to that lecture by Charles I, in 
Worcester Cathedral. Wood notes, Jan, i6o|, 'Mr. [Thomas] Sikes 
told me that Dr. Hall, bishop of Bristow, suffers 8 yong scholars to 
his college, not to weare gownes, and Thomas Gilbert, a noncon- 
formist Independent,' to read to them 1 .' Hall, though then a Bishop, 
was assailed by the Terrae Filius of 1703. He is styled by Messrs. 
Abbey and Overton the last of the Puritan bishops, that is of the 
covenanting and pre-Evangelical school. It was ' ominous of a 
coming period of inactivity that he should have been contemplated by 
many as a proper person to succeed Tenison in the Primacy.' Had 
William nominated Hall to the archiepiscopal throne, the disaffection 
of the priesthood of the Church of England to the government would 
probably have broken out in some overt resistance. Noble says he 
was ' a scholar and a pious divine, but known more in than out of 
Oxford.' He suffered his episcopal duties to lie neglected while he 
lived the life of an academic recluse. He deceased Feb. 4, i6££. 
His picture, engraved in 1796 by Trotter, is in the Master's Lodging. 
' This Bishop Hall/ says Calamy, 

'Was one of eminent piety, but not much esteemed by the young wits of 
the University. He catechized at St. Toll's 2 , near his College, every 

1 Life and Times, iii. 379 ; also iii. 442. ' Old Father Thomas Gilbert' v buried 
July, 1694, in the chancel of St. Aldate's) was 'An ancient divine who then 
lived privately in Oxford ' (Calamy). Ejected from his many preferments he had 
retired at the Restoration to St. Ebbe's parish, preaching privately in conventicles. 
Wood, whom however he supplied with information and good jests {Life and 
Times, ii. 244), calls him ' epitaph-maker to the Nonconformists.' ' 1681. Whit- 
son-ale at Halywell was Tom Gilbert's picture preaching in a tub set up : " done 
by ten loyall harts and sound heads of that parish " — 'twas very like ' (Ibid. ii. 541). 
But he testifies to his ' singular merit,' for which he was ' commonly called The 
Bishop of Shropshire ' (Peshall, p. 148). Calamy describes Gilbert as an ' excellent 
Scholar, of extraordinary Acuteness and Conciseness of Style, and a most Scholas- 
tical Head. He had all the Schoolmen at his Fingers-Ends.' He ' statedly 
attended the preaching of Dr. Hall, Bishop of Bristol (of whom he was a great 
admirer, and who, he used to say, preached like Dr. Preston, the famous Puritan), 
one part of the Lord's Day, as he did on Mr. Oldfield, at the Meeting, the other. 
Some few of the Dissenters in Oxford used to do so too.' 

2 Bishop Hall has a monument, with gilt mitre and two coats of arms, in 
St. Aldate's Church. The inscription records that he 'having been Minister of this 



270 



AN ENEMY'S APPRECIATION. 



Lord's day evening, and I sometimes heard him. He could bring all the 
Catechism of the Westminster Assembly out of the Catechism of the 
Church of England. I never heard M r Gilbert applaud anyone more 
than this bishop ; a letter of whose, to M r Risley the Nonconformist, 
which I have inserted in my Account of the ejected Ministers, plainly 
shows him to have been of an excellent spirit V 

Evelyn heard Dr. Hall, on July n, 1669, preach the Act Sermon 
at St. Mary's ' in an honest practical discourse against Atheisme 2 ,' 
and Hearne mentions a sermon of his before the University, in 1706, 
without discommendation. Indeed, while describing him as ' a 
thorough pae'd Calvinist, a defender of the Republican Doctrines, 
a stout and vigorous advocate for the Presbyterians, Dissenters, &c, 
an admirer of whining, cringing Parasites, and a strenuous Persecutor 
of truly honest Men, as occasion offer d itself,' Hearne goes so far as 
to say that he 'was a learn'd Divine, a good Preacher, and his 
Lectures, while Professor, were look'd upon by the best Judges as 
excellent in their kind V The grim old Tory's wrath however was 
excited by the epitaph to be put on the south chancel wall at Broms- 
grove to Bishop Hall's memory 4 : — 

' Whoever made this long, tedious Inscription, 'tis certain 'twas contriv'd 
on purpose to gain Proselytes to the Whiggish Party, of w ch the Bp. was 
a great Admirer & Favourer, & 'twas to none but Men of Rebellious 
Principles that he bestow'd his Charity. Let them be what they would if 
they were Men of that Stamp they should be sure to meet with 
Encouragement from him. What else made him foster & advance one 
Slooper, & one Haynes, & some others that had no Learning, & were 
hardly endued with common sense ? but they are known to be of the 
Antimonarchical, Pharisaical Strain, & can cant themselves into the good 
Esteem of any of the Calvinistical Brethren. What made him at the same 
time discourage & depress all ingenious honest Men that were for Fidelity 
to their rightfull Sovereign, and Enemies to Presbyterians and other 
Sectarists ? 'Tis well the Compiler of this Epitaph has said nothing of 
the Bp' s Loyalty, he being one of the Rebell Bp s & (had he been endued 
with all the other Virtues attributed to him in it) this would have been 

parish near forty-three years, did in his Life time purchase an Estate with One 
Hundred Pounds. The income whereof is to be laid out in Buying of Cloaths for 
Poor Men and Poor Women of this Parish (who do not receive Alms) yearly for 
ever. And who gave 200 1 ' toward Buying of a Parsonage House.' 

1 Life, i. 271 sq. 2 Diary, p. 342. 

3 Collections, ed. Doble, O. H. S., ii. 343. 

4 Ascribed to William Adams, student of Christ Church. It records the zeal 
with which he drove back ' ingruentes Romae et Socini errores,' his carelessness of 
dignities, his unwearied fidelity to his duties, and charity to the poor. The Bishop 
bequeathed £800 for the poor of Bromsgrove and £70 annually to purchase Bibles 
for distribution in the diocese. 



A FRIENDLY VIEW, 



271 



sufficient to blacken his Character, & to render his Name odious among 
all Men of true Integrity & Probity, such as strictly & firmly adhere to 
the Doctrines of Passive Obedience & Non- Resistance V 

A different portraiture from Hearne's is given by Dunton 2 . ' He 
has attain'd to great Eminency of Learning and Moderation, and is an 
Ornament to the Church of England. His Charity to those that are 
in Want, and his Bounty to all Learned Men that are put to wrestle 
with Difficulties, are so very extraordinary, and so many do partake 
of them, that I need not enlarge in his Character ; for 'tis acknowledg'd 
by all that the whole Business of his Life is to feed that Flock over 
which the Holy Ghost has made him Overseer/ He fed it however 
at a distance. 

In the Book of Benefactors, on splendidly illuminated vellum, given 
by the Bishop to the College, it is said of him that he raised it ' ab 
humili conditione ad fiorentissimam qua nunc viget.' 



1 Collections, iii. 50. 



2 Life and Errors, 1705, p. 445. 



CHAPTER XX. 



SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY BUILDINGS AND ACCOMPTS. 

The speeches made at the inauguration of the College antici- 
pated a great transformation of the old buildings, which were 
unimposing and ' vetustate collapsura.' The various descriptions of 
Broadgates as ' old/ ' ancient/ ' the oldest of all halls/ ' a venerable 
piece of antiquity/ took some colour, no doubt, from the appearance of 
the place. Accordingly ' divers of the buildings, especially those of 
Broadgates Hall that lay southward, next to Slaying Lane, being 
pulled down/ part of the 'monies of Tesdale and Wightwick and 
divers Benefactors ' was at once employed in beginning a stone quad- 
rangle. In Agas's map the top of the town-wall is seen rising above 
the level of the ground, as it does still beyond the Chapel ; but this was 
now built into the masonry of the quadrangle. The south and west 
sides were quickly raised, and also a portion of the east side. Fuller 
notes under 1626, 'an old Hall turned into a new College was this 
yeare finished/ The forefront of Broadgates was however repaired, 
and left standing ; troublous times came; and it was not till 1670, in 
Dr. Hall's Mastership, that the quadrangle was continued and the east 
side finished. In 1673 the irregular line of tenements facing 
St. Aldate's was half pulled down and its place taken by a 'fair 
fabrick of freestone.' The remainder of the north front as far as the 
common gate was built by Michaelmas, 1691 ; the gate tower in 
1694. This work is more Palladian in character than that of 1626, 
which had stringcourses running between and over the windows. 
The later windows have heavy sills, but no hood-moulds, and are 
differently arranged; the dormers show alternately pointed and 
round heads ; there is a single heavy stringcourse running horizon- 
tally between the ground floor and first floor. The tower has 
Italian pediments and an open balustrade. It may be noticed in 
Burghers' print that originally the south ground-floor rooms had steps 
leading up to them. This is no longer so, the level of the quadrangle, 
which then as now was gravelled, having since risen. 

Sir J. Peshall notes: 'In digging the vault of Pembroke College 



SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY BUILDINGS. 273 



great Numbers of human Skeletons were [found?] interred, some 16 
Feet deep, many with their Feet inverted to the South/ This looks 
like pre-Christian sepulture; but probably the bones had been 
disturbed before. The vault is just inside the gateway on the right. 
It seems very probable that the churchyard originally extended beyond 
its present limits 1 . 

It has been said that the building of the College north front was 
begun in 1673 and finished by 1691, except the tower, added three 
years later. In 1675 Loggan published his print of Pembroke 
College, showing a completed quadrangle exactly as Burghers (1700) 
represents it when actually built — even to the position of the chimneys 
— except in one remarkable particular : he has put the tower in the 
middle of the frontage, and it is of Gothic rather than classical design. 
It is beyond question that such a tower never existed. It may have 
been in contemplation to place one there, though the gateway would 
more naturally face, as it had' always done, the entry from Penny- 
farthing Street, for the roadway in front of the College was then 
a mere lane between walls. It is said that in 1830, during the altera- 
tions, the foundations of such a tower were found. But it is quite 
impossible that, if built in 1675, it can have changed its position and 
character by 1694. Loggan cannot even have had before him the 
design of so Gothic a tower, though he must have drawn from the 
projected plan in other respects. Perhaps the tower was postponed 
for lack of funds. 

The Lodgings, rebuilt in 1596 by principal Summaster, were 
acquired, repaired, and somewhat altered by the College immediately 
after its foundation. Loggan just shows the front in perspective, as it 
would seem an Elizabethan dwelling of lath, timber, and plaister, with 
dormers and overhanging upper storey. When the College front was 
completed, Bishop Hall, the Master, desired for his own residence 
a stone edifice more in keeping with the rest of the frontage, and by 
Michaelmas, 1695, the outside of a new Master's House was built, with 
a slight encroachment on Beef Hall Lane 2 . The building was de- 
servedly admired. Aylifife (1714) says : * There are erected for the use 
of the Master very large, elegant, and convenient Lodgings, and, if the 

1 Additions to Wood, p. 29. Like Wordsworth's Oxfordshire churchyard : — 

' Where holy ground begins, unhallowed ends, 
Is marked by no distinguishable line.' 

2 In 1695, from the Annunciation of the blessed Lady St. Mary the Virgin, the 
Corporation leased to the College a piece of void ground, thirty feet long, four feet 
broad at the western end and one foot at the eastern, at a peppercorn rent. 

T 



274 OLD QUADRANGLE AND MASTER'S LODGINGS. 



whole College had been made suitable hereunto, it would be one of the 
neatest colleges in the University/ The expense of this erection was 
borne chiefly by Bishop Hall himself. A few years earlier, in 1689, 
the President of Corpus had built himself a house in the classical style. 
The whole expenditure on building from 1670 to 1699 amounted to 
£2,261 is. \d., towards which the College contributed £400 from the 
common chest, and from other sources of revenue, such as degree 
fees, nearly £200 more. There was some further expense after 1699. 
Among earlier contributors are the names of Mr. James Hoare, jun. 1 , 
Comptroller of the Mint, a gentleman-commoner (£100); Sir John 
Bennet — to whom Loggan's print is dedicated : ' Collegii Patrono et 
Benefactori' — (£200); 'Mr. Jno. Morris of A. ffriers ' (£50, and 
a later legacy of £50); Geo. Low, esq. (a legacy of £ 58 10s.). In 
1693 'My Lord Ossulstone' gives another £50. I also find Mr. Thomas 
ffoley, gentleman-commoner, son of Speaker Foley and Member 
(1691-1737) for Weobley, Hereford, and Stafford (£50) ; Mr. George 
Townsend (£278 2s.) : this was the surplus part of the rents be- 
queathed by that benefactor, who died in 1683; Sir Thomas Street, 
one of the Barons of the Exchequer, ' by the marriage of his lady of 
the kindred of Mr. Wight wick' (£20); Sir Thomas Clayton (£10); and 
among other minor donors a Wightwick and several Wightwick fellows. 
Many give £10, or ten ' guineanos aureos,' ' instead of a plate 2 / Among 
the names is that of the manciple, Mr. William Suthwell (£20). 

The new Master's Lodgings, sixty feet in length, instead of the 
sloping roof and attics of the College front, had a third storey and 
gables, six on each side and one at the end. The east side had 
seventeen windows, of equal size and regularly placed, the lower ones 
surmounted by hoodmoulds, those in the top storey by alternate seg- 
mental and angular pediments. At the north end were three windows. 
A triple stringcourse ran round the building. The door had a coved 
hood with shell ornament in the soffit. Salmon 3 describes the house 
as 'a handsome modern Edifice/ and says it ' has the Appearance of 
a gentleman's House as much as any Thing in Town/ Burghers, as 

1 Howard in Gutch. William Howard, son of Edward, Earl of Carlisle 
(entered Pembroke 1693), was M.P. for Carlisle and for Northumberland ; 
buried in Westminster Abbey July 24, 1701, vide infra p. 367. The Book of 
Benefactors says that Mr. James Hoar ' primus donavit/ He also gave a large 
silver-gilt cup with cover. 

2 Gentlemen-commeners presented a piece of plate on admission or at leaving. 
Mr. Foley, e.g., gave a large goblet ' Japanice caelatum.' 

3 Anlient and Present State of the Universities, 1744. An odd gift by a scholar 
(Nathaniel Gower, M.A.) was ' sex aeneas seras Magistri Hospitio affigendas/ 



THE LIBRARY IN ST. ALDATE'S DISUSED. 275 



soon as the College was finished, was commissioned to make a draw- 
ing of the entire building. His extremely fine plate, of which a reduced 
facsimile is presented at the end of this volume, besides a general 
view of the Quadrangle, the old ' Refectorium/ the gardens, 
'Summaster's Building' and the Master's House, with a ground 
sketch of Docklinton's aisle, gives separate drawings of the two 
latter, viz. ' Magistri Hospitium ' and ' Capella Collegii,' and of the 
Library, with its ' Ascensus Helicus.' The Library has a single gable, 
on the face of which is a sundial. On a displayed shield, having the 
College arms below and Bishop Hall's above, is a dedication to 
the latter — 'Revd 0 . in Christo Patri ac Dno. Domino Johanni Hall 
Episcopo Bristoliensi, Collegii Pembrochiani Magistro et Instaura- 
tori, hanc ejusdem delineationem jure debitam D.D. C.Q. Michael 
Burghers.' His receipt is extant: ' Apr. 18, 1700. Reed, then of y e 
Right Reverend y e Master of Pembroke College y e sum of twelve 
pounds three shillings for drawing and engraving Pemb: Coll: and for 
y e copper plate. I say rec d . by me, Michael Burghers, £12 3s. od.' 
In all 475 ' Cuts of y e College ' were printed. The last 125 cost 27J. 

In 1709, Bishop Hall having bequeathed all his books 1 , an ugly 
room was built over the hall, destroying the lantern 2 , and the chamber 
above Docklinton's aisle was finally disused. The new apartment, 
which is not shown in the prints of 1733 and 1744, was the College 
Library till 1847, and is now a lecture room. Among Hall's books is 
a Nuremburg Chronicle inscribed by Whitgift's hand — ' hunc librum 
habui ex dono a magistro Pynson impressore 3 — Aprilis, mccccclxxxviii, 
Londini,' — and a volume of scholia on Aristotle has the autograph ' Is. 
Casaubonus.' Besides other mediaeval MSS., given probably by 
Dr. Clayton, is a small twelfth-century Bede and a fourteenth-century 
Senienliae. The finely illuminated Breviarium Bartholomew mentioned 
above on page 44, of which there is a very inferior copy in the Harleian 
collection, is full of information as to usages and manners in the 
fourteenth century, as well as recondite medical lore. Quite recently, 
by the gift of Mrs. Sophia Evans, wife of the late Master, the College 
has acquired the unique Aristotelian and philosophical library of an 
illustrious and affectionately deplored member of the College, Henry 

1 Dr. G. W. Hall, however, told Croker, ' Certainly not all, and those which 
we have are not all marked by him.' A good many have the Bishop's fine 
bookplate. 

2 Shown by Loggan and Burghers. ' The antient manner of building was to 
set hearths in the midst of rooms for chimneys, which vented the smoke at a 
louver in the top.' Carew, Survey of Cornwall. 

3 Richard Pynson was one of Caxton's assistants. 

T 2 



276 



THE COLLEGE GARDENS. 



Chandler, Waynflcte Professor of Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy. 
The Johnson papers and some remains of Shenstone and of Blackstone 
are a valued possession. The Historical Manuscripts Commission 
also mentions the Logbook of Nelson's Victory, a small duodecimo, 
ending June 30, 1805, four months before Trafalgar. On the first leaf 
is written ' Thomas Atkinson, Master of H.M. Ship the Victory! It was 
bought a few years later in London, in a lot of books, by Dr. G. W. 
Hall, Master of the College. 

The eighteenth-century chapel and modern architectural changes 
will be mentioned later. In 1760 a fire occurred in College : ' Paid 
for fire engines £3 ^sl ' Mending the Bucketts, 13J.' ' Workmen at 
the fire for Bread and Cheese, £1 18s.' But not much damage was 
done. 

GARDENS. 

Except the tiny strip along the wall, reserved part for the Master 
and part for the Fellows, the pleasant triple paradise of the College 
has vanished, represented now only by the forbidden turf of the New 
Court. In that old garden Gilbert White, who paid a short yearly 
visit to Oxford, studied the habits of the Channel Island lacertae. He 
writes, Feb. 28, 1769, to Thos. Pennant, Esq. : — 

£ Dear Sir, — It is not improbable that the Guernsey lizard and our 
green lizards may be specifically the same ; all that I know is that, 
when some years ago many Guernsey lizards were turned loose in 
Pembroke College garden in the University of Oxford, they lived 
a great while, and seemed to enjoy themselves very well, but never 
bred. Whether this circumstance will prove anything either way 
I shall not pretend to say/ 

In Agas's map scattered trees are dotted between Beef Hall Lane 
and the town wall. Gardening did not reach its highest refinement 
till the end of the seventeenth century, when Dutch and French 
fashions in the topiary art followed one another with rapidity. Yet 
continuity is the chiefest beauty of so personal and living a haunt of 
memories as a garden. Loggan — temp. Charles II — shows three 
elaborated enclosures. In the westernmost, always appropriated to the 
Fellows, are trellised and arched galleries, dipt shrubs, formal beds or 
' knottes/ a bowling-green, and, traced on the ground, a large dial. 
Part of this garden on the north is walled off. The second, called in 
1 65 1, when the wall was built, the Master's garden, has long plots 
bordered with low shrubs, a square of grass with trees, and in the 



TOPIARY FASHIONS. 



south-west corner a ball court \ Both these gardens were in St. Ebbe's 
parish. The third, called in 1697 the Commoners' garden, is ex- 
quisitely adorned with mounts, arbours, and alleys — ' an out-of-door 
room ' duly furnished. The grotesque head (like the ones in front of 
the Sheldonian) which is now in the garden stood in the centre. In 
Burghers' engraving, five and twenty years later, the gardens are laid 
out quite differently and more simply with broad spaces of grass, in 
which grow the arbor vitae and dwarf trees. A rank of larger trees 
along ' Southgate-wall ' had disappeared, with all the bowers and walks, 
and the dial. A new feature was a raised terrace 2 in the Fellows' 
garden, at the west end of which stood a pagoda, or summer 
common-room 3 . Urns carrying flowering shrubs are ranged all along 
on the low rampart, and in the easternmost garden. In 1733 Oxonia 
Depicta again shows a changed fashion. The pretty urns are gone, 
but cut walls of yew and formal quincunces re-appear in the enclosure 
of the Fellows. The middle garden is all sward, the common garden 
has become the new ' Chapel court,' and is a mere space of grass, or 
perhaps gravel (it was weeded in 1758), traversed by a path. 
(Williams' Map of Oxford is far from accurate, and gives the College 
two regular quadrangles.) The Almanack top of 1744, by Vertue 4 , 
exhibits the Master's garden laid out geometrically in turf ambulacra 
and shrubs. The upper part of this almanack represents King James 
handing the charter to Pembroke, who kneels, holding his wand of 
office, at the foot of the throne. Behind stand Tesdale and Wight- 
wick. To the right is Bishop Hall, showing the design for the new 
Lodgings to Lord Ossulston, who is in armour, with the riband of the 
Bath. A cherub points to the ground-plan on the floor. A group on 
the other side represents benefactors, viz. Rous, Townsend, Boulter (?), 
Dame Holford and Mrs. Stafford. In a framed picture Charles I 
is seen presenting to a female (the College ?) a chart of the Channel 
Isles and a model of St. Aldate's, Bishop Morley standing by. In 
another Queen Anne hands to Lord Chancellor Harcourt the deed 

1 Nine or ten academians are walking or playing ball in the Master's garden 
in Burghers' picture. 

2 Two years before, in 1698, the citizens leased to the College, for 50J., a strip 
of ground along Slaughter Lane, 44 feet in length, 4 feet 7 inches broad, extending 
from the west corner of the College wall to the Ball Court of the said College. 
Was this the actual top of the city wall ? 

3 This is more architectural looking in the later prints. In 1752 £18 was paid 
for 'building the Common Room wall.' 

4 George Vertue designed the Almanacks from 1 723-1751, who 'instead of 
insipid emblems introduced views of publick buildings and historick events ' {Lord 
Or/ord). 



278 



SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY ACCOMPTS. 



for conferring the stall at Gloucester, of which a picture is shown. 
The design was printed partly on silk handkerchiefs, one of which is 
now before me. Skelton in 1823 revived Vertue's print, but credits 
the Master's garden with an imposing bower on a terrace at the south 
end, and omits the ball-court. A large mulberry-tree in the Fellows' 
garden was called Shenstone's Tree. The small tables in the Common 
Room were made from this when it was cut down. A sketch of the 
tree is now before me. The pleasant row of limes which show above 
the battlemented wall on the south side of the quadrangle was planted 
in the first year of Dr. Evans' Mastership (1864). 



COMMONWEALTH AND RESTORATION ACCOMPTS. 

The following extracts from a book of Bursars' accounts for the 
time of the Commonwealth and the latter part of the seventeenth 
century seem worth recording : — 

1650. Janu r . 21. P d . to M r . Austin for an order of the Visitors 

against horses and longe haire 1 is. 6d. 

165 1. For the colledg chappel, a Noble. 

For the use of M 1 '. Hall 2 towards his Art Supper . 1/. $s. od. 

P d . to M r . Lane for pistolls holsters and other things, w th 
expences in riding the Coll horse . . . 1/. gs. 6d. 

To the Collectours of St. Ebbs parish for y e two coll. gardens 6s. 

Oct. 17. P d . to M r . Langley the Beadle y e proportion of 
Pern. Coll Layd by y e delegatie of the universitie for 
Anastasius Comenius 8s. 

1652. P d . to M r . Loveday for the Coll horse standing there 3/. os. od. 
Jan. 1. Rec. of D r . Langley Mast r . of Pemb. Coll. the sume 

of eight pounds five shills. in full sattisfaction for all coales 
served in for the use of the Coll. from the beginging of the 
world to the date hereof. In witness hereof I have put my 
marke Hen Kibble his — marke 

1653. Feb. 3. Given to y e wayts 3 is. 6d. 

1 See Gutch, ii. 625. * On May 7, 1650, the Visitors ordained, that all the 
Scholars of this Universitie doe in their haire and habite conforme themselves 
to the Statutes of the same in that behalfe, forbearinge all excesse and vanitie, in 
powdering their haire, wearing knots of ribands, walking in boots and spures and 
bote-hose-tops : And the severall Heads of Colledges and Halls are desired to 
take spetiall and speedy care to see this Order put in execution in their respective 
Houses.' 

2 Afterwards Master. 

3 So that Candlemas carol-singing was not yet suppressed in Oxford. Wood 
says, however, 'saying prayers at folks' doors for alms, stopped by the fanaticks 
(see Life and Times, ii. 212), and (Gutch, Annals, May 1, 1648) 'This day spent 
in zealous persecuting the young people that followed May-Games, by breaking of 



SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY ACCOMPTS. 279 



Payd more then y e gathering in y e hall for Glascow in 
Scotland 10s. od. 

For pitching and ordering y e rubbish and one and twenty 
load of gravell to cover y e colledg waik next to y e churchy d . 
wall y e sum of ....... 2/. 13s od. 

Wall in y e Comoners garden broken downe . . .13^. od. 

Dec. 3. For three orders fro y e visitours to pemb Coll. 4s. 6d. 

1654. Payd to goodman Ranckelyn the smith for chynning 

[chaining] the books in the Library 1 . . . il. 8s. od. 
Raysing the Colledg wall where y e colledg stable was . 13.?. od. 
Goodman Edwards for pishing [pitching] the Lane towards 

Mr. Martyns and mending y e range in y e kichin il. gs. 6d. 

Proportion for a horse till they [the College] sent in a horse. 

This tax was set by y e university 12s. lid. 

A year's sacr*. wine 13s. 8d. 

For mending y e pipes and conveying y e water to pembrooke 

Colledg [see page 53] w ch is payd every yeare . 1/. oj-. od. 
S r Risley a schollar for moderating in y e philosophy forme 

for half a yeare ...... 27sh. and a groat. 

1655. Payd to y e sadler Thomas Reiveby by man John for a fore- 

pectorall, a payre of holsters and a Bridle for John Brooks 

when hee did service in y e Vniversity troope for pemb. 4s. 6d. 
of Dr. Langley for y e Bayliffs y l carried Slade to prison 3/. os. od. 

Mending the colledg plate 8s. od. 

Feb. 22. For a wheelebarrow & pitching the lane by Mr. 

Martines gs. od. 

Paid to paul Isaiah a converted Jew sent down by his Highnes 

to y e University of Oxford five sh. w ch was pemb. coll. 

proportion of ^20 given by y e university. 

1656. Rec of the Master for a Sword for the College in the time 

when the coll. found a horse at the time of Salesberi. By 
me Henry Wyatt seaven shills. 
For two Hungarians y e sum of five shillings when y e vice- 
chauncelor sent Thomas his man to y e colledg for something. 

1657. May 23. Y e proportion of Pemb. Coll. of ye thirty pounds 

chardgd upon y e colledges for y e officers belonging to y e 
visitation 7s. lod. 

Garlands and taking away Fiddles from Musicians; dispersing Morice Dancers, 
and by not suffering a green bough to be worn in a hat or stuck up at any door/ 
By 1661 ' carolling in publick halls and Christmas sports' had vanished. 

1 So, in 1646, Adams the smith was paid his bill 'for swivells for the Library 
bookes ' in the Bodleian. When Selden's books were sent to the Bodleian in 1659, 
£25 ioj-. was paid for new chains. The removal of chains from books did not 
take place generally till the latter half of the eighteenth century. In the Foreigner's 
Com/- 'anion through the Universities (1748) the inconvenience of chaining is 
noticed. At King's College, Cambridge, in 1777 a man was paid £1 p. for nine 
days' work in removing the chains. At Eton the removal was effected half a 
century earlier. There were chains at Wadham till 1761, at Brasenose till 1780. 
At Merton they still remain. See Blades' Books in Chains. 



280 



SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY ACCOM PTS. 



Whiting the Coll. hall .... ... \os. od. 

Apr. 24. Coales supplied to Coll. for \ year . . 17/. lay. od. 
(The coquus is paid £8 150 a quarter.) 

M r . Seymour still keeps all Beckhallowin 1 tythes in his hand, 
having payd nothing to nobody as yet. Of this hee 
promiseth to give an account. 

Slatting Sorhersett building 2 2/. 6 s. lod. 

1658. July 8. R of y e M r . of y e colledg by deputy Fleetwood 

Trumpeter for sounding to y e colledg as to all others . 5s. od. 

Dec. 21. For y e Almesmen in christ church Hospitall . I2d. 

Gravelling Coll. quadrangle, 19 loade of gravell . .19s. od. 

' 5 days work ^s. od. 

Pitching in y e lane on y e back side of y e colledg, and 
gravelling gs. 6d. 

Mending wall in y e fellows garden . . . . $s. od. 

Mar. 12. R of D r . Langley the sum of five sh. y e Pemb. Coll. 
proportion of twenty pounds w cb y e university at a Delegacy 
did agree to give to pet Samuell a converted Jew Balsamides 
a distressed Grecian and Jacq. Fourre a converted 

Catholiq; $s. od. 

1660. May 7. For weeding y e Quadrangle ag*. Mr. Southworth's 3 

buriall is. 6d. 

Payd goodwifife forrest for washing Coll. linen for y e Quarter 

ending midsum last past Ss. od. 

1673. Rec d for three Kilderkins of Double Beer layd in for y e 

Beavers of y e workmen 4 iSs. \o\d. 

Dec. 3. Gathered by y e manciple for freshmen's gawdies 5 

18/. is. od. 

1694. Pitching before the College gate .... 3/. is. od. 

1695. Pulling down and bringing up part of the found 11 , of the Hall 

wall 6 . 3/. 9J-. od. 

1696. Pitching before the College from Alms House to further 

corner of the Lodgings, and a little ashlar wall at the 
corner of the Alms House 14/. \is. od. 

1697. A Perpend. Wall before the Lodgings . . . 8/. 8s. 1 id. 
Two Mound walls to the Cockyard ... 9/. os. od. 
Levelling and pitching do. and the passage y t goes down to 

the commoners' garden 1/. igs.od. 

1 Bee Herluin. The name Herlewyne occurs in and before the thirteenth century 
in Oxford. The family of Harlewin of Ascerton in Sidmouth was not extinct in 
the seventeenth. Arms, az. three apples arg. a file in chief. Evelyn enters in his 
Diary, Oct. 31, 1648, ' I went to see my manor of Preston Beckhelvyn and the 
Cliffhouse.' 

2 i. e. Summaster's, originally Minote Hall. 

3 Edward Soothworlh, matr. July 20, 1654; B.A. Feb. 12, 165I. The custom 
is still observed at funerals of making the circuit of the Old Quadrangle. 

1 Engaged in building the College front. ' Beavers,' i. e. drink (buvoir). 

5 These are explained in the chapter relating to Johnson. Vide infra. 

6 Adjoining the Lodgings, then being built. 



SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY ACCOMPTS. 281 



It appears from these accounts that at the time of the Common- 
wealth a Tesdale scholar's place was still worth in money £3 or 
£3 15s. a quarter, from which 'full quarteridge ' were subtracted 
' decrements/ viz. dues and everything not included in his allowances, 
about us. 6d. to 14s. 6d. One fellow's 'battles and decrements' 
were £ 1 6s. 6d. the half year ; those of another (George Wightwick) 
£1 i*js. 6d. The Latin Lecturer received £2 a year, the Praelector 
Graecus the same. The Bursar £1. I confess that the entry under 
1655, ' mending the colledg plate,' throws suspicion on the complete- 
ness of the society's surrender of its silver to King Charles. 

The Historical MSS. Commission mentions an entry, under date 
July 11, [16] 7 2, which I cannot find: — 

' Reed, then of Mr. Frampton lis. lod. for the maintenance of the 
workmen and the marshall of the beggars. I say reed, by me 60/. 1 is. 6d' 

The bedell, workmaster, or marshall of the beggars had nothing to do 
with the Christ Church almsmen, as suggested in the Commission's 
Report (vi. p. 549); see Wood's Life and Times, i. 466; hi. 63; 
iv. 79. 



CHAPTER XXI. 



CHANNEL ISLAND FOUNDATIONS. 

Among the earlier benefactors of the College was King Charles 
the First, who came to the throne the year after its foundation. 
It owed to him — for the possession is now gone — the advowson of 
St. Aldate's and its connexion, still maintained, with the Channel 
Islands, whence came to it the energetic ruler who alienated the 
St. Aldate's patronage. King Charles desired to divest the Crown 
of Church property. At the beginning of the war he made a 
peculiarly solemn vow to that effect. In 1634, by the advice of the 
new Primate, he had given back to the poor clergy of the Church of 
Ireland all the impropriations then remaining in the Sovereign. It 
was in pursuance of this policy that, in 1636 1 , he 'of his pure 
affection' bestowed the patronage of St. Aldate's on the adjacent 
College, so lately founded by his father, and sprung out of the loins 
of the two religious houses to which the advowson had belonged. In 
1642 the King wrote to the Vice-Chancellor of ' our perpetuall care 
and protection of such nurseries of learning.' No doubt Laud, the 
Visitor of the College, and ever on the alert to promote the interests 
of learning, counselled the restitution — an unselfish act, considering the 
anxiety of himself and of his Master to modify the complexion of the 
Church by suitable appointments and the likelihood that Pembroke 
would still feel the influence of Abbot, who died in 1633. 

Another object which the King and Laud had at heart was the 
improvement of the state of learning among the Channel Island 

1 It was in this year that the King and Queen visited Oxford ' with no applause,' 
the scholars standing sullen and uttering no Vivat Rex ! When he came to Christ 
Church the Dean and Canons conducted him with all the lords into the noble 
priory, now cathedral, church of St. Frideswyde ; but, ' before he entered, he knelt 
down at the large South door, where lifting up his hands and eyes, with his long 
left lock (according to the then mode) shelving over his shoulder, did his private 
devotions to his Maker.' (Gutch, Annals, ii. 408.) Charles declared in 1641, 
' I would rather feed upon bread and water, than invade or take away any part of 
the Church patrimony.' 



EDUCATION OF CHANNEL ISLAND CLERGY. 283 



clergy, and the recovery to Anglicanism of the oldest domain of the 
English Crown. In 1563, the year of the foundation of Abingdon 
School, Elizabeth had endowed a College in Guernsey on the ruins 
and out of the property of a convent of Cordeliers, and for a time this 
served the needs of Jersey also. The famous Saravia, Hooker's 
friend and confessor, was the first master, Isaac Basire the Orientalist 
the second or third. In 1598, however, the Presbyterian 'Colloque' 
of Jersey proposed to unite the two schools of that island into a 
college for the instruction of youth in laudable arts, and Laurens 
Baudains endowed it with certain wheat rents. The Queen granted 
letters of mortmain, which however were not made patent, though the 
'College d'Elisabeth ' is mentioned in 1604 as already founded. In 
December, 16 10, the Colloquy complained that the College remained 
neglected and that the revenues thereof were diverted from the 
founder's purpose, to the great scandal of the entire isle. James I 
accordingly, in 161 1, ordered the incorporation of thirteen Governors 
to use Baudains' benefaction and any others for the maintenance of 
scholars to be trained up in ' learning and in the studie of divinity ' 
at the English Universities. Thirty Jersey quarters of wheat how- 
ever would not go far towards this end. Among the Orders in 
Council of 16 1 8 is one 'concerning the petition delivered to the Com- 
missioners [Conway and Bird] by Sir Philipp de Carteret, Seigneur of 
St. Owen and some other Justices in the name of the three Estates/ . . . 
' Whereas they further petition that his Majestie would be pleased to 
graunte unto them some places in such of those Colledges as are in 
his Majesties guifte for the maintenance at the Universities of such 
poore Schollers as shall be recommended by the three Estates of that 
Island,' it was ordered that this request be granted. 

No opportunity occurred in James I's reign for carrying out the 
promise. Meanwhile natives destined for the ministry were frequently 
sent at the charges of the States of the two Islands to Saurnur — some- 
times however to Cambridge. Thus, in 1627, Thomas Guille was 
allowed £200 tournois for three years to study at Saumur 1 . In 
Jersey, the Anglican worship was revived in 16 19, but 'the religion' 

1 The livre tournois of twenty sols is one-fourteenth of the pound sterling. I am 
indebted to the Rev. G. E. Lee, M.A., the learned Rector of St. Pierre Port, 
Guernsey (and brother of a well-known Pembrochian, Mr. Austin Lee, C.B., of 
H. B. M. Embassy at Paris), for a perusal of the documents on which the above 
narrative is based. Even after the foundation of the King Charles Fellowships and 
Morley Scholarships, the States sometimes supported ordinands at College. Thus, 
from 1722-41, Thomas Williams, ' etudiant a Oxford,' was allowed £400 tournois 
a year. 



284 KING CHARLES THE FIRST'S FOUNDATION. 



had still a strong hold on the ministers. Guernsey, whither the 
Prince de Conde* had retired, expelled, in 1593, all natives who did 
not conform to the Geneva Platform \ and only accepted the Prayer 
Book at last, in 1662, at the pike's point, the ministers resigning 
their cures rather than be re-ordained. When, in 1630, King Charles 
proposed to abolish the Calvinistic discipline, Lord Danby represented 
that there was nothing to put in place of it — ' There being many 
old ministers in Guernesey, if they die, we shall not know whence to 
supply them with others ; for out of France they will not come to us, 
and here we can find few or none.' 

Two years later, however, there fell to the Crown by escheat, through 
lack of heirs, properties belonging to Sir Miles Hobart, alderman 
of London 2 , viz., seven messuages and two gardens in Lad Lane in 
the parish of St. Lawrence in the Old Jewry 3 , holden in free burgage 
of the City of London at a rent of £45 10s. ; also a moiety of 
a cottage, now Whittington Farm, at Meidenham (Medmenham), Bucks, 
'being 123 acres, 52 acres of Medows, 53 of pasture, and 205 of 
woods/ With this windfall the King purposed to redeem his Father's 
promise, hoping to wean the clergy of the Norman archipelago from 
Calvinism by bringing them to Oxford. With the Hobart properties, 
to be held ' by fealty in free and common socage/ the King founded 
three Fellowships, at Exeter, Jesus College, and Pembroke respectively, 
for natives of Guernsey and Jersey, Sir Anthony Rous *, Mr. Oliver 
Ridge and Margaret his wife, co-heir of Miles with Sir Anthony, for- 
going their pretended rights (' pretensum jus suum in eisdem).' It 
was signified to be ' his M ties intention that within convenient tyme 
the sayd Fellowes or Scholars shall return to the sayd severall Hands 
upon fitt Promocions to them offered there/ The letters patents, 
addressed ' to the Maister, Fellowes and Scholars of Pembrooke Col- 
ledge/ and dated June 1636, declare: — 

1 Richard Girard was flogged in 1573 for upholding the mass. The Anglican 
worship was retained in Castle Cornet, whither English residents were ferried over. 
The deanery was in abeyance for a hundred years; as recently as 1755 the Dean 
was obliged to have recourse to the civil power to enforce the reading of the Litany 
in a parish church. Till quite lately the surplice was not used at all in certain 
parishes. 

2 M.P. for Marlow, 1628-9. Imprisoned for locking the door of the House 
of Commons. Died at Marlow July 4, 1632. 

3 In Gresham Street; now occupied by the firm of Pickford. This property 
has become valuable. 

4 Not Francis Rous's father, who died 1622. The great-grandfather of Rous 
the diarist was Sir Anthony of Dennington, Suffolk, Treasurer of the Chamber 
to Henry VIII. He died in 1547. 



CHANNEL ISLAND FELLOWSHIPS. 285 



'Sciatis quod nos pietate et pio zelo erga Deum moti veramque 
cognicionem et cultum divini ejus nominis et sacrosancti Christi Evangelii 
propagacionem intime affectantes necnon ex propenso animo et favore 
nostro in bonas literas Religioni observandae promovendae et per tota 
Regna et territoria nostra propagandae de gratia nostra concessimus,' &C. 1 

The King named the first Fellows ; afterwards the Dean (not the 
baillif) and jurats of either island were to nominate. In 1857, at 
Which date the Pembroke Fellow was receiving £154 a year, the 
three Fellowships were converted into six Scholarships of not less 
than £50 (now £80) yearly, the senior Scholar in each College 
having rooms also. 

The first post-Reformation Dean of Guernsey was of Pembroke. 
John de Sausmarez was made Canon of Windsor in 1671, and 
created D.D. (June 7) by virtue of letters from the Chancellor : 
f Mr. Joh. Saumers, Dean of Guernsey, is a person that hath done 
his Majesty and the Church very good and acceptable Service, par- 
ticularly in his prudent and successful endeavours in bringing the 
misled Subjects of that Island to be conformable to the Liturgy of 
the Church of England, during the space of ten years,' &c. He was 
given other English preferments. Ob. 1697. The third Dean, John 
Bonamy (entered Pembroke in 1685), was Fellow of Exeter. Nicholas 
Carey, entered 1789, was Dean 1832-58. 

The portrait of Charles I which is now in the Hall, hung, before 
the eighteenth century, in the quondam Civil Law School. Pointer 
[Oxoniensis Academia) says, 1 In the Library (which is over the 
Chapel adjoining to St. Aldate's, alias St. Old's, vulgarly called 
St. Tole's Church, as St. Ebb's is call'd St. Tabb's Church), besides 
Books, is a very fine Picture of the Royal Martyr King Charles I, 
Benefactor to this College.' It is a half-length ; the King wears his 
George. It appears to be contemporary, and to have interest ; but 
the arm is out of drawing. 

Charles I's policy was continued after the Restoration by George 
Morley, Bishop of Winton, to which diocese the Islands had been 
transferred from Coutances 2 . He founded at Pembroke five Scholar- 

1 See Heylin's Laud, p. 336, and Laud's History of his Chancellorship, v. 140. 
The indenture quadripartite received the University seal, ' in assimulatione parva.,' 
July 2, 1636. 

2 King John first procured their annexation to the province of Canterbury, 
placing them under the Bishop of Exeter ; but this arrangement lasted only a short 
time. At the request of Henry VII Pope Alexander VI again joined the Islands 
to the Church of England, first to Sarum in 1496, and then to Winchester in 1499. 
The Bishop of Coutances ignored this transference, and exerted jurisdiction in 



286 



BISHOP M OR LEYS FOUNDATION 



ships, of £10 with chambers, three for Jersey and two for Guernsey. 
Bishop Morley's benefaction was in part an after-thought. In 1674, 
Charles II signified to Corpus Christi College 1 his express will and 
pleasure that one of their Hampshire Scholarships should be appro- 
priated to natives of the Channel Isles, under the mistaken idea that 
there were three scholarships confined to Hants. The King's letter 
was reinforced by one from Morley as Visitor and as Bishop of 
Winchester. The County and College however resisted the plan and it 
was not carried out. Morley thereupon himself made provision for the 
purpose. Dean Prideaux writes to John Ellis, on July 28, 1674 : — 

' The fellows with contempt rejected his letters which he wrot to them, 
whereby he enjoined them to transfer on of those two places, which the 
founder entail'd on Hampshire, on Jersey and Garnsey ; but he beeing 
now informed that it is not within the limits of his or the colledge's power 
to alter a clause which is inserted in their charter, or deprive a county of 
their right which will not tamely be parted with, the gentlemen thereof 
beeing resolved to commence a law sute if any such thing should be 
enacted, he hath wholely omitted the mention thereof by his Commis- 
sioners, and excuseing his attempt to others by alledgeing he was compeld 
thereto by the Kings command on the instigation of Sir George Carteret. 
But, however, that he may come off with credit, it is talked that he 
himself will make provision for those places by some new settlement of 
his own on some colledge or other in the University ; but I suppose it will 
be hard for him to find one that will receive his donation except 
Pembroke, the fittest colledge in town for brutes.' 

Prideaux spares no one. Exeter he calls a place of 1 drinking and 
duncery.' Pembroke, in spite of its Master, was a high-church College. 
After the Revolution the Jacobitism of the University disgusted 
Prideaux, who, in 1691, professed 'an unconquerable aversion to the 
place.' Aldrich in turn styles him 'an unaccurate, muddy-headed 
man/ Morley's action was creditable, though his relations with 
Corpus present him in an overbearing light. He was certainly 
liberal with his purse. Besides five exhibitions at Pembroke, 
he gave £2,200 to Christ Church, £1,800 in all to St. Paul's 
Cathedral, spent at least £10,000 in repairing Farnham Castle after its 
occupation by Cromwell, and £4,000 for the purchase of Winchester 
House, besides repairing the palace at Winchester, and he bequeathed 
£1,000 for the augmentation of some small vicarages. His 
Winchester benefactions have been computed at £40,000. 

Guernsey and Jersey till 1568, when Dean After refused obedience till the Bishop 
had sworn allegiance to the Queen of England. Elizabeth then declared the 
Islands to belong to Winchester. 

1 See Dr. Fowler's History of Corpus Christi College, 1893, p. 247. 



BISHOP MORLEY'S FOUNDATION. 



287 



George Morley (1 597-1684) took a considerable part in the politics of 
his day. Though nominated on the Assembly of Divines he gave a year's 
income of his canonry at Christ Church for the prosecution of the royal 
cause, and persuaded the University to make a firm stand against the 
parliamentary visitation. He negotiated the surrender of the Oxford 
garrison, and, as one of the King's chaplains, assisted in effecting the 
treaty of Newport. Refusing to give his parole not to appear openly 
against the parliament, he was stripped of his preferments, and during the 
Interregnum ministered to the exiled King and his adherents at Antwerp, 
Breda, and the Hague. He helped to smooth the task of Restoration, 
being not unacceptable to the Calvinist party. In 1660 he was made 
Dean of Christ Church, and then Bishop of Worcester, and two years later 
succeeded Duppa at Winchester. Morley was a principal manager at the 
Savoy Conference, and, according to Baxter, was the ablest speaker of 
all the prelates. He is described by Burnet as ' a pious and charit- 
able man, of a very exemplary life, but extreme passionate and very 
obstinate.' Morley was the intimate friend of Clarendon (who calls him 
'the best man alive '), Hammond, Sanderson, Chillingworth, Sheldon, and 
Waller, whose poems he corrected, and who said that 'from him he 
learned to love the ancient poets.' He was the patron of Izaak Walton, 
and Ken was his chaplain. Burnet says that he ' had been first known to 
the world as a friend of the Lord Falkland's ; and that was enough to 
raise a man's character.' Morley died in 1684 in his eighty-seventh year. 
He laid one of the foundation stones of the Sheldonian Theatre in 1664, 
offering on it gold and silver. There are paintings of Morley at Farnham, 
Charterhouse, Oriel, Christ Church, and Pembroke. In the last only is 
he represented in the robes of Prelate of the Garter. His character for 
fearlessness and for asceticism (he ate but one meal a day), and also for 
irascibility, can be detected in it. Burnet says he was ' of eminent parts 
in all polite learning, of great wit, readiness and subtlety in disputation, 
and of remarkable temper and prudence in conversation.' Morley's 
known wit made Waller call him 'one of Jonson's sons.' 

The following are the main heads of the indenture of foundation for 
these scholarships. It is dated May 4, 1678 : — 

1. George Morley, Bishop of Winchester, founds five Scholarships at 
Oxford for the islands of Jersey and Guernsey. 2. This he does for the 
encouragement of virtue, education, and the advancement and propagation 
of true religion in the said islands forming part of his diocese, and with the 
intention of animating the said scholars to qualify themselves and be 
advanced to the rank of fellows. 3. The sum vested in the Dean of 
Christ Church and in Pembroke College for the purpose is 68 pounds, 
II shillings and 9 pence sterling. 4. The Dean and Chapter shall receive 
annually ^60 sterling ; the remainder being otherwise disposed. 5. Five 
scholars of the College of Pembroke, natives of the isles of Guernsey and 
Jersey, shall receive each ten pounds sterling out of his donation, and the 
said Scholars shall be called Bishop Morley's Scholars. 6. There shall be 
paid to the principal of the College 40^. yearly for the apartment of each 



288 



MO R LEY FOUNDATION ; D'AUVERGNE. 



scholar. 7. The revenue of vacant scholarships shall be applied to the 
use of the said College of Pembroke. 8. The Dean, Baillif, and Jurats of 
either Island to nominate. 9. The scholars are not to retain the appoint- 
ment more than five years, nor after having obtained a living, or any 
other emolument ; they must be resident in College, except the last year, 
that they may have liberty to travel in France for their improvement in 
that language. 11. But they shall solemnly promise to return to the 
Islands to serve the public as preachers, schoolmasters, or otherwise 1 . 
12. At the age of 21, each scholar shall solemnly bind himself before the 
Dean & Baillif in a penalty of ,£200 to fulfil his engagement. Such as 
refuse,shall not be admitted. 13. Such as have obtained the age of 21 
and refuse to ratify their promise shall be deprived of their appointment. 

The £68 11s. yd. arose from property in the forest of Chute, and 
was to be collected by the housekeeper for the time being of 
Wolvesley Palace. £8 11s. gd. was to be retained by the house- 
keeper. In 1857, the five Exhibitions were consolidated into one. Any 
surplus on the King Charles foundation from suspended Scholarships 
or otherwise was to be applied to the augmentation of the Morley 
Scholarship, which was to be considered as incorporated. Bishop 
Morley's Scholar now receives £80 and rooms. The £60 collected 
by the Wolvesley housekeeper is now paid direct to Pembroke Col- 
lege. On this foundation 2 was — 

Edward D'Auvergne, the military historian, son of Philip 
D'Auvergne, who claimed descent from a cadet of the house of the last 
reigning Duke of Bouillon. He took M.A. in 1686, and became rector 
of St. Brelade's, Jersey, and chaplain to the Scots Guards, in which 
capacity he went through the campaigns, of which he is the chronicler, 
in Flanders and the Netherlands. He went with William himself to 
Holland. William made him his chaplain and gave him the rectory of 
Great Hallingbury, Essex. He was married in Westminster Abbey, 
1704, to Suzanne Sabenone, and in 1729 espoused Esther, daughter 
of Philip Le Geyt, Lieutenant Bailli of Jersey. A son of his only son 
Philip went down in the Royal George in 1782. D'Auvergne died 
at his parsonage Dec. 2, 1737, aged 77. Insignia and relics of the 
ducal house are preserved by comparatively humble families of this 
name in Guernsey and Jersey. 

1 They were relieved of this engagement in 1857 ; at that time, by the deduction 
of i8</. for each week of non-residence, the value of the exhibitions was reduced to 
about £7 a year, with rooms worth or £6 yearly. 

2 The first Morley scholars at Pembroke were, John Ahier, Charles (son of Philip) 
Dumaresq, Edward Dauverne, ex insula Caesariensi, admissi Sep bris 25 0 , 1678; 
Thomas Picott, ex insula Sarniensi, adm. Oct. 8°. 



GUERNSEY AND JERSEY EDUCATION 289 



On Dec. 11, 1678, Charles II addressed the following order to the 
baillifs, deans, and jurats of the Islands 1 : — 

' Trusty & well beloved, we greet you well. Whereas our royal father 
of happy memory, for the encouragement of learning in our islands of 
Guernsey & Jersey, did found & endow three fellowships in our University 
of Oxford to be from time to time supplied by persons born in our said 
islands, & upon all vacancies to be nominated by you, the bailiffs deans & 
jurats of the said islands under such rules & limitations as by his charter 
of foundation it doth more at large appear, & whereas the present Lord 
BP of Winchester, for the aforesaid end and purpose, hath lately founded 
and endowed five Scholarships in the said University to be from time 
to time in like manner supplied by the nomination of you. . . . For 
the rendering both foundations subservient to his designed end, our will 
& pleasure is that, on the nomination of fellows into places w h shall be 
hereafter vacant, such shall be preferred as have been formerly nominated 
to their respective scholarships & have by their good carriage & 
improvement in learning fitted themselves for the employments w h belong 
to fellows in their respective societies.' . . . 

In 1857 the right of nomination was cheerfully relinquished by the 
deans, baillifs, and jurats, of the Islands. The King Charles and 
Morley foundations were henceforth to be open to all natives of the 
two bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey, and to others, not natives, who 
should have been educated for two years past at Elizabeth College, 
Guernsey, or Victoria College, Jersey. These institutions had not 
previously been recognized. The former, after almost suffering 
extinction through the disinclination of the natives to a classical 
education, was re-chartered by George IV, in 1825, at the instance of 
Sir John Colborne, afterwards Lord Seaton 2 , Lieutenant-Governor of 
Guernsey. Victoria College was founded largely through the exertions 
of Dr. Jeune. The education is modelled on that of English public 
schools, the sons of English residents form the majority of the pupils, 
and the masters are of necessity chiefly brought from England. The 
islands, sundered bits of Normandy, where the old French tongue 
and customs linger as a pathetic survival, have been Anglicized and 
Anglicanized more than enough. But the intention of King Charles 
and Bishop Morley, that Oxford-bred divines should return home to 
serve the meagre island cures, is now defeated 3 . I believe that not 

1 Duncan's History of Guernsey, p. 345. 

■ 2 Of Waterloo fame. Jeune was tutor to his sons while he was Governor of Canada. 
Jeune was succeeded by the Rev. Robert Jones, who entered Pembroke in 1824. 
I have heard from him the authentic account of the famous charge of the 52 nd Foot, 
which Lord Seaton told him on his death-bed. 

3 Even before 1857 the Charles I Fellows frequently remained laymen, or 
accepted English preferments. Falle, the learned historian (whose son Philip 

U 



290 



CHANNEL ISLANDERS. 



one of the present clergy in the four Isles has been on either of the 
foundations. From another point of view it has been doubted by 
Mr. F. Brock Tupper, in his History of Guernsey, 1 whether they have 
really benefited these islands, as from their commencement they have 
been a source of intrigue, partiality, and litigation.' Nevertheless the 
Channel Island foundations did their work. Among eminent men in 
recent times who have been educated in the Islands may be named 
the present Vice-Chancellor (Dr. Magrath), Archdeacon Denison, 
Mr. Walter Wren, Sir Peter Renouf, Field Marshal Sir Linton 
Symons, and Bishop Corfe. 

Lequesne (History of fersey, p. 176) observes: — 

' Owing to the vague wording of the grant, there has occasionally been 
a disagreement between the Islands, as to the right of nomination to [the 
King Charles] fellowships. To obviate this difficulty, the rule laid down in 
1804 by the late Duke of Portland, Chancellor of the University of Oxford, 
was, " that the Island which had simultaneously enjoyed two fellowships 
should next enjoy but one, without any reference to the number of indi- 
viduals who might have been elected fellows." It prevented the possibility 
of one Island enjoying the three fellowships at once. " Thus," adds the Rev. 
Ed. Durell, " from 1790 to 1820 Jersey enjoyed two fellowships and had 
but two fellows elected ; whereas Guernsey had but one, the Pembroke 
College Fellowship, into which about half a dozen Guernsey men were 
successively elected." In the reign of King Charles II, Bishop Morley, 
" taking into his serious consideration that the inhabitants of these Islands 
have not the advantages and encouragement for the education of their 
children, which on their behalf are desirable, and which others of his 
Majesty's subjects do enjoy, founded five scholarships in Pembroke 
College. . . . They have been productive of the singular advantage of 
having brought forward many individuals who have done honour to the 
island by their learning, their virtue, and their talents. Among these are 
the names of Drs. Brevint, John and David Durell, Dumaresq, Bandinel, 
and John and Edward Dupre." 5 

Deans Brevint and Durell however were not at Pembroke. The 
former (M.A. at Saumur) was the first King Charles Fellow at Jesus 
College. His son (?), Daniel Brevint, entered Pembroke in 1655. 
Two Pembroke Dupres, Edward and Michael, like D'Auvergne, were 
Jersey rectors and military chaplains. Michael and John Duprd went 
from Pembroke to Exeter fellowships. 

entered Pembroke 1709), complains of this 'abuse, and contradiction to the will 
of the Royal Founder.' For this foundation consult the Rev. C. W. Boase's 
Exeter College, O. H. S., p. cxiv. n, and p. exxi. 



CHAPTER XXII. 



OTHER BENEFACTIONS. 

It will be convenient to add here a list of the other benefactors of 
the College : — 

The first of those, after the Founders, who ' gave us wherewith to 
scholay ' was Juliana, wife of Alexander, Stafford, of High Holborn, 
gentleman, who, by her will, dated Feb. 6, 162$, devised lands in 
the parish of Harlew, Essex, in trust for a yearly payment of £5 to 
each of four poor Scholars of St. Katherine Hall in Cambridge, and the 
same to either of two poor Scholars of Pembroke College, in Oxford, 
all of whom were to study divinity and carry themselves soberly and 
religiously; to be nominated respectively by the Master of Katherine 
Hall and the Chief Governor of Pembroke College ; the Scholarships 
to be held during residence and until M.A, This fund is now amal- 
gamated with Mr. Oades' benefaction for poor Scholars of the College. 

Three Scholarships were founded by a member of the College, of 
whom some account must be given — Francis Rous, called in his day 
1 Lord Rous/ Wood gives the following account of him in the 
Athenae (ii. 147) : — 

- Francis Rous, a younger son of Sir Anth. Rous Knight, by Elizab: his 
first wife daugh: of Tho: Southcote Gent, was born at Halt on [otherwise 
Lanrake] in Cornwall, and at 12 years of age became a Commoner of 
Broadgates Hall, an. 1591 % where continuing under a constant and 
severe discipline, took the degree of Bach: of Arts ; which degree being 
compleated by Deter?ninatio?i, he went afterwards, as it seems, to the 
Inns of Court, tho some there be that would needs persuade me that he 
took holy orders, and became Minister of Saltash in his own Country 2 . 
Howsoever it is, sure I am, that he being esteemed a man of parts and 
to be solely devoted to the puritanical Party, he was elected by the men 
of Trtiro in his own Country to serve in Parliaments held in the latter end 

1 He entered with his elder brothers, Richard and Robert, July 6, 1593. Noble 
says, B.A. 1591. 

2 This was another Francis Rous, father of the author of Archaeologiae Atticae. 
Saltash is near Halton. 

U 2 



292 



BENEFACTORS : SPEAKER ROUS. 



of K.James, and in the Reign of K. Ch: I. In 1640 also he was elected 
again for that Corporation to serve in that unhappy Parliament which 
began at Westminster 3 Nov, wherein, seeing how violently the Members 
thereof proceeded, he put in for one, and shew'd himself with great zeal 
an Enemy to the Bishops' Prerogative, and what not, to gain the Popu- 
lacy, a Name, and some hopes of Wealth which was dear unto him. In 
1643 he forwarded and took the Covenant, was chosen one of the Assembly 
of Divines and for the Zeal he had for the holy cause, he was by authority 
of Parliament made Provost of Eaton Coll: near Windsore the same year 
[1643-165 8] in the place of Dr Rich: Steuart who then followed, and 
adhered to, his sacred Majesty. In the said Parliament he afterwards 
shew'd himself so active, that he eagerly helped to change the Govern- 
ment into a Commonwealth, and to destroy the negative voice in the 
King and Lords. In 1653 he was by the Authority of 01. Cromwell 
nominated a Member of the Little Parliament that began to sit at 
Westm: a, July, and was thereupon elected the Speaker, but with a col- 
lateral Vote that he should continue in the Chair no longer than for 
a month, and in Decemb. the same year he was nominated one of Olivers 
Council. But when the good things came to be done, which were solemnly 
declared for, (for the not doing of which the Long Parliament was dissolved) 
He as an old bottle^ being not Jit to leave that new wine, without Jutting 
it to the question, he left the Chair, and went with his Fellow old bottles 
to Whitehall, to surrender their Power to General Cromwell, which he, 
as Speaker, and they by signing a Parchment or Paper, pretended to do. 
The colourable foundation for this Apostasie, upon the monarchical 
foundation, being thus laid, and the General himself (as Protector) seated 
thereon, he became one of his Council, and trusted with many matters, as 
being appointed in the latter end of the same year the first and prime 
Tryer or Approver of publick Preachers 1 and the year after a Commis- 
sioner for the County of Cornwall, for the Ejection of such whom they 
then called scandalous and ignorant Ministers and Schoolmasters. After- 
wards he sate in the following Parliaments under Oliver, and being an 
aged and venerable man, was accounted worthy to be taken out of the 
H. of Commons, to have a negative voice in the other house, that is House 
of Lords, over all that should question him for what he had done, and 
over all the people of the Land besides, tho he would not suffer it in the 
King and Lords. This person who was usually stiled by the Loyal Party 
the old illiterate Jew of Eaton and another Proteus, hath divers things 
(especially of Divinity) extant, wherein much enthusiastical Canting is 
used . . . Our Author Rous gave way to fate at Acton near London on the 
seventh day of January in sixteen hundred fifty and eight, and was buried 
in Eaton Coll: Church, near to the entrance of that Chappel joyning there- 
unto, formerly built by Rog: Lupton, Provost of the said College. Soon 

1 The 8 Inquisitio Anglicana ' (as it was called) of the Triers ousted such clergy 
as were unable to show what work of grace had been wrought in their souls, and 
declare the day and hour of their call by the Spirit. One poor man was kept thus 
under examination for seven weeks. One of Rous's coadjutors in this sifting process 
was the loose-lived mountebank, Hugh Peters. 



BENEFACTORS : SPEAKER ROUS. 



293 



after were hanged up, over his grave, a Standard, Pennon, &c. and other 
Ensigns relating to Barons, containing in them the arms of the several 
matches of his Family. All which continuing there till 1661 were then 
pulled down with scorn by the loyal Provost and Fellows, and thrown 
aside as tokens and badges of damn'd baseness and rebellion. Those of 
his Party did declare openly to the World at his death that " he needed 
no monument besides his own printed works and the memorials of his last 
will, to convey his name to posterity. And that the other works of his 
life, were works of charity, wherein he was most exemplary, as the poor 
in many parts would after the loss of him tell you," &c. The Poet of 
Broadgates called Ch. Fitz Geffry did celebrate his memory while he was 
of that house, and after his death Pembroke College did the like for his 
benefaction to the members thereof.' 

' M r Rous, Esqu. of Essex ' is mentioned in John Rous's Diary as 
answering in 1626 Montagu's Appello Caesarem. Neal also calls him 
' Esquire,' and on his picture at Pembroke, which shows him, aged 77, 
in gown and broad band, he is styled ' armiger.' A certain number of 
laymen sate with the Westminster Divines 1 . Soon after obtaining the 
provosty of Eton, Rous, who appears not to have proceeded beyond B.A., 
nearly lost it by the operation of the Self-denying Ordinance ; but an 
exception was made by the Commons in his favour. Clement Walker, 
reckoning the preferment bestowed by the Godly among the Independents, 
says ' M r Rouse hath Eaton college worth 800/. per annum, and a lease 
of that college worth 600/. per. ann.' He substituted the Directory 
for the Common Prayer for the scholars' use. M r . Lyte gives his 
' Rules for the Schollers.' The old trees in the Playing Fields are 
said to be of Rous's planting. He enjoyed an opinion, Clarendon 
says, of some knowledge in the Latin and Greek tongues, but was 'of 
a very mean understanding.' Chalmers remarks, ' Lord Clarendon 
and his contemporaries undervalue his abilities, which certainly did not 
appear to much advantage in parliament, where his speeches were rude, 
vulgar and enthusiastic, both in style and sentiment, yet perhaps none 
the worse adapted to the understanding of his hearers.' Rous repre- 
sented not only Truro but Tregony, Devonshire, and Cornwall. He 
certainly played a directing part in the events of that stormy time. In 
Revolutions it is commonly second-rate men who come to the front. 
Rous meditated modelling the Commonwealth after the pattern of the 
Jewish theocracy, and only when he found an assembly of ignorant and 
vulgar men unequal to this task did he propose to Barebone's Parliament 
to resign the sovereignty into the hands of Cromwell, whom he regarded 
as Moses and Joshua in one. It was said that Cromwell 'could not 
well do less than make that gentleman a Lord who had made him 
a Prince.' There is a portrait of Rous at Eton in his robes as Speaker. 

1 Selden, who had a seat in the Assembly, says : ' There must be some laymen 
in the Synod to overlook the clergy, lest they spoil the civil work, just as, when the 
good woman puts a cat into the milkhouse to kill a mouse, she sends her maid to 
look after the cat, lest the cat should eat up the cream.' Whitelocke and Oliver 
St. John were of the number. 



294 



BENEFACTORS : SPEAKER ROUS. 



Bramston says (Autobiography), ' The Speaker, Old Rous, and the 
rest juggling togcather by an instrument delivered up the gouernment 
to Crumwell.' ' Thoroughly engaged in the guilt of the times,' is 
Clarendon's summary verdict. Rous's rude translation of ' the Psalmes 
of David into English Meeter' was substituted by the House of 
Commons, Nov. 4, 1645, for the exquisite Psalter of Cranmer, and, 
with the Paraphrases and Barton's version, was long the sole spiritual 
hymnody of the presbyterians, who still use it. The Long Parliament 
had been petitioned to help the minister against the people ' who doe 
interrupt him when he readeth the Psalmes, by taking every other verse 
out of his mouth, with a hackering confused noise.' His Works were 
printed in 1657, with an engraving 'by the curious hand of Will. Faithorne ' 
from the Pembroke picture. This folio is called 4 Treatises and 
Meditations dedicated to the Saints and to the Excellent throughout the 
three Nations.' It includes the Art of Happiness (161 9), The Diseases of 
the Times {1621), Oyl of Scorpions (1623), Testis Veritatis (1626), Catholike 
Charity (1641, complaining of Roman intolerance), The Great Oracle, The 
Mystical Marriage (1653), &c. Besides the Works, are his parliamentary 
speeches, Mella Patrum, the patristic writings of the first three centuries, 
(1650), and Interiora regni Dei (printed after the Restoration, in 1665). 
Hearne also mentions ' The lawfulness of obeying y e Present Govern- 
ment — 1649, 4 t0 — The Author Fr. Rouse, Provost (sed contra jus fasque) 
of Eaton Coll., Who was Author likewise of The Bounds and Bonds of 
Publick Obedience. Lond. 1649, 4 t0 .' [Collections, O. H. S., i. 78.) 

The following extract from a parliamentary speech may be given as 
a specimen of Rous's style : — 

' I desire it may be considered how the sea of Rome doth eat into our 
religion and fret into the very banks and walls of it, the laws and 
statutes of this realm. I desire we may consider the increase of Armi- 
nianism, an error that makes the grace of God lackey after the will of 
man. I desire we may look into the belly and bowels of this Trojan 
horse, to see if there be not men in it ready to open the gates to Romish 
tyranny, for an Arminian is the spawn of a Papist. And if the warmth 
of favour comes upon him, you shall see him turn into one of those frogs 
that rose out of the bottomless pit. These men having kindled a fire in 
our neighbouring country, are now endeavouring to set this kingdom in 
a flame.' (Neal, History of the Puritans.) It was this speech, and one of 
Pym's, which determined the Commons to reply by their Vow to the De- 
claration prefixed by King Charles and Laud to the Articles. In the 
Heavenly University (1638), Rous allows the New Man to employ pagan 
learning, as a Gibeonite, to cleave wood and draw water for his service 
in the Sanctuary. Only, ' Whatsoever time thou bestow'st in Study be 
sure to set apart some time wherein to study the Holy Ghost', who, 
sitting in his Chair of Grace, teacheth his Scholars inwardly to see 
those Divine and Heavenly Truths which may advance thee in the way 
to Heavenly Glory.' The book is pious and quakerish rather than 
Calvinistic — troubled consciences exceedingly quake and tremble at the 



BENEFACTORS : SPEAKER ROUS. 



295 



thunders of Sinai, so that the world asks, Why do ye skip as lambs and 
tremble as little lambs ? Illustrations from the ' holy fathers ' and ' divine 
Soliloquies of Blessed Thomas a Kempis ' are appended to each chapter. 
He quotes the apostrophe of 1 an Ancient Scholar in this University ' to 
his spirit, taught in the philosophy of eternity, ' Be not thow Exalted 
above the Sons of Art and Reason ; do not thou despise their Academical 
Learning ; do not thou mock at their Corner-Cap, Hood and Tippet ; let 
them enjoy their Degrees' For these qualities and its doctrine — sus- 
pected as popish — of the Inward Light, without denial of 'the more 
Unerrable Lights of God's Church,' the Academia Caelestis was reprinted 
in 1702 by a high churchman *. 

It is not mentioned in the Athenae that Rous was chairman of 
the Committee of Lords and Commons appointed May 1, 1647, to 
supervise and direct the Oxford Visitors. The Committee sometimes 
sate at the Painted Chamber, Westminster, sometimes in Rous's 
lodging, whither Fell, Morley, and others were cited to appear. Rous 
was for extreme measures against all academians who denied the 
authority of Parliament, but Selden and Whitelocke were more afraid 
of illegal action. In January, 165^, Rous and the Visitors had high 
differences, the London Committee insisting on filling places with men 
whom the Oxford Ministers deemed scandalous and unfit. 

In 1659 Rous, together with Lambert and Montagu, urged upon the 
Protector the foundation of a college at Durham with the buildings and 
revenues of the Cathedral. It was intended that it should be erected 
into a University. Oliver dying, however, the old Universities made 
strong representation to Richard Cromwell against the multiplying of 
small degree-conferring bodies, and the project dropped. The Little 
Parliament, over which Rous presided, had proposed ' that all Lands 
belonging to the Universities and Colleges in those Universities might 
be sold, and the Monies that should arise thereby be disposed for the 
publick Service.' 

By his will, dated March 8, 165^, pr&ved Feb. 10, 165!, Rous 
devised an estate of £40 per an. out of the tythes of Bookham Magna, 
Surrey, to maintain two students, and also £20 per an. for a third, 
issuing out of a pension paid for certain tenements in the manor of 
Mutton, Cornwall, during the lives of two Bigfords, and after their 
decease from a tenement at Cowkbury, Devon ; the scholars to be 
of low fortunes, viz. under £ 10 per an., of a fit age for learning, and of 
his own posterity or of the stock of Robert, Richard (both were at 

1 The Sufficiency of the Spirit's teaching without humane Learning, by How 
a cobbler, and Kiffen an anabaptist minister (1683), is a specimen of the anti- 
academic writings of the seventeenth century. 



296 



ETON EXHIBITIONS. 



Broadgates), and Arthur, his brethren, or of the descent from his sisters 
Nichols or Upton (married (2) to John Wilshere), or, failing such, then 
to be elected of the two upper forms of Eton school. They were to 
study divinity, and to give some public specimen of their proficiency 
therein before becoming bachelors in arts, and not to enjoy the bene- 
faction above seven years. (Chalmers incorrectly describes the 
benefaction as for the support of three Fellows. He says that Rous 
bequeathed other property to pious uses.) All other conditions were 
to be settled by his executor, Anthony Rous 1 , and his nephew, 
Master Ambrose Upton, prebend of Christ Church. But this was 
not done, and the conditions of election remained uncertain till 1757, 
when an indenture tripartite was made, under the provisions of which 
the scholars were thereafter appointed. In 1857 the three Exhibitions 
were consolidated as one Scholarship, worth now £60 yearly. In 1852 
there were two exhibitioners enjoying each £29 2s. 6d. for seven years. 

The Cookbury rent-charge was shifted in 1864 to Killatree Farm at 
Pyworthy, Devon. Ambrose Upton (of Lupton, Devon) and his 
brother Thomas were fellows of All Souls. Ambrose's son Francis 
Upton (1656-1711), a physician, was at Pembroke. Several members 
of the family sate for Dartmouth or for the county. Rous's other sister 
married, I think, John Nicholls, of St. Kew, Cornwall (entered Broad- 
gates in 1584). Antony Nicoll (entered Pembroke 1694) was M.P. 
for Tregony, 1708-10. 

In examining claims of kindred the College has acknowledged the 
issue of Rous as legitimate. He was not the kind of man whom one 
would expect to make a runaway love-match, but I learn from private 
records that he did this in his youth. The marriage was disputed 
when he was dead, and his considerable fortune was left in Chancery to 
accumulate 2 . His kinsman, Francis, a young physician of great talents, 

1 Grandson, if I mistake not, of Francis Rous's eldest brother Ambrose, of Halton, 
whose sons, William (M.P. for Truro 1625) and George Rous (of the Middle 
Temple) , entered Broadgates together, Feb. 1 4, 1 6 1 2 . Anthony entered Exeter in 1 6 33 . 
His brother Richard was M.P. for Bossiney (Tintagil) 1661. A sister of Francis 
Rous married Jacob Northcote, Esq. ; their monument is at Newton St. Cyres. The 
family descended from Sir Ralph Rous, seated at Modbury, Devon, temp. Henry III. 
Rous of Edmerston, a cadet, moved to Halton, in St. Dominick Parish, temp. Eliza- 
beth. John, great-uncle of Francis, bought the mansion, which is now a farm-house. 
The Rous arms are, Or, an eagle displayed preening her wing, azure. 

2 I remember, as a boy, hearing among Devonshire relatives of an enormous 
accumulation, and of the efforts made in the past to prove the union, alleged to 
have taken place at Creed's Combe, a real one. Rous's heir at law in 1795 was 
the Rev. Richard Rous of Clist St. George, c representing the provost's brother ' 
(d. 1 8 10). His daughter and heiress married an Ellicombe. Speaker Rous's 
Parliament, during the few weeks of its existence, enacted civil marriage. 



BENEFACTORS : LORD OSSULSTON. 297 



and author of a work on Greek antiquities, distinguished himself on 
the field of battle and in the Commons. Anthony, John, and Robert 
Rous, all members of Parliament, were, Noble thinks, his sons. Rous 
Exhibitions have been held, for the most part, by Etonians x , and, 
though Rous's will speaks of his posterity, founder's kin was not 
claimed for some time. The portrait of Rous in the Hall was given 
by Peter Creed, of Stoke Fleming 2 . 

Sir John Bennet, afterwards Lord Ossulston, besides his assistance 
in building the College, gave in 1672 certain fee farm rents in six 
places in Gloucestershire, amounting then (and now) to £17 us. 8d. 
Also rents in four-and-twenty places in Derbyshire, amounting to 
£43 15,?. \d. These were to maintain two Scholarships of £10, open 
to all members of the College who are not of the original foundations 
nor eligible into them, and two Fellowships for Bennet scholars of two 
years' standing. The Fellowships were septennial, but the holders 
might be elected for seven years more if they should have been found 
useful to the Society. In 1802 the Duke of Portland was appealed to 
as to whether Ossulston Fellows were eligible for presentation to the 
rectory of St. Aldate's. In 1852 they were still receiving the original 
stipend (being a rent-charge) of £ 2 o each, and the Scholars £10. This 
foundation is now merged in the Corporate Fund. We have seen (page 
2 6 3) that it created some jealousy among the Fellows of the older founda- 
tions. Lord Ossulston presented to the College ' a great silver Cup/ 

Lord Ossulston was elder brother of the more famous Earl of Arlington. 
They were great-grandsons of the co-Founder Tesdale's half-sister 
Elizabeth 3 . He was born at Arlington in 1618, and entered Pembroke 

1 He particularly desired to be buried at Eton — ' a place which hath my deare 
affections and prayers that it may be a flourishing nursery of pietie and learning to 
the end of the world.' Whitelocke (who strangely writes on Oct. 25, 1657, as 
though Rous were dead) hoped to step into his shoes there, but was made a Lord 
by Cromwell instead. Allstree, Rous's Restoration successor, was the humorist 
who placed in the Christ Church strong-box, where the Puritans hoped to find 
treasure, a halter and a groat. 

2 Entered as kin-exhibitioner Oct. 30, 1723. He was great-great-grandson of 
Rous's daughter or niece Dorothy, wife of William Bayley, who was chaplain in 
the Rebellion to the Lord Roberts, and ejected from Stoke Fleming rectory 
in 1662. An uncle, Dr. John Creed (entered Pembroke 1703), was Canon of 
Wells. John Henry Newman was related to the Creeds. Lysons does not seem 
to know of this picture. He says {Cornwall, p. 78) : ' Thomas Bate Rous, Esq., 
of Courtyralla in Glamorganshire, the immediate descendant and representative of 
[Rous of Modbury], has an original portrait of Francis Rous.' Faithorne's print 
is, he says, from the Eton picture. 

3 Wood {Gutch, iii. 260) and Dr. Ingram say that Tesdale was Lord Ossulston 's 
grandfather. 



298 BENEFACTORS : LORD OSSULSTON ; TOWNSEND. 



as a gentleman-commoner, April 24, 1635. Student of Gray's Inn, 1636. 
In the wars he fought on the royal side, and, when Charles II was 
crowned at Westminster, was admitted to the Order of the Bath, and 
shortly to the royal intimacy. Mr. A. I. Dasent, in his Saint James's 
Square, says : ' Among dissolute residents Lord Ossulston lent his house 
for a masquerade ball, to which none but debauchees of both sexes were 
invited.' He was Captain of the Band of Gentlemen Pensioners. From 
1663 to 1679 he represented Wallingford, the home of his forefathers. 
On Nov. 24, 1682, he was created Baron Ossulston of Arlington, his 
Majesty taking into consideration the constant and faithful services per- 
formed to his royal Father, of blessed memory, in the rebellious times, 
as also to himself. Ossulston is a hundred of Middlesex. He was one of 
eighteen lords who petitioned James II, to the King's grave displeasure, for 
a parliament. Ossulston died Feb. 11, 1695 \ He was twice married. 
The busts of his wives with his own, in white marble, ornament his 
monument at Arlington. His son Charles, second baron, married in 
1695 the daughter and heiress of Lord Grey, Earl of Tankerville, at 
whose death those titles expired. Lord Ossulston was then created, in 
17 14, Earl of Tankerville. The portrait of the first lord in the College 
Hall was painted by R. Phillips. It bears the words 'Rob. COOPER 
memor Patroni et Coll. Pemb. D.D.' (1721). Dr. Cooper was the first 
Ossulston Fellow, 1673 ; Rector of Arlington, 1681 ; Archdeacon of Dorset, 
1698. Ob. 1733. He gave ,£100 towards the Chapel. He wrote Pro- 
portions concerning Optick Glasses, an Introduction to Geography, &c. 

George Townsend, of Rowell, in the county of Gloucester, and of 
Lincolnshire, Esq., by will dated Dec. 14, 1682, and proved Nov. 
29, 1683, devised ' Little Aston Farme in the Parish of Cold Aston in 
the said County of Glouc r . and the tythes of Corne thereof by me 
demised to Charles Trinder Gent, for ninety and nine years at the rent 
of fourscore pounds by the year/ to the Master, Fellows, and Scholars, 
upon special trust and confidence to pay, imploy, and bestow 'the 
first year and half-year s rent thereof after my decease for and towards 
the necessary building or repairing of the said' Colledge, the next 
half-year's rent thereof for and towards the providing of fitting studies 
and necessary bedsteads feather-beds and other bedding and furniture 
of chambers to be used in succession,' rent free, by Scholars to be 
placed therein, in number eight, chosen out of the chief school in 

1 Lysons {Middlesex) points out that his epitaph implies that he died in 1686, 
aged seventy. Burke gives that year. Collins gives the date 1685, Edmondson 
1689. The Arlington registers prove that he was buried Feb. 15, 169^. His will 
was dated Nov. 28, 1694, and proved Feb. 18, 169^. See also Wood's Life and 
Times, O. H. S., iii. 479 and note. (But the London Coffee letter there cited 
gives his age as eighty-nine instead of seventy-seven.) Wood quotes 'Feb. 14, W., 
corps of Lord Ossulston carried from Westminster to Dawley in Middlesex to be 
there buried — he died very rich.' 



BENEFACTORS : TOWNS END ; HOLFORD. 299 



Gloucester by the Mayor, six of the senior Aldermen and the chief 
Schoolmaster, and out of the schools of Cheltenham (' in which I was 
a Scholar '), Chipping Campden, and Northlatch, or Northleach \ by 
the respective chief Schoolmasters, Ministers, and Bailiffs. These 
schools, all in Gloucestershire, were each to supply a fitting grammar 
scholar every fourth year, the exhibition being tenable for eight years. 
Residence (to begin at the Feast of the Annunciation) was enforced. 
' And my desire is that all the said Scholars for their four last years of 
residence in the said Colledge addict their Studies to Divinity, for 
whose encouragement therein I will that my Rectory of Stifford and 
Vicarage of Grayes Thorock in Essex and the Donatives of Uxbridge 
and Colebrooke so often as any of them shall fall void be conferred on 
such of the said Scholars as shall be fitting Divines at the nomination 
of my Son in law William Kenwricke Esquire during his life and after 
his death [my Grandson] James Silverlocke or his heirs.' 

In 1852 there were five residents, receiving £52 each. In 1857 ^ 
was ordained that no exhibitioner should enjoy the profits of his place 
after his seventeenth term (i.e. four years and the term required 
between B.A. and M.A.) ; the four juniors were to have rooms. The 
lack of endowment for post-graduate study of Divinity is now seriously 
felt ; and it is to be regretted that Townsend's provision for this 
purpose was swept away instead of being modified. In 1881 the 
Scholarships were fixed at £80 each and rooms. Townsend's portrait 
in the Hall bears the words: '1647, aet. 45. D. d. Johan. Edows, 
A.M., Georgii Townsend Consang. 1743/ John Edows, of Adder- 
bury, Oxon, took M.A. from New College, 1728. 

In 1700 Mrs. Robinson, sister of Bishop Hall, gave the College a fee 
farm rent from Horspath, value £8 8s. \d., but charged with a pay- 
ment of £1 \\s. to the Rector of St. Aldate's for two sermons, on 
Holy Thursday and Christmas Day. 

Dame Elizabeth Holford, of the parish of All Hallows, Steyning, 
in the city of London, widow of Sir William Holford, of Witham, in 
the county of Leicester, Bart., by will dated Nov. 19, 1717, left 
£1,000 to accumulate at interest in mortgage on Government securities 
till £1,300 should be attained. With this sum land was to be 

1 There was a Richard, son of Anthony, Townsend, of Cambden, who entered 
Trinity, as ' pauper,' in 1699, and a Thomas, son of Thomas, Townsend, who 
entered Queen's, as 1 pauper,' from Northleach, in the same year. Robert, son of 
George, Townsend, who entered Pembroke in 1665 (rector of Wallingford and 
canon of Sarum), was from Heddington, Wilts. 



300 BENEFACTORS : HOLFORD; OADES. 



purchased in Oxfordshire or some place near to the University, and 
conveyed to the Master and Fellows upon trust to pay £20 per an. to 
each of two Exhibitioners, to be chosen out of those of the Scholars 
who should be sent to the University by the Governors of Sutton's 
Hospital or Charterhouse, and be in receipt of a pension out of 
Sutton's Charity. The testatrix died Nov. 3, 17 19, and in 1737 the 
capital sum amounted to the prescribed £1,300. Scholars were from 
that date elected; and in 1752 an estate at Tiddington, Oxon, was 
purchased for £2,400, £1,100 being provided by the College, of 
which £300 was a gift of Dr. Samuel Baker, Canon and Chancellor 
of York (entered 1687), to be expended as the College might direct, 
and £200 a gift of Dr. Benjamin Slocock (Fellow 1712, Proctor 
1720, Chaplain of St. Saviour's, Southwark, 1725 a ) for the support of 
a lecturer in Hebrew, or else for the benefit of certain Fellows or 
Scholars. In 1857 Dame Elizabeth's two Scholarships were consoli- 
dated into one, to be called the Holford Scholarship. The Scholar at 
present receives £60 yearly. Lady Holford left five similar Exhibitions 
to Christ Church, two to Worcester, and two to Hart Hall. 

The Reverend William Oades, Rector of Dummer, Hants, by will 
dated Sept. 21, 1730, bequeathed nearly the whole of his property, 
real and personal, to the College in trust (1) to pay £10 per 
an. to any descendant of his brother or sister who may fall into 
poverty, there being not more than one recipient at a time, and (2) to 
divide the residue into eight parts ; to pay six of these parts to the 
heirs and descendants of his brother or sister, and the remaining two 
parts, in sums not exceeding £5, in equal proportions, among so 
many Servitors and B ateliers of the poorer sort in the College as they 
shall deem fit. Other minuter regulations were made for the trust. 
Mr. Oades died in 1731, and his effects realized £2,434 js. 10a 1 ., which 
was invested in an estate near Basingstoke, the College obtaining a 
licence in mortmain. In 1852 there were two senior Exhibitions of 
£25, and two junior of £20. The Commissioners did not vary the 
provisions of the will in 1857. Six- eighths of the net proceeds are 
paid to a descendant of the testator, and two-eighths to Scholars in 
need of assistance. Failing issue of his kin, Mr. Oades gave 'jus 
haereditatis totius ' for various College and Church uses. 

Edmund Boulter, of Hasely Court, Oxon, and of Harwood, Yorks, 
Esquire, by will dated March 21, 1736, after making specific 
bequests to various relatives and to the Mayor and Aldermen of the 
1 Dr. Slocock's portrait is in the Hall. He gave £21 to the Chapel. 



BENEFACTORS : BOULTER; PHILIPPS. 301 



city of Oxford for the erection of an almshouse, gave to the College a 
rent-charge of £20 yearly for one Scholarship, to be called, in honour 
of his uncle, Sir John Cutler, Cutler-Boulter s Scholarship, for 
educating (by preference) an ingenious youth of kindred to himself, 
his wife, or his uncle-in-law, Mr. Michael Walls, and he constituted 
the Earl of Arran and his daughter, Elizabeth Boulter, executors of his 
will. Soon after his death, on April 21, 1736, a suit was instituted in 
Chancery, the Attorney-General v. Earl of Arran and others, and the 
estate was administered in the Court. No applicant for the Scholar- 
ship appeared till 1792, when Richard Iremonger was elected. The 
total sum in the hands of the Court now amounted to £2,499 I s - 
three per cent, annuities. In pursuance of an order of the Court the 
College framed a scheme for the establishment of a second Scholarship, 
and it was confirmed June 30, 1796. The Court continued to 
administer the fund till 1857, when the University Commissioners 
ordained that the two Scholarships should be consolidated with the 
Exhibition founded by Dr. John Ratcliff, so as to maintain two 
Scholars, to be called the Boulter and Ratcliff Scholars. They now 
receive £80 each. In 1852 there were two Cutler-Boulter Exhibi- 
tioners receiving £36 8s. each for seven years. 

In 1749 Sir John Philipps, Bart., of Picton Castle, Pembrokeshire, 
founded one Fellowship and one Scholarship for natives of that county, 
or, in default of such, of any county in South Wales. He also gave 
the perpetual curacy of West Haroldston with Lambton, in Pembroke- 
shire, to be accepted under pain of forfeiture by the Fellow of his foun- 
dation who might not be Master, nor Bursar, nor Rector of St. Aldate's. 
The Scholar was to succeed to the Fellowship on a vacancy. In 
1852 the Fellow's place was worth £80 yearly, that of the Scholar 
£40. They are now merged in the Corporate Fund. Sir John was 
the sixth baronet. He entered the College Aug. 4, 1720; created 
D.C.L. April 12, 1749; M.P. for Caermarthen 1 741-7, for Peters- 
field 1754-61, for Pembrokeshire 1 761-4. He died June 23, 1764. 
His father was the ' great and good ' Sir John Philipps who took part, 
as a prominent layman, in the foundation of the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge and other institutions. He was a Commissioner 
for building the Fifty Churches, and through his aid Whitefield was 
enabled to take his degree. His son, Sir Richard (1 738-1823), who 
entered the College Feb. 3, 1761, was created Baron Milford in 1766. 
M.P. for Pembrokeshire 1765-70, 1786-1812, for Plympton 1774-9, 
for Haverfordwest 1784-96. Sir Erasmus 1 Philipps, portions of whose 



302 BENEFACTORS: PIIIPPS ; RATCLIFF. 



Diary are given below, matrieulatcd from Pembroke on the same day as 
his younger brother, Sir John. The latter was a Privy Councillor. 

The Reverend James Phipps, M.A., Rector of Elvetham, Hants, for- 
merly Tesdale Scholar, by his will dated Nov. 4, 1763, bequeathed to the 
College, besides other properties, the manor or lordship of Temple 
Cowley and Littlemore, Oxon, together with £3,000 in Government 
securities, for a fund out of which to purchase four advowsons of the 
yearly value of £150 each, for the benefit of the Tesdale Fellows ; after 
which the profits were to be appropriated towards the increase of the 
stipends of the Tesdale Fellows by £10, and of the Scholars by £5, 
and towards the payment of £10 to a chaplain to read prayers, in 
addition to his usual salary ; anything remaining over was to be put into 
the College chest for the purchase of books ' or whatever may be an 
ornament or benefit to the College/ Mr. Phipps died Dec. 18, 1773, but 
a life-interest resided in his relict till her death, Oct. 8, 1778. With 
the bequest were bought the following advowsons : Coin St. Dennis in 
Gloucestershire, Ringshall in Suffolk, Liddiard Millicent in Wiltshire, 
and Sibson or Sibstone in Leicestershire. The estate and repair fund, on 
which the cost of the additions to and repairs of the College buildings is 
charged, receives the residue after the payment of £10 to the chaplain 
and £40 to the corporate revenue. In 1846 £3,000 of the Phipps 
fund was devoted to the erection of the new Hall. The portraits of 
Mr. Phipps (- T. Bardwell pinxit 1749 ') and Mrs. Phipps hang in it. 

Dr. John Ratcliff, by will made in 1774, bequeathed to the College 
£1,000 four per cent. Bank annuities, upon trust to pay £26 yearly to 
one Exhibitio7ter appointed by the Master, who should be the son of a 
clergyman in the diocese of Gloucester and intended for Holy Orders, 
the Exhibition to be holden for seven years, subject to certain condi- 
tions as to residence ; the residue of the proceeds were to be divided 
among the lecturers or moderators of the College in such proportions 
as the Master of the College shall appoint. In 1852 the Exhibition 
was only worth £18 1 8 s. 8d. Dr. Ratcliff, by the same will, gave 

1 Another Erasmus, an uncle, was killed at Bantry Bay. This name came into 
the family through Elizabeth Dryden (see page 102), wife of the second baronet. 
Horace Walpole writes (Aug. 11, 1748) : 'I am taking great pains to verify a 
probability of my being descended from Chaucer, whose daughter, the lady Alice, 
before her espousals with Thomas Montacute, earl of Salisbury . . . was married 
to a sir John Philips, who I hope to find was of Picton Castle, and had children by 
her. . . . Thank my stars and my good cousin the present sir J. Philips, I have a 
sufficient pedigree to work upon ; for he drew us up one, by which Ego et rex 
mens are derived hand in hand from Cadwallader, and the English baronetage says 
from the Emperor Maximus. . . . Yours ever, — Chaucerides.' 



BENEFACTORS: FRANCIS WIGHT WICK. 



£ 1,000 for the improvement of the College buildings, £100 worth of 
books, and £100 for any public use the Master should approve. He 
died in 1775. There no longer being any moderators, the money 
that would have been paid to them is added to the ' College Bag.' 
Dr. Ratcliff also left £600 to repair the prebendal house at Gloucester, 
and bequeathed £400 to Exeter College, of which his father was a 
Fellow. His Mastership extended from Feb. 23, 1738,1.0 July, 1775. 

Francis Wightwick, Esquire, of Wombridge, Berks (where there 
are several family monuments), by will dated May 20, 1776, left to the 
College a contingent reversion of his plate, books, pictures, and also of 
two estates for the sustenance of four Fellows and three Scholars, 
preference being given to persons of the name or kindred of Richard 
Wightwick, B.D. By the death, March 1, 1843, without male issue, 
of a nephew, Mr. Francis Wightwick, of Sandgates, Chertsey, this 
bequest came to the College May 4 of that year. An enlargement by 
£500 of the licence in mortmain was procured the next year in conse- 
quence. The College was confirmed in the possession of its eight 
advowsons, and empowered to hold others to the amount of £3,000 
yearly. The salaries fixed by Francis Wightwick for his Fellows and 
Scholars being no longer proportionable to the surplus to be distributed 
among the Fellows and Scholars of the Tesdale and Wightwick 
foundations, the Duke of Wellington was petitioned to allow a modifi- 
cation of the arrangement ' in a spirit of liberality and equity.' The 
Fellowships were raised from £40 to £70, the Scholarships to £40. 
No person ever appeared to claim km to Richard Wightwick for these \ 
The estates which supported the Francis Wightwick Fellows and 
Scholars are his lands, &c, at Binfield, now Binfield House (lately 
occupied by the gallant General Stewart who fell in the Soudan), those 
at Waltham St. Lawrence, now Beenham's Farm, and a rent charge 
of £70 issuing out of the manor of Bramley, Yorks. At Waltham 
stood Wombridge House, a fine manorial building, destroyed early in 
this century, on the walls of which hung the handsome portrait of 
Hancox Wightwick (who died as a young man in 1731), now in the 
Common Room parlour, and the picture, now in the College Hall, of 
(I think) Samuel Wightwick, executor of the co-Founder's will, great- 
grandfather of Francis Wightwick, of the date 1652 2 . A third picture, 

1 The first Scholar elected (1845) was Henry Stuart Fagan, afterwards 
Head Master of Market Bosworth School, where Johnson was usher, and of Bath 
Grammar School. 

2 Mr. A. R. Bayley, B.A., who has kindly helped me in several particulars, 
identifies, in his useful Catalogue of Portraits in the possession of 'Pembroke College, 



304 BENEFACTORS : FRANCIS WIGHTWICK ; SMYTH. 



which came into the possession of the College from Wombridge, is 
a Wightwick or Rudge family group by Phillips, Hogarthian in style. It 
hung in a small farm-house close to Wombridge House till the memory 
of the present tenant of Beenham's, and was used by the farmer's 
children as a target for their bows and arrows. These pictures, the 
plate, and some legal books, now in the College Library, were heir- 
looms of Wombridge. The Francis Wightwick foundation is now 
merged in the Corporate Fund. 

Dr. John Smyth, who succeeded Dr. Sergrove as Master, April 28, 
1796, by will dated Oct. 16, 1809, after certain legacies, left the 
reversion, after the death of three persons, of the residue of his 
personal estate to his successor or successors in trust to purchase one 
or more advowsons for the benefit of such Fellow or Fellows to whose 
foundation there should not be any benefice appropriated. Brink- 
worth, Wilts (where Penn had property), was acquired in 1831 from 
Lord Holland for £5,600. In 1871 there remained in hand £3,683 
14^. 6d. Government stock. About Dr. Smyth there is a story that 
his real name was Cromwell, but that owing to the odium attaching to 
the name he changed it. There was considerable mystery about his 
birth, and he himself was for a long time in ignorance of his own 
parentage. The truth is however (as appears from papers in the 
possession of the College) that he bore his mother's name, and that his 
father was John Revett, Esq., of Kensington, an officer in the Guards. 
His father's sister, Mary Revett or Rivett, was married to a great- 
grandson of Oliver Cromwell, Colonel Charles Russell, of Checkers, 
grandson of Sir John Russell, Bart., by his union with Frances 
Cromwell. Dr. Smyth was at one time a naval chaplain. In days 
when the world was larger than it is now, he was distinguished among 
Heads of Houses by having been a traveller. The late Mr. G. V. 
Cox records in his Recollections (1868) that ' Dr. Smith was said to 
have exercised so largely what is called the " traveller's privilege " in 
relating and embellishing the stories of his travels as to have gained 
the sobriquet of " Sinbad the Sailor." ' He entered Pembroke from 
Abingdon Nov. 13, 1761, aged 17; B.A. 1765; M.A. 1769; B.D. 
and D.D. 1796. Besides the prebendal stall at Gloucester, he held 
the rectories of St. Aldate's (1789), Coin Rogers (1799), Radford 
(1801), and Fairford (1804), and was perpetual curate of Eastleach 

the third quartering on this picture. The arms are : Quarterly, 1st, az., on a 
chevron, arg., betw. 3 pheons, or, as many crosses patee, gu. (for Wightwick) ; 
2nd, arg., 3 boars' heads, sa., a chief of the last engrailed (for Jenkes) ; 3rd, a garb 
or, betw. 3 bezants (for Grosvenor) ; 4th, as the 1st (for Wightwick) ; see Pedigree. 



BENEFACTORS : SHEPPARD ; CLEOBUREY. 305 



Turville (1799). Dr Smyth died Oct. 19, 1809. His portrait in the Hall , 
by H. Howard, R.A., is said to have been painted from Dighton's carica- 
ture. It was bought in 181 1 ' out of Tesdale and Wightwick funds.' 

Mrs. Sophia Sheppard, widow of the Rev. Thos. Sheppard, D.D. (of 
Amport,Southants, sometime Fellow of Magdalen), a sister of Dr. Martin 
Routh, gave, May 7, 1846, £12,000 three per cent. Bank Annuities, for 
two Fellows, to study law or medicine, and not bound to residence. 
The foundress was to nominate the first two Fellows. Afterwards they 
were to be elected by the Master, the Vicegerent, and the four senior 
Fellows present. Marriage, or an estate of £500 a year in land, was 
to vacate the fellowship. In an address of thanks to Mrs. Sheppard 
the Master and Fellows say : ' Destined by its Royal Founder to 
promote the study of law and medicine as well as that of Theology 
and so to nurture men qualified to serve God in Church and State 
alike, Pembroke College has owing to the character of its foundations 
become almost exclusively a seminary for ecclesiastics. Your endow- 
ment, conceived in the spirit of wisdom and liberality, promises to 
restore to it the lustre which it derived in former days from the names 
of Sir Thomas Browne and Lord Chancellor Harcourt, Sir William 
Blackstone and Dr. Beddoes.' They ask the favour that her portrait 
may be placed in the Hall. The reply of the aged lady — she was above 
eighty years of age — is an admirable specimen of the old high-bred 
courtly and delicate style of composition. In it she says : ' The first 
idea of endowing Lay Fellowships and offering them to Pembroke 
College arose from hearing that a young man must take Holy Orders 
or lose his Fellowship after a very short period.' Mrs. Sheppard's 
only nominee was a nephew, Mr. Martin Routh. 

The Rev. Christopher Cleoburey, M.A. (son of the Rev. John 
Cleoburey, of St. Helen's, Abingdon), Rector of Liddiard Millicent, 
Wilts, and many years Fellow (1820-56), by will dated Dec. 3, 1855, 
after certain private bequests, gave in reversion after his wife's death 
£1,000 three per cent. Bank Annuities towards the purchase, when 
opportunity should offer, of the Wolsey Almshouse ; £300 for making 
a niche over the entrance gateway of the College, and placing therein 
a statue of King James 1 1 ; and, as a further proof of gratitude to 
Pembroke College, he gave £4,300 Government Stock, £400 thereof 
to purchase books for prizes to members of the College who should be 
placed in the first class ' in Literis Humanioribus ' or ' in Disciplinis 
Mathematicis et Physicis,' the residue for the founding of one Scholar- 

1 It has actually been placed in the vacant niche in the Hall tower. 



306 HENNEY FOUNDATION ; DOROTHEA W1GHTW1CK. 



ship, open without restriction to persons of under nineteen years, the 
election to take place on April 22, the Founder's birthday. The 
' Cleoburey Scholar' is to receive in money £100 per annum and 
the remaining dividends of £3,900 in books. Accumulations may be 
applied to augment these sums to £130 and £30, or to rewarding 
meritorious but unsuccessful candidates. By a codicil, dated Aug. 10, 
1857, the testator gave to the College, in the same reversion, the 
entire residue of his personal estate, for the renovation or rebuilding of 
any parts of the College, or in making additions thereto by the acqui- 
sition of the Almshouse or otherwise, or else in purchasing and 
removing the houses on the north side of St. Aldate's Church, 
and laying the site of them into the churchyard. Mr. Cleoburey died 
Oct. 29, 1863, and on the death of his wife in 1882 the bequests fell 
to the College — in all £12,800. £6,000 of this was applied towards 
the purchase (for £10,000 and the fixtures £1,000) of the Almshouse. 
The testator £ trusted to the good faith of the Master and Fellows to 
carry out ' his intentions. He had built the glebe-house at Liddiard 
Millicent 1 chiefly through a ' desire to benefit his beloved College/ 

Certain relatives and friends of the Rev. Thomas Frederick Henney, 
M.A., Fellow and Tutor, who died in 1859, to testify to his services 
and do honour to his memory, subscribed a sum of money to found 
a Scholarship, to be called the Henney Scholarship, subject to such 
conditions and regulations as the College shall from time to time 
determine. Its annual value is, at present, £90. The first Henney 
Scholar (1863) was William Ballyman Hull, long Chairman of the 
Norwich School Board. John Harrower, Professor of Greek at 
Aberdeen University, and Albert Earnshaw, Fellow of Durham, 
were later Scholars on this foundation. 

Mrs. Dorothea Wightwick (third daughter of Richard Fryer, Esq., 
M.P., of the Wergs, Staffordshire), who married, in 1829, Stubbs 
Wightwick, Esq., J.P. and D.L., of Great Bloxwich, Staffs., and Capel 
Court, Cheltenham, gave, May 16, 1889, £5,000 to support at least 
two Scholars. Their stipend has been limited to £90. Preference is 
to be given to descendants of Mary Morson or of Susanna Thacker, 
sisters of the foundress, and in the second degree to candidates from 
Cheltenham Proprietary College. The College was empowered to 

1 In the old Manor House the tragical suicide of a love-sick clergyman took 
place in 1764. There was till recently a 'priest's hole' behind the altar of the 
chapel. The Clintons, out of whom came the ducal house of Newcastle, occupied 
the place from 1 105 to 1421. 



JOHNSON ON COLLEGE BENEFACTIONS. 307 



frame bye-laws regulating duration of tenure, condition of celibacy, 
and the like, and has excluded married persons, persons over twenty- 
five, and members of the University of more than two terms' standing. 
A Scholarship is tenable for two years, renewable for two years more, 
and, in a special case, for a fifth year. Scholars must attend Chapel, 
unless extra ecclesiam Anglicanam. 

Two characteristic pastels of Mr. Stubbs Wightwick came to the 
College at the same time, one by Richard Dighton, of Cheltenham, the 
other (dated 1833) by Albert Burt, of Southampton. 

Contributors to the erection of the various College buildings have 
been, or will be, mentioned in their place. 



NOTE. 

In connexion with the subject of Pembroke Benefactors a conversation 
which took place in 1778 between Johnson and an old fellow collegian, 
Oliver Edwards may be recalled here. Boswell describes their meeting 
in London after fifty years as 4 one of the most curious incidents in 
Johnson's life.' Mr. Edwards, a decent-looking elderly man in grey 
clothes and a very curly wig, accosted Johnson one day in Butcher-Row 
with familiar confidence. Johnson remembered him with pleasure and 
astonishment. However, when Edwards said, ' Ah, sir ! we are old men 
now,' he replied hastily, ' Don't let us discourage one another.' He asked 
Edwards if he remembered their drinking together at an ale-house 2 near 
Pembroke-gate, and exchanging Latin verses over their mugs. At this 
point Edwards made a remark which Burke and Reynolds pronounced 
an exquisite trait of character : — ' You are a philosopher, Dr. Johnson. 
I have tried too in my time to be a philosopher ; but, I don't know how, 
cheerfulness was always breaking in.' Edwards wished he had con- 
tinued at College, been ordained and retired, 4 like Bloxham 3 and several 
others,' to a comfortable cure. But Johnson held that the life of a parish 
priest is not easy. His parishioners are a larger family than he is able 
to maintain. 4 I would rather have chancery suits upon my hands than 
the cure of souls.' They clubbed Pembroke memories, and Edwards 
mentioned a gentleman who had left his whole fortune to the College 4 . 
Johnson : 4 Whether to leave one's whole fortune to a college be right 
must depend upon circumstances. I would leave the interest of the 
fortune I bequeathed to a college to my relations or my friends for their 

1 Entered June 25, 1729. Johnson had not seen him since 1729. This helps to 
prove that Johnson was not resident after that year. 

2 There is an old inn just opposite the gateway called ' Leden Hall ' and one at 
the end of Pembroke Street called ' The Horse and Chair.' Probably it was the 
former. 

3 Matthew Bloxam, matr. March, 26, 1729 ; from Warwickshire. 

4 The Rev. James Phipps, whose bequest fell to the College in this year. 

X 2 



3 o8 



I?ES AN GUST A ACADEM1AE. 



lives. It is the same thing to a college, which is a permanent society, 
whether it gets the money now or twenty years hence.' On another 
occasion he said : ' Sir, the English Universities are not rich enough. 
Our fellowships are only sufficient to support a man during his studies to 
fit him for the world, and accordingly in general they are held no longer 
than till an opportunity offers of getting away. Now and then, perhaps, 
there is a fellow who gets old in his college ; but this is against his will, 
unless he be a man very indolent indeed. A hundred a year is reckoned 
a good fellowship ; and that is no more than is necessary to keep a man 
decently as a scholar. . . . Our Universities are impoverished of learning 
by the penury of their provisions.' 



CHAPTER XXIII. 



THE LATER STUART PERIOD. 

On the death of Parker, the papalist bishop of Oxford, in 1688, 
'one Hall, a Conformist in London, who was looked on as half a 
Presbyterian, yet because he read the Declaration, was made Bishop ' 
{Burnet). This was Timothy Hall, son of a wood-turner who owned 
some houses in the parish of St. Catherine by the Tower, where 
Timothy was born. He entered Pembroke Dec. 12, 1654, aged 17, 
and was 'trained up there under a Presbyterian discipline (which 
caused him ever after to be a Trimmer) V Cheseman was his tutor. 
B.A. Jan. 15, 1658. 

Ejected in 1662 from the parsonages of Norwood and of Southam, 
Hall thought it better to conform, and became rector of Horsenden, 1668, 
perpetual curate of Prince's Risborough, 1669-77, vicar of Bledlow, 
1674-7, and rector of Allhallows Stayning, 1677. He was curate of 
Hackney in 1685, and lecturer there in 1688. When James II ordered, 
in April, 1688, the Declaration of Liberty of Conscience to be read in 
every church, Hall was one of the handful of London clergy who com- 
plied, ' or at least gave half a Crown to another (the Parish Clerk I think) 
to do it.' His nomination to the vacant see of Oxford, followed by 
a mandatory letter for his creation to be Doctor of Divinity, caused the 
deepest resentment. He was consecrated privately at Lambeth, Oct. 7, 
1688. When however he arrived ' to take possession of his house at 
Cudesden, the Dean and Canons of Ch. Ch. refused to install him, the 
gentry to meet or congratulate him, the Vicech. and Heads to take 
notice of him, or any Master or Bachelaur to make application to, 
or take holy Orders from him.' At the next Trinity Embertide there 
were eighty-four to be ordained. ' Timothy Bishop of Oxon was then, 
as 'tis said, in Oxon, lodged at Dr. Lashers' 2, house in Pennyfarthing 
Street, and deputed [Baptist Levintz], bishop of Man, to perform the 
ceremony in Magdalen Chapel. On Jan. 17, sixteen days before the 
last day of grace, Bishop Hall took the oath of allegiance to William and 
Mary.' < This M r . Hall, called by some Doctor, by others Sir, Hall, 
died miserably poor at [Homerton in] Hackney near London] April 10, 

1 Athenae, ii. 685. 

2 Joshua Lasher, M.D., St. John's. Buried in St. Aldate's. 



3 io 



HAUTE THE NONJUROR. 



1690 1 . He was succeeded in the bishoprick by Dr. Hough. Wood 
mentions two printed sermons of Hall's, one at the funeral of Robert 
Huntingdon, the anti-Olivarian parliamentarian, in 1685. Lysons mis- 
takenly calls Hall 1 a Roman Catholic' 

Robert Grove, who entered Feb. 22, 165^, is probably identified 
in the Alumni Oxonienses with Robert Grove, Bishop of Chichester 
(1634-96), who took part in drawing up the Petition of May, 1688, 
against James ITs Declaration for Liberty of Conscience. The Bishop 
(who graduated from Cambridge) is better remembered as an elegant 
scholar. He lies in his cathedral. 

Walter Harte, the nonjuror — father of Pope's friend, the bio- 
grapher of Gustavus Adolphus, to whose pupil, Philip Stanhope, the 
Chesterfield Letters were addressed — was a Tesdale fellow of Pembroke 
from 1674. His father was Edward Harte, innholder of Abingdon. 
Walter matriculated Dec. 6, 1667, as a scholar (1667-1674), M.A. 
1674, incorporated at Cambridge 1676. There is a picture of him, 
painted byZelmanin 1685, engraved by Hibbart in 1767, and a small 
head-piece in the Amaranth. 

Harte was Vicar of St. Mary Magdalen's, Taunton, at the time of the 
Bloody Assize, and deemed it his duty in that capacity to wait on Judge 
Jefferies 2 in private and remonstrate with him on his severities against 
the rebels. Jefferies, who knew a man when he saw him, listened without 
disrespect to the courageous priest's admonitions, and, very much to his 
credit, when a prebendal stall at Bristol was vacant a few months after, 
suggested Harte's name for the preferment. He was also advanced to 
a canonry of Wells 3 . At the Revolution he refused to take the oaths to 
William and Mary, and on Feb. 1, 169^, was deprived of all his prefer- 
ments, retiring to Chipping Norton and to Kentbury, Bucks. Here this 
stout old man died, Feb. 10, 173!, at tne age of eighty- five. Queen Anne, 
at the instigation of Sir Simon Harcourt, of the same college, afterwards 
Lord Chancellor, had offered M 1 *. Harte a bishoprick, but he declined it. 
The successive occupants, however, of the see of Bath and Wells, 
Drs. Kidder, Hooper and Wynne, so respected his piety and learning 
that they contrived he should receive the profits of his stall at Wells till 
his death. Walter Harte the son records that he was a most laborious 
student all his life. 

Addison's tutor, while his father was a prebendary of Sarum, was 
a Rev. Mr. Naish. Mr. Macray thinks this is perhaps Thomas Naish, 

1 The parish register says, ' The Right Reverend Father in God Timothy late 
Lord Bishop of Oxford dyed the 9 th and was buried the 13 th of April, 1690' 

{Lysons). 

2 The College very nearly had Lord Jefferies — a better lawyer than judge — for 
its Visitor. 

3 Mr. Foster however {Alumni) dates these preferments 1684. 



SIR THOMAS COOKES. 



who entered Pembroke in 1684 (son of Thomas of New Sarum), 
afterwards Sub-dean of Salisbury and Master of St. John's Hospital at 
Wilton \ 

I may here mention, as adherents to the exiled King, Francis 
Wolferston, a lawyer, 'the stiffest of nonjurors' (entered 1657), and 
William Sclater, Vicar of Brampford Speke (entered 1659). Also 
Nathaniel Sacheverell (1687), uncle of the famous High Church 
champion. Hearne notes under Aug. 31, 17 n, 'Dr. (or Mr.) 
Kymberley, Chaplain to y e L d Keeper, is made Prebendary of West- 
minster.' This was Jonathan Kimberley (1667). He had been 
chaplain to Charles II and canon of Lichfield. Queen Anne further 
gave him the Deanery of Lichfield. 

The founder of Worcester College, Sir Thomas Cookes 2 , entered 
Pembroke June 7, 1667, aged 17. His father was Sir William, first 
baronet, of Northgrove Manor, Feckenham, Worcestershire. 

Sir Thomas was born at Bentley Pauncefot, in the parish of Tardebigg. 
He was a liberal patron of Bromsgrove Grammar School, and also 
endowed the school at Feckenham. Here in 1699 John Baron, fellow of 
Balliol, preached a sermon before him in the hope of diverting a great 
expected bounty to that College. In his will, dated three years before, 
Sir Thomas gave to the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishops of 
Oxford, Lichfield, and Gloucester, the Vice-Chancellor, and all the Heads 
of colleges and halls in the University of Oxford, the sum of ,£10,000 to 
purchase lands, the profits of which were either to build an ornamental 
pile of buildings in Oxford, and endow the same with so many scholars' 
places and fellowships as they should think the revenue would maintain, 
or to endow such other College or Hall in Oxford with such and so many 
fellowships and scholars' places as they should think fit, preference being 
given to persons educated at Bromsgrove or Feckenham. He had 
originally intended with the ,£10,000 to build a workhouse in his 
own county. The hopes and fears of the different rivals in Oxford for 
Cookes's benefaction are recorded by the Rev. C. H. O. Daniel in 
Mr. Clark's Colleges of Oxford. It fell finally to the defunct Gloucester 
Hall, within whose buildings a new College was founded, July 29, 17 14, 
two days before Queen Anne's death. The circumstances recall those of 
the foundation of Pembroke, though in the case of the latter there was 
unbroken continuity with the past. Sir Thomas Cookes died June 8, 1701. 

1 The Rev. E. H. Aston, rector of Codford St. Mary, has lent me a book of MS. 
sermons, in which Naish has transcribed a conversational account of the proceedings 
' against D r Huff in Magd: Colledge Hall Oxon.' This he may have got hold of 
through Addison. His MS. Diary was in the Phillipps Collection. 

3 Originally Cooksey; Walter de Kokesay was Sheriff of Worcestershire, 
19 Edw. II. I have heard the village people speak of Squire ' Cooksey.' This 
old and honourable family is nearly extinct. 



312 LORD CHANCELLOR HARCOURT. 

One of the original Fellows of Worcester was Dr. Samuel Creswicke, 
who entered Pembroke, Apr. 6, 1709, D.D. 1727. He was Chaplain to 
George II (1729), Dean of Bristol (1730), and Dean of Wells (1739). 
Ob. 1766. 

Simon Viscount Harcourt, Lord High Chancellor of England, 
belonged to an impoverished cadet branch of the great French house 
of Harcourt, descended from that Bernard, of the royal blood of 
Saxony, whom Rollo estated near Falaise. One of his grandfathers 
was the valiant Sir Simon Harcourt, the first to die for the King in 
Ireland ; the other was Sir William Waller, the parliamentary general, 
whose daughter, Anne, was taken in marriage by Sir Philip Harcourt. 
The latter's elder son, Simon, born at Stanton-Harcourt, was at school 
with Trevor and Harley, under a clergyman named Birch, at Shilton, 
near Burford, whence he proceeded to Pembroke March 30, 1677, 
aged 15. At this College, Campbell says, he 'was strengthened in 
his faith in the divine right of Kings ' — in spite of Bishop Hall. 1 At 
the same time he occupied himself diligently in classical studies, and 
he acquired a taste for poetry and polite literature which stuck by him 
through life.' He resided, writes Campbell, three or four years, £ but 
there is no entry in the Registers of any degree.' Mr. Foster how- 
ever gives it: 1 B.A. Jan. 21, 1678.' So also Wood : ' B. of Arts of 
Pembr. Coll.' When Queen Anne visited Oxford in 1702, Harcourt, 
then Solicitor-General, ' for having so strenuously advocated the 
orthodox doctrines of the High Church, both ecclesiastical and 
political, now received amidst tremendous applause the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Laws' (not LL.D. but D.C.L., Aug. 27, 1702). 
He was then re-admitted of Christ Church, being described as ' nuper 
Coll: Pembrok : ' 

Entered of the Inner Temple in 1683 (bencher 1702), he had been 
elected Recorder of Abingdon in 1690 1 , ' and had to act the Judge in the 
presence of the villagers among whom he gamboled as a boy ' (Campbell) ; 
Member (1690-1702). In and out of Parliament by his wit, eloquence and 
legal ability he quickly acquired an ascendency. He delivered powerful 
speeches against the bill attainting Sir John Fenwick, and even refused 
to subscribe the Association of the Commons on the discovery of the 
assassination plot. Harcourt had in 1701 the conduct of the impeach- 
ment of Lord Chancellor Somers. On Anne's accession Harcourt was 
knighted and made Solicitor-General, being recognized as the greatest of 
the Tory lawyers. The bill for the Union with the Kingdom of Scotland 

1 But Wood speaks as though Harcourt was Recorder before this, and was 
ousted in 1687 by Richard Medlicot. He adds later, ' Harcourt in againe' {Life 
and Times, iii. 264). 



LORD CHANCELLOR HARCOURT. 313 



was drawn by him ; and in such a manner as to prevent parliamentary 
discussion of the points on which the Commissioners had agreed. In 
1703 he prosecuted Defoe for a blasphemous libel, viz. The Shortest Way 
with Dissenters. While the author of Robinson Crusoe was in the pillory, 
the mob drank his health, crowned and pelted him with roses, and cursed 
Harcourt. Whig writers however allow him to have been untainted by 
corruption. He was made Attorney-General, Apr. 23, 1707, but resigned 
on Feb. 12 following, on the formation of a Whig ministry, 'and singular 
as it may be/ writes Campbell, 'by a voluntary surrender enrolled in 
court. This act is unprecedented.' The Queen however recalled him 
in 1 7 10, and made him Lord Keeper. In that year, in spite of growing 
blindness (for which he was at this time couched), he was the leading 
counsel on the high-church side at Sacheverell's trial. He had sate for 
Bossiney in Cornwall 1705-8, for Abingdon again in 1708, but was unseated 
by a partisan vote of the Commons, a system he had himself encouraged. 
The Duke of Marlborough also removed him from being steward of 
Woodstock Manor. He was elected however for Cardigan in 1710, and 
again in that year for Abingdon. The Queen created him Baron 
Harcourt, of Stanton-Harcourt, Sept. 3, 171 1. As such he negotiated 
the Treaty of Utrecht. In Swift's Journal to Stella he writes under 
April 7, 1 713 : 'My Lord Keeper Harcourt was this night made Lord 
Chancellor.' Noble says unaccountably that he presided in the Lords for 
nearly a year without a peerage. That has frequently happened, but 
Harcourt was already a baron. As Chancellor he refused to issue a writ 
of summons to the Elector of Hanover. The hopes of the Jacobites 
hung on Anne's life ; her sudden death found them unready. The Elector, 
however, ' Lord Harcourt being as eminent a person as ever adorned the 
high station he filled, prudently made him one of the Lords Justices till 
his arrival in England,' Sept. 20, 1714 ; and, though Harcourt was then 
made to give up the Great Seal, he turned cat-in-pan sufficiently to be 
created in 1721 a Viscount and a Lord in Regency, and to have his 
pension doubled. His friend Swift was disgusted : — 

' Come, trimming Harcourt, bring your mace, 
And squeeze it in or quit your place.' 

In 1 717 he procured Lord Oxford's acquittal. 

Campbell thinks that Harcourt preserved his consistency, and Noble 
says that 'he preserved his reputation unsullied till his death.' This 
occurred July 27, 1727, in Cavendish Square. He had been struck 
with paralysis while visiting Walpole, with whom he was now intimate. 
He is buried at Stanton-Harcourt, which his family have owned since the 
seventeenth century. He acquired the Nunenham-Courtenay estate in 
1 7 10. 

At Cokethorpe, near Stanton-Harcourt, the Queen paid him a State 
visit. He had given up his own house to Pope. Harcourt and Gay were 
Pope's only visitors there, and there they witnessed together the tragical 
fate of John Hewet and Sarah Drewe. On a pane of glass in Pope's 
Study is inscribed : — * In the year 1718 Alexander Pope finished here the 
fifth volume of Homer.' 



3 r 4 



HARCOURT ; COLLIER. 



Harcourt wrote a poetical address to Pope, prefixed to the latter's 
works. He also erected a cenotaph in Westminster Abbey, with an 
inscription by Atterbury, to the poet John Philipps. Swift called him 
'a great man,' before he joined the Trimmers. In truth Harcourt was 
the most powerful and skilful orator of his day, but not a great judge. 
There are two portraits of him at Nunenham by Kneller, one in the hall 
of the Inner Temple, a fine picture at Abingdon, and one hangs in 
Pembroke College Hall. These give the impression of an amiable and 
polished as well as noble-looking man. Lord Harcourt was thrice 
married, once clandestinely to the daughter of his father's chaplain. The 
title became extinct in 1830. 

Thomas Sowtherne, who entered Pembroke as a servitor Nov. 28, 
1679, from Stratford-on-Avon (B.A. 1683), is identified in the 
Alumni with the Royalist soldier-poet whose plays, in the golden pre- 
Grub-street times, drew down Fortune's affluent horn into his lap. 
This identification is as old as the dramatist's own lifetime, for he 
wrote to Dr. R. Rawlinson to say that he never was at Oxford. Gildon 
also affirms that he was sent from Stratford to ' Pembroke Hall, Oxford/ 
but it seems beyond doubt that the author of the Spartan Dame was 
born in 1660 at Dublin, and there educated. The two Thomas 
Sowthernes were thus almost exactly contemporary. 

The most notable Pembroke writer of the end of the seventeenth 
century was Arthur Collier, the metaphysician, who anticipated 
Berkeley's Idealism. He succeeded his father, grandfather, and great- 
grandfather in the Rectory of Steeple Langford, near Wilton, where 
he was born. Sir Richard Hoare says 1 : — 

' On the South side of the altar is a curious monumental effigy of 
a priest with a book in his hand and the following inscription : 

'The effigies of the Rev. M r . Joseph Collier, who was instituted 
Rector of this parish in y e beginning of the last century, viz. An'o D'ni 
1608, and was burried in 1635. 

' He was succeeded by his sone Henry, who, in the time of the rebellion, 
was sequestered from the parsonage 15 years, and retook possession on 
y e 18th of Sept. 1660, and dyed in March 1670. Arthur, his youngest son, 
succeeded him, and dyed in Sept. 1696. He was succeeded by Arthur, 
his eldest son, and the fourth of this family who was Rector of this 
parish. 

' Margaret, relict of y e last-named Arthur Collier, ordered this inscrip- 
tion to be placed here, and also that over the grave-stone of the said 
Arthur, on the first of July, 1734, in testimony of her affectionate regard.' 

On the south chancel wall is a marble tablet inscribed : — 
' In memory of the Rev. M r . Arthur Collier, Rector of this parish, 
who was Born Oct. 18, 1680. He married Margaret, daughter of Nicholas 

1 History of Wiltshire, Hundred of Branch and Dole, pp. 12-14. 



COLLIER THE METAPHYSICIAN. 315 



Johnson, Esq re ., by whom he left Issue two sons, Arthur and Charles, and 
two Daughters, Jane and Margaret. He was buried 9 Sept. 1732.' 

The shield on it exhibits— Quarterly, 1st and 4th, a cross patty fitchy, 
for Collier ; 2nd and 3rd, a chevron between two cinque-foils in chief and 
a flower de luce in base ; impaling five fusils conjoined in fess between 
three wolves' heads erased. No tinctures are shown. In the floor close by 
is a plain stone, dated July I, 1734, where husband and wife lie. 

Giles Collier, clothier of Bristol, was patron when Joseph Collier was 
presented to Langford. The latter's three-quarter effigy, in Hoare's 
book, occupies a marble triptych covered with skulls, skeletons, and 
odd bones. There now only remains (on the north side of the altar) the 
effigy in a mean modern niche. His grandson, Arthur Collier, father 
of the philosopher, had been one of eleven children turned out of the 
parsonage with their mother into the deep snow, after Henry Collier's 
flight from parliamentarian violence. The parents, reduced to beggary, 
brought up the children to mean trades, except Arthur, the youngest, 
who was sent by friends to wear the gown at Winchester and afterwards 
at Pembroke. He married Anne daughter of Thomas and Joan Currey 
of Misterton, and died, according to a separate inscription in Langford 
Church, Dec. 9, 1697. The date of his eminent son's birth is given in 
the register as Oct. 12, not 18: — 'Arthur y e Son of Arthur and Anne 
Collier was borne October 12, q r . before five of the clock in Morning, 
and Baptiz'd Novemb. 4: 1680.' 

His uncles Henry and Joseph were transported to Jamaica, and sold as 
slaves, for their share in Penruddocke's rising against the Cromwellian 
Government. He himself entered Pembroke July 1697, migrating to 
Balliol Oct. 22, 1698, and later to Wadham. He did not therefore at 
once succeed his father at Steeple Langford, as the monument seems to 
suggest, two other rectors intervening. He was instituted in 1704. The 
year before, at the age of twenty-three, Collier had completed his ' Clavis 
Universalis, or a New Inquiry after Truth, being a Demonstration of the 
non-existence or Impossibility of an external World,' but it was not 
published till 171 3. Meanwhile, in 1709, Berkeley's Theory of Vision 
appeared. The Bishop's work is far superior in literary grace, and the 
Clavis was not improved in respect of style by translation into German 
by Eschenbach in 1756. It did not win its author immediate fame. He 
corresponded, however, on philosophical subjects with Warburton, Hare, 
Whiston, and Courayer. In the Dictionary of National Biography 
Collier is described as ' an original and ingenious disputant, sympathizing 
with the high- church party in which he had been educated, but led by 
his peculiar turn of mind across the limits of orthodoxy,' inclining to 
Apollinarian views. In 17 19 he wrote letters to the Jacobite Mist's 
Journal, assailing Hoadley's affirmation of the innocence of 'sincere' 
errors. ' His theological writings are a curious parallel to Berkeley's 
Siris, showing the same tendency to a mystical application of his meta- 
physics but working out his theories in a more technical and scholastic 
fashion.' His papers were discovered in this century in a house at 
Salisbury, and Benson's Memoir is based on them. The MS. Commentary 



3 i6 



A FATHER'S ADVICE. 



on the LXX, however, had been burnt by a housemaid. Collier was 
always in debt, and had domestic troubles. His brother William, Rector 
of Baverstock, Wilts, 1713, had shared his tastes, combining horse-racing, 
however, with metaphysics. Norris the Platonist was a near neighbour 
at Bemerton Rectory. Collier's daughter, Margaret, accompanied 
Fielding on his voyage to Lisbon. 

The following letter from a father 1 to his son, a fellow-commoner 
of the College, temp. James II, gives a picture of another class of 
undergraduate. The writer, John Collins, of Betterton, Berks, 
(matriculated March 18, 165I ; B.A. 1661), was grandson of Elizabeth 
Dewe, granddaughter of Tesdale's uncle and guardian, Richard. 

' Charles — I am sorry to hear you should have soe little discretion to 
run yourself into such danger as to goe to Abingdon & especially at such 
a time. I shall say nothing of your behaviour there but advise you to leave 
off such frolicks : you wrote to me y* it would be unhandsome for one of 
your quality not to have money in y r pockett, I should account myself 
indiscreet to enter you a gentleman & not to maintain you there accordingly, 
but let me advise you in this according to the proverb to cut your coat 
according to y r cloth, t'is true you are placed in the same rank with gent: 
but you might know y* there is a great difference in the estates of Gent: 
there be some tis probable that you may be in company with that have 
ten times more estate than I have or ever you will have, & therefore must 
not think to spend with them & truly I must stretch hard to maintain you 
in this quality & therefore be as frugall & discreet as you can, & come as 
seldom amongst them as you can possibly come off with creditt, & by 
God's blessing you shall not want to maintain you in your equipage with 
good husbandry & following your study will prevent the spending of money 
besides the advantage y t will accrue to you during y r life, I received 
a letter from a Gent last week which was of y r quality & newly come from 
Oxon in which was scarce a word of ortography but I hope better things 
of you I have here enclosed sent you my coat of arms wch you may place 
up in your study & because you may be able to blazon it which many 
cannott, which seems ridiculous, & because I suppose you have but little 
skill in it I will do it wch is Vert a Gryphon passant or a chief Ermin. 
The crest is a Gryphon head erased vert crowned or & because there is 
to many arms there is a misticall meaning I will likewise declare it to you 
once for all & I desire you not to forget it. The field vert signifies 
husbandry the Gryphon in Authors is an emblem of watchfulness, his 
being passant signifys diligence & industry, the colour or denotes riches 
the chief ermine sygnifys honour in chief— which put together resolves 
into this that by diligence & industry in our calling we attain to riches the 
foundation & way to honour where note the Gryphon is not rampant, as 

1 A copy of this letter is lent me, together with the Accompts of a later descendant 
(vide infra), by Sir Robert H. Collins, K.C.B., Comptroller of H.R.H. the Duchess 
of Albany's Household, who married Miss Mary Wightwick, of the other 
Founder's kindred. 



SOME LAWYERS AND PARLIAMENT-MEN. 



317 



whereby a man should attain to riches & honour by rapacity and ambition 
but by honesty & humility all which is aptly expressed in this motto " Per 
callem collem" such motto belonging to arms not only expressing the 
mystery of them but alluding to the names of the person who bears them 
soe one D l * Collins a famous Cambridge man took for his motto " colens 
Deum et regem " now look into your Roman history & there you shall find 
a great & noble family of the Collini which took their name a porta 
Collina & the gate so called which led in collem, soe that as I said before 
this motto per callem collem takes in the mystery of the coat as much as 
to say per virtutis callem honoris collem asce?idimns^ which that you may 
attain to live virtuously att the beginning y* you may gain reputation 
hereafter or rather that you may pray to God to give you sanctified 
virtues here which is grace y* you may attain everlasting glory is not only 



Among lawyers educated at Pembroke about this time were Richard 
Brydges (1693), treasurer of Lincoln's Inn 1740; John Marsh 
(1700), treasurer of the Middle Temple 1747 ; and Pollexfen Drake 
(171 1, son of Sir Francis Drake, M.P.), commissioner of appeals in 
Excise. 

Some members of Parliament were Sir James Houbelon (City of 
London 1698); John Hanbury (Gloucester 1701, Monmouthshire 
1720); Wharton Dunch (Appleby 1700, Richmond 1705); Sir 
Richard Newman. Bart. (Milborne Port 1700); his grandfather, 
Richard Newman (entered 1635), High Steward of Westminster, was 
imprisoned by Cromwell; Samuel Lowe (? Aldeburgh 1718); John 
Neale (Wycombe 1722, Coventry 1722, 1727, 1737); Emanuel 
Pigot (Cork City 1735-60). 

Bishop Hall was succeeded in the Mastership by Colwell 
Brickenden or Brickenton, elected Scholar (kin to Tesdale) Aug. 9, 
1680, aged 16, matriculated Dec. 10, B.A. 1685, M.A. 1687, B.D. and 
D.D. June 28, 1 7 10, Rector of Chawton, Hants, 1690, and of Inkepen, 

1 The writer, who married Anne Fettiplace of Earl's Court, was entitled to 
impale the arms of Portugal. Beatrice, daughter of King John the Great (d. 1432), 
after being wedded to Fitzalan Earl of Arundel and Gilbert Lord Talbot, had to 
her husband Sir Thomas Fettyplace (Sheriff of Berks and Oxon), of Childrey, an 
estate in the possession of his descendants now or till lately. The name became 
extinct in 1806. The son to whom John Collins writes entered Pembroke April 18, 
1684, aged eighteen. He was admitted of the Inner Temple 1685 ; J. P. for Berks. 
His younger brothers, Jonathan and Thomas, were Fellows of the College. He 
was thrice married: (1; to Anne Head of Odcott ; (2) to Elizabeth Coghill of 
Bletchington ; (3) to Anne White of Fryer's Court, co. Berks. 



the advice but the prayer of 



y r loving father Jo: Collins 
Imprimis venerare Deum.' 



May 7, 1682 (?) 



3i8 



AN ELECTION TO THE MASTERSHIP. 



Berks, 1703. His father was Richard 1 Brickenden, of Inkepen, 
Esquire. 

Hearne [Collections, ed. Doble, O.H.S., ii. 344 sq.) records : ' Feb. 15 
(Wed.), 17^. On Monday Morning last the Corps of the Bp of 
Bristoll (after it had layn in state several days) was convey'd from his 
Lodgings at Pembroke Coll. (where he died) to Bromesgrave in 
Worcestershire, in order to be buried in the Church there, at which 
Place he was born. This Morning at eight of the Clock came on the 
Election for a Master of Pembroke College. The two Candidates 
were Mr. Colwell Brickenden and Mr. Will. Hunt, both of them 
formerly Fellows, but at present Country Divines. The former took 
the Degree of Master of Arts in 1687, and the latter in 1696. Both 
of them have the Reputation of being honest Men, and endued with 
true Church of England Principles ; but then there is this Difference 
between them : Mr. Brickenden has seven Children, Mr. Hunt not 
above two or three ; Mr. Brickenden is an illiterate Person, Mr. Hunt 
is a man of Learning ; Mr. Brickenden is a boon Companion, or, as 
some style it, a Sot, Mr. Hunt is a Man of Sobriety & Discretion, 
and came recommended by the Letters of the Bp of Bathe and Wells, 
and divers Men of Figure, Learning, Temperance and Virtue. In refer- 
ence to this Election I must here note that Mr. Hunt had infallibly 
carried it had it not been for the Defection of one Mr. Mouldin, 
who has had hitherto the Character of a man of Honesty. This Mr. 
Mouldin had several times solemnly promis'd to serve Mr. Hunt when 

1 But in the Alumni 1 Colwell.' I make it out thus : — 
Brickendon, of Kent. 

Thomas, Chorister of Magdalen 1558, Fellow 1566-71. 
Rector of Inkepen 1572, of Boxford 1584. 

1 i 1 

Thomas, esqre. of Hox- John, D.D., matr. 1603, Erasmus, matr. New 

ton. Magd. 1601, aged 15. Fellow of Coll. 1608, aged 19. 

aged 16. Bencher Magd. 1607-19. Rec- Fellow 1615. 

(1627) and Treasurer tor of Inkepen 1618- 

(1650). 1645. 



Thomas, Richard, Fi'ancis, Richard, John, matr. Pemb. William, 

matr. Pemb. Univ. 1639. matr. Pemb. of Inkepen, 1638, aged 18. matr. Pemb. 

1630. 1639 esqre. Scholar 1649-151. 1650. 

Schol. 1648. B.A. 1646. ' M.A. 1656. 

Fellow. Bur. in St. 

Ob. 1666. Aldate's 1666. 



Thomas, Scholar of Colwell, 
Pemb. 1675, aged Scholar 1680. 

16. A student of Master 1709-14. 

Gray's Inn. 

Thomas, son of Edmund, Brickenden, Fellow of New College (expelled 1648) and Canon of 
Wells (1674-1700), was also from Berks. 



DR. BRICKENDEN ; THE GLOUCESTER CANONRY. 319 



a Vacancy of the Headship of Pembroke Coll. should happen, and 
'twas upon this Consideration that the Master of Balliol College (of 
w ch Coll. Mr. Hunt has an ingenious Brother Fellow) made a First 
Kinsman of his Cook of that College, telling Mr. Mouldin expressly at 
the same time that 'twas with Intent and expectation that he should 
appear for Mr. Hunt if he thought fit to stand for Master of Pembroke 
Coll. Mr. Mouldin gratefully acknowledg'd his Favour, and promis'd 
upon the Word of an honest Man that he would oblige the Master in 
his Request to the utmost of his Power, and that Nothing should draw 
him from giving his Vote for Mr. Hunt. But when the time of Tryal 
came, whether upon Prospect of the Rectory of St. Aldates in Oxon 
(w ch belongs to Pembroke Coll. & w cn Dr. Hall enjoy'd for several 
Years) or for sake of a Wife, or whether it was upon any other secular 
Interest, 'tis certain that a little before the Election he went over to 
Mr. Brickenden's party, and there being 13 Electors in all, 7 voted 
for Mr. Brickenden and 6 for Mr. Hunt l , who would have had 7 had 
not Mr. Mouldin most shamefully and scandalously broke his word, 
and deserted his Friends when 'twas expected he should have done 
a kindness and have shew'd himself to have a sense of graditude.' 

Brickenden's reign is notable for the annexation of a Gloucester 
canonry to the Mastership by Queen Anne, through the good offices 
of Lord Chancellor Harcourt. Dr. Brickenden did not live to enjoy 
the dignity, dying August 23, 1714. 



NOTE. 

Anno 12 Annae Stat. 2, Cap. 6 (June 8, 17 14). 

' And whereas her Majesty has been graciously pleased, by her letters 
patents under the great seal of Great Britain, bearing date at Westminster 
the eleventh day of November in the twelfth year of her reign, to in- 
corporate Collwell Brickenden, doctor in divinity, the Master of Pembroke 
College in the university of Oxford and his successors, masters of the 
same college, by the name stile and title of master of Pembroke College 
in the university of Oxford '; and did thereby grant to the said master and 
his successors, masters of the same college, for their better support and 

1 Dr. William Hunt, elected Tesdale Scholar Aug. 3, 1685 ; M.A. 1696 ; B.D. 
and D.D. 1718 ; rector of Chaff combe 1699 ; vicar of Chewton Mendip 1706; canon 
of Wells 1710; archdeacon of Bath 171 1 ; rector of Bath, SS. Peter and Paul, 
1712, and of Christian Malford, Wilts, 1730-3. His father was Stephen Hunt of 
Kingsclere, Hants. Dr. John Moulden, an Abingdonian, entered Nov. 12, 1692 ; 
B.D. and D.D. 1720; rector of St. Aldate's 1709, and there buried May 28, 1724. 
He was killed by a fall from his horse. 



320 



THE GLOUCESTER CANON RY. 



maintenance, that canonship or prebend in the cathedral church of the 
holy and undivided Trinity of Gloucester, which should first happen to be 
void, and in the gift of her Majesty her heirs and successors from and after 
the date of the said grant ; to have and to hold the said canonship or 
prebend, to the said Colwell Brickenden, master of the said college and his 
successors, masters of the same college, of her Majesty, her heirs and 
successors, in pure and perpetual alms, for and during his and their 
respective continuance in the said mastership ; and did thereby likewise 
unite such canonship or prebend, as aforesaid, to the said corporation for 
ever [here follows the recital of a similar grant of a Rochester prebend to 
the provosts of Oriel and a Norwich canonry to the masters of Catherine 
Hall in Cambridge], Be it therefore enacted by the Queen's most 
excellent majesty etc., That the said several and respective recited letters 
patents and all and singular the clauses articles and things therein respec- 
tively contained shall be and are hereby ratified and confirmed, and the 
said several and respective canonships or prebends shall be, from time to 
time, for ever, held and enjoyed, according to the true intent and meaning 
of the several and respective letters patents aforesaid.' 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

GEORGE THE FIRST'S REIGN — JOURNAL OF A 
GENTLEMAN-COMMONER. 

Dr. Matthew Panting, the next Master, was elected Sept. 3, 17 14. 
A fortnight earlier he was instituted to the Rectory of St. Ebbe's. He 
matriculated Nov. 5, 1698, aged 15 (son of Matthew, of Oxford) ; B.A. 
1702; M.A. and Fellow 1705 ; B.D. and D.D. 171 5; Rector of Coin 
Rogers 1718; died Feb. 12, 173$, and was buried in St. Aldate's, 
where there was formerly an inscription to his memory ' on a pillar 
facing the lower south door.' Johnson admired him as 'a fine 
Jacobite fellow.' Panting gave Whitefield the servitor's place which 
brought him to the College, and though he spoke sternly to him 
he does not appear to have gone beyond his duty. Hearne styles 
him ' an honest gent,' and says : ' He had to preach the sermon at 
S. Mary's on the day on which George Duke and Elector of Brunswick 
usurped the English throne ; but his sermon took no notice, at most 
very little, of the Duke of Brunswick V This was a few weeks before 
his election as Master. 

Dr. Panting's mastership is notable for the building of the Chapel. 
His son, Matthew, was Fellow of All Souls. In one of the buttery books 
is scrawled by the Bible Clerk ' Pretty Miss Pant.' The St. Aldate's 
registers contain the names of several of his children. 

The first alumnus of note at the beginning of the Hanoverian 
period was Philip Morant (i 700-1 770). This learned antiquary, the 
second son of Stephen Morant 2 by his wife Mary Filleul, was born at 
St. Saviour's, Jersey, Oct. 6, 1770. 

1 The Terrae Filius of 1 721 complains that ' if you were to turn out one Jacobite 
H — d of a college, another as bad is ready to step in his room.' In 1733, after 
the rejection of the Excise Bill, town and gown drank the healths of James the 
Third, Ormonde, and Bolingbroke, round bonfires amid boisterous revelry. Charles 
Wesley writes in 1734, ' My brother [John] has been much mauled and threatened 
more for his Jacobite sermon on the 16th of June.' The Government showed 
considerable forbearance. Still, as the high churchmen had no deaneries or sees 
to look forward to, it was fair they should have their fling. 

2 The Morant arms {temp. Edw. Ill) are in the east window of Warehorne 
Church, Kent, viz. gules, on a chevron, arg., three talbots passant sable. 

Y 



i 



322 



MORANT. 



Philip passed from the tuition of the Rev. Thomas Woods at 
Abingdon School — where is preserved a copy of the Be Oratore, 
given to the Library by ' Mr. Mourant, a former scholar ' — lo 
Pembroke, Dec. 17, 1717. B.A. June 10, 172 1. He resided at 
the College till his ordination, Sept. 23, 1722. 

Bishop Gibson nominated him to the preachership of the Anglican 
church at Amsterdam, but he did not go there. Instead he was licensed 
as curate of Great Waltham, Essex, where he remained from 1722 (1724, 
Diet. Nat. Biog.) till 1732, helping the Vicar, Nicholas Tindal, in pre- 
paring a new edition of Rapin's History of England. Morant greatly 
impressed Bishop Gibson by his argumentative power and antiquarian 
learning, and on his recommendation the Regent, Queen Caroline, made 
him, Aug. 16, 1732, chaplain at Amsterdam. He retained this post till 
Michaelmas 1734. On April 20, 1733, he was preferred to the rectory of 
Shellow Bowells, and held it till Nov., 1734. From Jan. 17, 1734, to April, 
1738, he was Rector of Broomfield ; from Sept. 19, 1735, to 1743, Rector 
of Chignal Smealey ; from March 9, 1738, to 1770, Rector of St. Mary's, 
Colchester; from Jan. 21, 1743, to Oct. 1745, Rector of Wickham 
Bishop's; from Sept. 14, 1745, to 1770, Rector of Aldham — all these 
places are in Essex. He thus was always a dualist, though not a pluralist. 
The wide knowledge of Essex thus acquired fitted him to be the historian 
of that county. Morant's great work, the History and Antiquities of the 
County of Essex (2 vols, folio, 1760-8), incorporates his History of 
Colchester. On Nov. 20, 1755, he was elected F.S.A., and on the recom- 
mendation of Thomas Astle, Keeper of the Tower Records, husband of 
Morant's only daughter, he was intrusted by the House of Lords with the 
preparation for the press of the ancient records of Parliament. He had 
great skill in palaeography, and, as a native of Jersey, he possessed an 
unusual familiarity with the old Norman-French. The Rotuli Parlia- 
mentorum between 1278 and 1413 were edited by him. A chill caught in 
being rowed towards Lambeth, where he lived in order to be near his 
labours, ended his life, Nov. 25, 1770. He was taken to Aldham to be 
laid beside his wife (Anne, daughter and heiress of Solomon Stebbing of 
Great Tey) in the chancel of the now ruined church of Aldham. The slab 
is still visible. A marble tablet, bearing an inscription written by Astle, 
was removed to the new church in 1854 : — 

Philippo Morant, A.M. hujus Ecclesiae Rectori : Vir fuit Eximia 
simplicitate et moribus plane antiquis, bonorum studiosus, omnibus bene- 
volens, eruditione denique multiplici repletus. Gentium origines agrorum 
limites in hac provincia feliciter investigavit ; ad vitas Britannorum in- 
signium illustrandas quam plurimum contulit. His studiis a primajuventute 
usque ad mortem totum se dedit, nec ostentandi gratia sed quod reipublicae 
prodesset. Obiit Nov bris 25 0 A.D. 1770. Aet. 70. Et Annae uxori ejus 
matronarum decori ex antiquis familiis Stebbing et Creffield oriundae: 
Obiit Julii 20 0 A.D. 1767. Aet. 69. Optimis parentibus Tho: et A: Maria 
Astle posuerunt. 

Until 1734 he spelled his name Mourant, and was so matriculated, but 



MORANT; A GENTLEMAN-COMMONER'S JOURNAL. 323 



afterwards reverted to the earlier and more correct form. Morant published 
a number of historical and theological writings. The articles in Biographia 
Britannica signed ' C (Colchester) are by him, and also the Life of 
Stillingfleet. A number of his letters and collections are in the British 
Museum among the Stowe MSS. The Marquess of Buckingham acquired 
the MSS. under Astle's will. Other Morant papers and sermons are at 
Colchester. Mr. C. F. D. Sperling has written an account of Morant and 
his works in the Essex Review for January 1894. The portrait prefixed 
is most characteristic of ' mores plane antiqui ' — a keen-looking portly 
man in a wig, with a very large aquiline nose. 

Bishop Robert Downes, who entered July 15, 172 1 (B.A. from 
Merton 1724 ; D.D. at Trinity, Dublin, 1740), the son of Bishop Henry 
Downes, became Bishop of Ferns 1744, of Down 1752, and of 
Raphoe 1753 till his death, June 30, 1763. 

JOURNAL OF A GENTLEMAN-COMMONER. 

The following excerpts from some portions 1 of the Diary of Mr. 
(afterwards Sir) Erasmus Philipps, son of Sir John Philipps, fourth 
baronet, of Picton Castle, and other seats in Wales, give a not 
unpleasing picture of a young man of quality of this date : — 

1720, Aug st 1. Went from London w th my Father and Bro. John 2 
in Haynes' Grand Alrighman Coach for Oxford, where my brother and 
self were, the next day, Aug. 2, admitted Fellow Commoners of 
Pembroke College by Mathew Panting, D.D., the Master of It, and 
took an oath to obey the Master and observe the statutes of the 
College, etc. Paid Mr. Hopkins, the College Butler, 1L 2s. 6d. 
Entrance money. Din'd the same day w tn the Rev d . M r . Sam. Home 
(Master of Arts, one of the Fellows and Junior Dean of the College) 
whose pupil I was. Next day din'd w th the Master and his Lady at 
the Lodgings. 

Aug*t 4. . . Paid the Rev<l M*. W". Jordan (one of the Fellows of 
Pembroke and one of the Bursars and Chaplain to ditto 3 ) and the 
Revd. Mr. W m . Blandy 4 (another Fellow and the other Bursar) 10/. for 
my Caution, to remain in their hands till I leave College : paid 'em 
also 10s. for a key of the College Garden. 

Sep* 20. Rode to Portmead (1 mile from Oxford) where M r . 
Stapleton's horse run against M r . Jerningham's and won the 40/. plate. 

1 Notes and Queries, Second Series, Nov. 10, i860: 'College Life at Oxford 
One Hundred and Thirty Years Ago.' 

2 Afterwards Sir John, the benefactor mentioned on page 301. 

3 Afterwards Johnson's tutor. 

4 Compiled Chronological Tables. 

Y 2 



324 DIARY OF A GENTLEMAN -COMMONER. 

Sep: 21 st . The Galloway Plate, value 15/., was run for by one 
horse ; after which several horses ran for a Hanger, which showed 
good diversion. At night went to Assembly at the Angel, where the 
affair was a Flat Crown. 

22 nd . Walked to Portmead, where M r . Freeman's Horse run 
against M r . Jerningham's and M r . Garret's Mare, and won the 20/. 
Plate. After this was a Foot race between several Taylors for geese, 
etc. At night went to the Ball at the Angel. A Guinea Touch. 

23 rd . Several horses run for a Leash of does given by Montague 
Venables Bertie, Earl of Abingdon. [He gives a list of the company 
present.] 

24. I was made free of the Bodleian Library, and took the usual 
Oath not to Embezzle the Books, etc. 

25. Made a present to the Bodleian Library of a Grammatica 
Damulica (a Malabar Grammar), a very great Curiosity. . . 

ditto. Presented Pembroke College Library w tn M r . Prior's Works 1 
in Folio, neatly bound, w cl1 cost me il. 3J. Rev d . M r . Thomas 
Tristram, M.A. and Fellow and Librarian of the College, entered me 
on this occasion a Benefactor to its Library. 

Sept. . . Din'd with Hugh Boulter, the Dean of Christ Church 
and Bishop of Bristol at his lodgings in College. 

Sept. . . In this month I was twice Senior of Pembroke College Hall 2 . 

Oct. 30. My Father and Bro. Buckley 3 , with Cosin Rowland 
Phillips of Orlandon 4 , and Mr. Bernewitz came to Oxford from 
Picton Castle, and next day went for London. 

Xm er 20. I set out from Oxford for London. 

172^ Jany 5. My sister Katharine died at Picton Castle in the 23 d 
year of her Age, and was in a few days after Interred in Prendergast 
Church ; the Rev d . M r . Jno. Pember, Rector of the Parish, preaching 
her Funeral Sermon. ... A neat marble Stone is erected for her, 

1 Prior says : ' And Cowley's verse keeps fair Orinda young.' ' Orinda ' had 
married into the Philipps family. On the flyleaf of the Poems the gift is dated 
' Dec ris . die 7> n °. 1721.' 

2 ' Custom for him that comes first into the Hall any day at Dinner or Supper- 
time, whether Graduate or Undergraduate, to sit Senior all the Time and exercise 
his Authority in giving others Leave to go down, if desir'd, etc. The same 
Custom is observ'd in University and Wadham Colleges.' (Pointer.) 

3 Bulkeley Philipps of Abercover. From him descended the Lord Milford of the 
second creation and the baronet of the second creation, to whom, successively, 
Richard Lord Milford bequeathed the large Pembrokeshire estates. The will was 
disputed recently by the present baronet of the first creation. 

4 A third cousin (ob. 1768). From his uncle descends the present head of the 
family, the Rev. Canon Sir James Erasmus Philipps, twelfth baronet, to whom 
I am indebted for access to family records. 



DIARY OF A GENTLEMAN-COMMONER. 



whereon is some Account of the Deceased. This Funeral was 
extreamly handsome (the Expense of it amounting to about 600/.), and 
was attended by the Chief Gentry of the Countrey. ... I was inform'd 
from a good hand, that upon this Occasion there was a Struggle 
between Orielton and Colby Coaches about Precedency. 

Feb. 27. Died, Cosin Kitty Walpole 1 at the Bath. She was 
daughter to the Rt Hon b l e Robert Walpole, Esq re . 

1 72 1, March 28. Went a Foxhunting with Geo. Henry Lee, Earl 
of Litchfield, John Leveson Gower, Lord Gower, Marq 8 of Carnarvon, 
Sr Wm Wyndham, Bart., Mr. Villiers (Brother to Villiers, Earl of 
Jersey), etc. Din'd at Woodstock. 

April 14. Rode with M r . Wilder 2 (Fellow and Vicegerent of Pem- 
broke) and M r Le Merchant to Newnam, where dined upon Fish at 
the pleasant place mentioned page 107 [of this diary]. Coming home, 
a dispute arose between these two Gentlemen, whom with great 
difficulty I kept from Blows. 

July 4. Went up the river a fishing with M r . Wilder, M r . Eaton, 
M*. Clerk, Mr. Clayton (Gent. Commoner), M r . Sylvester \ and M r . 
Bois, all Pembrokians, as far as Burnt Isle, whereon we landed, and 
dressed a leg of Mutton, which afterwards we dispatched in the 
wherry. The passage to this diminutive Island is wonderfully sweet 
and pleasant. 

13. Went to the Tuns with Tho. Beale, Esq r (Gent. Comoner), M r . 
Hume, and M r . Sylvester, Pembrokians, where Motto'd, Epigram- 
matiz'd, etc. 4 

1 Beautiful Katherine Shorter, the unhappy first wife of Sir Robert Walpole, was 
her mother. Sir John Shorter, Lord Mayor, married Elizabeth Philipps. 

2 Of Tesdale descent. Rector of St. Aldate's and of St. John Baptist's. Ob. 1 743. 

3 Tipping Silvester preached a 29th of May sermon before the Corporation of 
London, 1732 (British Museum Tracts). 

4 'I rise about nine, get to breakfast by ten, 

Blow a tune on my flute or perhaps make a pen, 
Read a play till eleven or cock my lac'd hat, 
Then step to my neighbour's till dinner to chat. 

From the coffee house then I to tennis away, 
And at five I post back to my College to pray. 
I sup before eight, and secure from all duns 
Undauntedly march to the Mitre or Tuns ; 
When in punch or good claret my sorrows I drown, 
And toss off a bowl "To the best in the town." 
At one in the morning I call what's to pay, 
Then home to my college I stagger away, 
Thus I tope all the night as I trifle all day.' 

(' The Lounger,' Oxford Sausage). 
There is a burlesque account of the proceedings of the Poetical Club, which met 



326 DIARY OF A GENTLEMAN-COMMONER. 



19. Sent M r W m . Wightwick, Demy of Magdalene College, a Copy 
of Verses on his leaving Pembroke \ 

I laid 20 Guineas to one with M r . Clerk that I was not married in 
3 years ; laid the same Bett again with M r . Beale. 

July . . . M r . Solomon Negri (a Native of Damascus) a great Critic 
in the Arabick Language 2 and perfect Master of the French and 
Italian Tongues, came to Oxford, to consult and transcribe some 
Arabick Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library; fell acquainted with 
this Gent, and with M r . Hill, an ingenious Friend of his that came 
down with him ; and enjoy'd abundance of Satisfaction in their Con- 
versation. 

Aug st 7. I was Enter' d a Student of Lincoln's Inn. 

Dit. Went with M r Blandy to Abingdon to an Election of a 
Scholar from the Free School there to Pembroke College ; on this 
occasion there were a good many Oxonians, who were entertain'd with 
Several Copies of Verses and Declamations. The Election fell upon 
M r Bacon, a very Ingenious Youth, son to the Rev fl Mr Bacon of 
Reading. Din'd with M r Philipson the Mayor. 

1 7. Began to learn on the Violin of M r Wheeler, to whom paid 10s. 
Entrance. 

Dit. Went with M r Tristram to the Poetical Club (whereof he is a 
Member) at the Tuns (kept by M r Broadgate), where met D r Evans, 
Fellow of St. John's and M r J no Jones, Fellow of Baliol, Members of 
the Club. Subscribed 5s. to D r Evans's Hymen and Juno (which one 
merrily call'd Evans's Bubble, it being now South Sea Time). Drank 
Gallicia Wine, and was entertained with two Fables of the Doctor's 
Composition, which were indeed Masterly in their kind : But the D r 
is allowed to have a peculiar knack, and to excell all Mankind at 
a Fable. 

31. At M r Tristram's Chambers w th M r Wanley, the famous Anti- 
quarian, Keeper of the Harleian Library, M r Bowles, Keeper of the 
Bodleian Library, and M r Hunt of Hart Hall, who is Skill'd in Arabick. 

Sept. My Father, Brother Buckley, and M r Bernewitz came from 
London to Oxford, and lodg'd at M r Best's near our College. 

7. Rid out w th my Father, M r Jorden, and Bro. John to Shotover 

at the Three Tuns, in Amhurst's Terrae Filius, No. XXVI. This tavern was 
opposite All Souls. There is a Three Tuns hostelry in St. Ebbe's Street under the 
western wall of Pembroke. 

1 Of Ashford. Fellow of Magdalen 1727-44; Proctor 1735. 

2 Gibbon writes : ' Since the days of Pocock and Hyde Oriental learning has 
always been the pride of Oxford, and I once expressed an inclination to study 
Arabic.' 



DIARY OF A GENTLEMAN-COMMONER. 327 



Hill, whence had a good view of Co 1 Tyrrell's beautiful Seat. Din'd 
at Wheatley. Coming back saw Cudsdon, the Bishop of Oxford's 
Palace, an old House, and D r Panting's House \ both pleasantly seated. 

. . Show'd my Father the Colleges and Curiosities of the University. 

19. Went with my Father to Newnam by Water, leaving Eafly, 
Kennington, Littlemore, & Sandford on the Right and Left. This 
is a most agreeable Passage. 

Oct. 9. I was Unanimously Elected a Common Council Man of 
the Town and County of Haverfordwest. 

Nov. 1 . A Great Gaudy this day in Pembroke College, when the 
Master dined in Publick, and M r Beale, M r Clayton, &c. went round 
the Fire in the Hall (an ancient Custom the Juniors are obliged to 
comply with). Lord Ossulstown's Picture was Hung up this day in 
the Hall. This Lord was a considerable Benefactor to the College, 
whereof he was a Member. 

5. M r Francis Peyne, Batch, of Arts, made an Oration in Pem- 
broke Hall Suitable to the Day. 

17. Brought an Essay on Pride to D r . Panting, who then desired 
me to declaim Publickly in the Hall on the following Thesis, ' Virtutem 
amplectimur Ipsam praemia si tollas.' 

Xm br 18. Set out for London in Bartlett's Stage, paying Passage 
10s, & arrived next day. 

1 7 2 \, Feb. 13. Went to the Great Cockmatch in Holy well, fought 
between Other Windsor Hickman, Earl of Plymouth, & the Town 
Cocks, which beat his Lordship. 

March 7. Baron Price and Justice Dormer at Oxford attended y e 
Nisi Prius, where were only Six Causes. The Usual Counsel, M r 
Holmes the Junior Proctor, and M r Hector the Junior Collector, 
made their Speeches in the Theatre. The Proctor's was a delicate 
and masterly Peice of Oratory, as indeed was likewise the Speech of 
M r Slocock 2 , Junior Proctor, an. 1720, which I forgot to mention. 
Mr Henry Church (the Junior Collector, a Pembrokian) came off very 
handsomely. 

1722, March 25. A Gaudy in Pembroke College. 

Dit. HonWe M r Edward Nevil (Brother to George Nevil Lord 
Abergavenny) Nobleman of Wadham, gave me D r Barn's Anacreon. 

April 4. Went a Circuiting w th M r Collins of our College. This 
is an Exercise previous to a Master's Degree. 

1 Had the Master, then, besides his College and Canonical houses, a country 
residence ? 

2 Dr. Benjamin Slocock, mat. at Pembroke 1708. Vide supra, p. 300. 



328 DIARY OF A GENTLEMAN-COMMONER. 



6. M r Dolben, M r Colchester, Mr Walker, and M r Hervey, Gentle- 
men Commoners of Baliol, M r S* John & M r Smith, Gent. Comoners 
of Oriel, w tn M r Unit of Worcester, and my Self, made a Private Ball 
at M r Conyer's for Miss Brigandine (my Partner) \ Miss Hume, Miss 
Brooks's, &c. 

May 1 6. Rode out Mr Clayton to Basisley, M r Lenton's Seat 12 . 
Near here met M r Clayton's three Sisters (all fine bred women ; the 
youngest, Miss Charlotte, is a beautiful Creature, and has a deal of 
L'Esprit), Miss Lenton, a very agreeable Person, and Miss Clerk of 
Burf6rd, sitting upon a large Oak, breathing the Evening Fresco. 
Walk'd with the Ladies about two hours, and then return'd. 

July 3. Gave M r Horn an Essay on Friendship. In the Evening 
went with him, M r Birch, M r Hume, M r Sylvester, & the Wightwicks 3 
to Godstow by water, taking Musick and Wine with us. 

Aug. 7 4 . Went to Portmead, where Lord Tracey's Mare Whimsey 
(the Swiftest Galloper in England) run against M r Garrard's Smock- 
faced Molly ) and won the Size Money (a Purse of 40 guineas) with all 
the Facility Imaginable. She Gallops indeed at an incredible Rate 
and has true mettle to carry it on. Upon this occasion I cou'd not 
help thinking of Job's description of the Horse, and particularly of 
that expression in It, He swalloweth the Ground, which is an Expression 
for Prodigious Swiftness in use among the Arabians, Job's Country 
men, at this day. 

Sept. . . Made a Present to . . M r Andrew Hughs, Scholar of 
Pembroke 5 , of my Key of that College Garden. 

Sept. 18. Went to the Races at Bicester. This place is alsocall'd 
Burcester, perhaps, as much as to say, Birini Castrum. . . . Camden 
remarks yt Gilbert Bassett built here a monastery in honour of S 4 
Edburg ; y e memory of the Latter I find is now preserved in a Well 
call'd S. Edburg's Well, as also in a Green Foot Path leading to It, 
call'd Tadbury Walk, corrupted for the Edbury Way Walk. This 

1 An Oxford toast. Was she daughter to the late Master? In the Oxford 
Sausage are some ' Verses on Miss Brickenden going to Newnham by water.' 

4 The lofty trees of Newnham's pendent wood 
To meet her seem to rush into the flood, 
Peep o'er their fellows' heads to view the fair, 
Whose names upon their wounded barks they bear.' 

2 Lenthall of Besselsleigh. Descended from Speaker Lenthall. 

3 The brothers William and Curteis. The latter became Fellow. 

* Even a young man of means appears to have stayed up during the Long 
Vacations. His home was in Wales. 

5 Matr. 1 714; Rector of Coin St. Dennis 1727. 



DIARY OF A GENTLEMAN. COMMONER. 



day's Sport was fine. 19 th . M r Hawe's Horse won the Galloway 
Plate. . . . Butcher's Company acted Plays here during the Races. I lay 
at the Swan. 

24. Treated Pembroke College in the Common Room. 
Oct 1. Took up my Caution Money (£10) from the Bursar, & 
lodg'd it w th D r Panting, the Master, for the use of Pembroke College. 

Mr. Philipps appears to have done many things and thought many 
things which the horsey or fashionable undergraduate of the end of 
the nineteenth century does not do or think. He was drowned in the 
Avon near Bath through a fall from his horse, October 15, 1743, aged 
forty-three. He died unmarried, having more than won his boyish 
'bett' of two and twenty years before. At the time of his death he 
had succeeded to the title. From 1726 he was M.P. for Haverfordwest. 

Sir Erasmus wrote on economic subjects, and was also a generous 
amateur of the fine arts. Fenton in his Pembrokeshire describes his 
death as a loss to his country. To him as ' emeritissimo Patrono et 
Maecenati ' J. B. Jackson dedicated his sepia drawing of Titian's 
' Legend of the Virgin.' It bears his arms : Arg. a lion rampant sa., 
ducally gorged and chained or. The crest a lion as in the arms. The 
dedication begins 'Per Illustri ac Nobili Viro Dno Dno Erasmo 
Philipps Barronetto Artium zelantissimo Fautori et de re litteraria 
optime merito.' Some lines on his death, penned by Anna Williams, 
appeared in her Miscellany. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

JOHNSON. 

During Panting's Mastership the greatest of the sons of Pembroke, 
Samuel Johnson (born September 18, 1709), entered as a commoner 
and generosi films, October 31, 1728. Michael Johnson's fortunes were 
then at a low ebb, and it has been asked how it was found possible 
to send his son to College. Boswell says : ' I have been assured by 
Dr. Taylor that the scheme never would have taken place, had not 
a gentleman of Shropshire, one of his schoolfellows, spontaneously 
undertaken to support him at Oxford, in the character of his com- 
panion ; though in fact he never received any assistance whatever 
from that gentleman.' In the previous century young men frequently 
took their tutor with them to College. Hawkins states that the pro- 
posal came from Mr. Andrew Corbett, of Longnor, and was accepted. 
Croker, however, points out that the young gentleman-commoner 
matriculated twenty months before Johnson, viz. May 3, 1727. Boswell 
certainly implies that Johnson went to Pembroke on the strength of 
the proposed bear-leading reversed, but he expressly adds that no 
assistance was given from that quarter. How then was he supported 
at College ? Croker suggests that he was sent thither by his godfather, 
Dr. Swynfen, a Lichfield physician, who was himself from Pembroke K 
Among the contributors to the building carried out at the close of the 
seventeenth century was his brother (M.P. for Tamworth 1708-10, 
1723-26), Mr. Richard Swynfen, of Swynfen. There were several 
Swynfens at the College. Johnson's humane care of Mrs. Desmoulins 
may have been induced by gratitude towards her father. On the other 
hand, Boswell records that he was deeply incensed when a Latin paper, 
in which he had eloquently described to Dr. Swynfen, in the College 
vacation of 1729, a violent attack of hypochondria from which he 

1 Samuel, son of Francis Swynfen, of Stafford, gent., matr. March 31, 1696, 
aged sixteen ; B.A. 1699 '■> M.A. (from New Inn Hall) 1703 ; B.Med. 1706; D.Med, 
(from Pembroke) 171 2; appointed Lecturer of Grammar for the University 
July 16, 1705 (Hearne, Collections, i. 8) ; died May 10, 1736. 



JOHNSON. 



33 1 



was now for the first time suffering, was shown by the latter to others, 
and that he was never fully reconciled to him. 
The following entry is in the Caution Book : — 

' Oct. 31, 1728. Rec d then of M 1 * Samuel Johnson, Comer of Pern. Coll: 
ye sum of seven Pounds 1 for his Caution, which is to remain in ye Hands 
of ye Bursars till ye said M r Johnson shall depart ye said College leaving 
ye same fully discharg'd. 

Recd by me, John Ratcliff Bursar.' 

Adams, afterwards Master, was present when the old bookseller, 
newly arrived by the Lichfield stage, brought his son round to the 
College. 

'On that evening his father, who had anxiously accompanied him, 
found means to have him introduced to Mr. Jorden, who was to be his 
tutor. . . . He seemed very full of the merits of his son, and told the 
company he was a good scholar, and a poet, and wrote Latin verses. 
His figure and manner appeared strange to them ; but he behaved 
modestly, and sate silent, till, upon something which occurred in the 
conversation, he suddenly struck in and quoted Macrobius ; and thus 
he gave the first impression of that more extensive reading in which he 
had indulged himself/ 

The following lines describe such a scene : — 

'When now mature in classic knowledge 
The joyful youth is sent to College, 
His father comes, a vicar plain 
At Oxford bred — in Anna's reign. 
And thus, in form of humble suitor, 
Bowing, accosts a reverend tutor : 
"Sir, I'm a Glo'stershire divine 
And this my eldest son of nine ; 
My wife's ambition and my own 
Was that this child should wear a gown. 
I'll warrant that his good behav'our 
Will justify your future favour ; 
And for his parts, to tell the truth, 
My son's a very forward youth ; 
Has Horace all by heart — you'd wonder — 
And mouths out Homer's Greek like thunder— 
If you'd examine and admit him, 
A scholarship would nicely fit him, 
That he succeeds 'tis ten to one ; 
Your vote and interest, sir ! — 'tis done 2 ." ' 



1 The usual sum at all Colleges in those days for a commoner. 

2 Oxford Sausage, ' The Progress of Discontent,' 1 746. 



332 



JOHNSON. 



But if the swans of many fond parents are descended from geese, 
Michael Johnson's ugly duckling was for once to come to something 
great. 

Johnson did not appear before the Vice-Chancellor to be matricu- 
lated for nearly seven weeks, a delay unusual and against the University 
statutes \ The following is the entry : — 

'1728, Dec. 16. Sam 1 Johnson, 19, Mich. fil. Lichfield Civ. Com. 
Stafford, gen. fil.' 

William Jorden, his tutor (matr. C. C. C. 1702 ; B.A. from Pem- 
broke 1705; M.A. 1708; B.D. 1728), founder's kin to Wightwick, 
was of some standing in the College. Under date 171 1 is the entry : 
' For y e Latine Lecture, £200. Will. Jorden ' (his kinsman, 
Thomas Jorden, being then praelector Graecus). He became tutor 
and chaplain in 1720. Johnson, however, declared that Jorden 
' scarcely knew a noun from a verb,' and supposed the Ramei had 
their name from ramus, 2. bough. He told Boswellin 1776 : ' He was 
a very worthy man, but a heavy man, and I did not profit much by 
his instructions. Indeed I did not attend him much. The first day 
after I came to college I waited upon him, and then staid away four. 
On the sixth, Mr. Jorden asked me why I had not attended. I 
answered I had been sliding in Christ Church meadow. And this 
I said with as much nonchalance as I am now talking to you. I had no 
notion that I was wrong or irreverent to my tutor.' Boswell : ' That, sir, 
was great fortitude of mind.' Johnson : ' No, sir ; stark insensibility.' 
He gave Mrs. Thrale a similar account, namely, that ' meeting Mr. 
Jorden in the street he offered to pass without saluting him ; but the 
tutor stopped and enquired, not roughly neither, what he had been 
doing. " Sliding on the ice " was the reply, and so turned away in 
disdain. He laughed very heartily at the recollection of his own 

1 In 1581 Leicester had proposed to the University: — 

4 Whereas the old order of Matriculation is that within 6 dayes of every Scholar's 
comming to Oxford he shall take an oath to observe the statutes of this University 
etc, and forasmuch as by the negligence and carelessness of many Hedds this hath 
been and dayly is omitted, insomuch that many Schollers have lived here a long 
time being never registered in the Universitie booke, nether at any time hearetofore 
swoorne to the said Universitye, and by this meanes many Papists have heareto- 
fore and may heareafter lurke among you and be brought up by corrupt Tutors 
. . . That no Scholler be admitted into any College or Haule unless he first before 
the Vicechancellour subscribe to the Articles of Religion agreed upon, take the 
Othe of the Queens Majesties Supremacy, sweare to observe the Statutes of 
the Universitie, if he be of lawfull years to take an Othe, and have his name 
regestred in the Matriculation Boke.' It was enacted that he should do this not 
later than the Friday seven-night after his admission, under a fine of \os. for every 
week to be paid by the Scholar and 20s. by the Head. 



JOHNSON. 



333 



insolence, and said they endured it from him with a gentleness that, 
whenever he thought of it, astonished himself.' On one occasion, 
being fined for non-attendance, he made the rude retort, ' Sir, you have 
sconced me twopence for a lecture not worth a penny.' Dr. Adams, 
however, who was two years Johnson's senior, told Boswell that he 
attended his tutor's lectures and the lectures given in the hall very 
regularly. If Jorden was not a great clerk, he was something better, 
and Johnson learned to love and respect him. He said, ' When- 
ever a young man becomes Jorden's pupil, he becomes his son/ 
Mrs. Thrale records his saying, ' That creature would defend his pupils 
to the last ; no young lad under his care should suffer for committing 
slight irregularities, while he had breath to defend or power to protect 
them. If I had sons to send to College, Jorden should have been 
their tutor.' Nevertheless, when his younger schoolfellow, John 
Taylor, had gained his father's consent to join him at Pembroke, 
Johnson, though his society ' would have been a great comfort to him, 
fairly told Taylor that he could not, in conscience, suffer him to enter 
when he knew he could not have an able tutor.' He got his friend 
placed under Mr. Bateman, of Christ Church, of whose lectures 
Johnson had so high an opinion that he used to go across and get them 
second-hand from Taylor, until, seeing that his ragged shoes, through 
which his feet were appearing, were noticed by the Christ Church men, 
he went no more. He was too proud to accept of money, and some 
one, probably in delicate kindness, having set a pair of new shoes at 
the door of his chamber, he flung them passionately away. He told 
Mrs. Thrale, ' The history of my Oxford exploits is all between Taylor 
and Adams.' Adams was Jorden's cousin. 

Boswell writes : ' The fifth of November was at that time kept with 
great solemnity at Pembroke College, and exercises upon the subject 
of the day were required. Johnson neglected to perform his. . . . To 
apologize for his neglect, he gave in a short copy of verses entitled 
Somnium, containing a common thought, "that the muse had come 
to him in his sleep, and whispered that it did not become him to write 
on such subjects as politicks ; he should confine himself to humbler 
themes : " but the versification was truly Virgilian.' Mrs. Thrale 
says : ' Johnson told me that when he made his first declamation he 
wrote over but one copy, and that coarsely ; and having given it into 
the hand of the tutor who stood to receive it as he passed was obliged 
to begin by chance and continue on how he could, for he had got but 
little of it by heart ; so fairly trusting to his present powers for imme- 
diate supply he finished by adding astonishment to the applause of all 



334 



JOHNSON 



who knew how little was owing to study.' In Pointer's Oxoniensis 
Accidentia (1749), among the ' Customs' is mentioned 'custom for the 
Undergraduates of this College to make Verses on the 5th of Novem- 
ber, and to have two Copies of them ; one to present the Master, the 
other to stick up in the Hall, and there to remain till a Speech on this 
occasion is spoken before Supper (for their Gaudy is at Supper and 
not Dinner)/ There were formerly seven Gaudy-days, one of which 
was an oyster-feast, but the great Gaudy was on Powder-plot day, 
because of the connexion with King James. On that occasion ' the 
Master dined in Publick, and the juniors (by an ancient custom they 
were obliged to observe) went round the fire in the hall.' Johnson 
here told Warton : ' In these halls the fireplace was anciently always in 
the middle of the room till the Whigs removed it on one side.' There 
was never, however, a side fireplace in this room. Latterly the annual 
Gaudy-day has been the first Thursday in November, possibly because, 
while the seniors rejoiced in one quadrangle, the juniors, commemo- 
rating the bloody-intended Massacre by Gunpowder, ' went round the 
fire ' in the other. 

Boswell goes on : ' Having given such a specimen of his poetical 
powers he was asked by Mr. Jorden to translate Pope's Messiah into 
Latin verse, as a Christmas exercise. He performed it with 
uncommon rapidity, and in so masterly a manner that he obtained 
great applause from it, which ever after kept him high in the estima- 
tion of his college, and, indeed, of all the university.' The version 
was shown by Dr. Arbuthnot's son, then at Christ Church, to Pope, 
who returned it with the words : ' The writer of this poem will leave it 
a question for posterity whether his or mine be the original.' Pope, 
however, was a better judge, and Johnson a better writer, of English 
than of Latin verse 1 . 

In the same hall, now the library, Johnson dined daily, and abused 
the muddy ' coll,' or College ale, as unlikely to inspire Latin poets 2 : — 

'Carmina vis nostri scribant meliora poetae? 
Ingenium jubeas purior haustus alat.' 

' The pleasure he took,' wrote Bishop Percy to Boswell, ' in vexing 
the tutors and fellows has been often mentioned. But I have heard 

1 It was printed in the Miscellany of John Husbands, Fellow of Pembroke 1728. 

2 In the 'Panegyrick on Oxford Ale' {Oxford Sausage, 1746), the old October 
is apostrophized, however, thus : — 

' Balm of my cares, sweet solace of my toils, 
Hail, juice benignant ! ' 
At Exeter, a century before, the first Lord Shaftesbury had resisted an attempt 
to weaken the College beer. 



JOHNSON. 



335 



him say, what ought to be recorded to the honour of the present 
venerable master of that college, the reverend William Adams, D.D., 
who was then very young, and one of the junior fellows, that the mild 
but judicious expostulations of this worthy man, whose virtue awed 
him and whose learning he revered, made him really ashamed of him- 
self, " though I fear/' said he, " I was too proud to own it." 

'I have heard from some of his contemporaries that he was 
generally seen lounging at the college gate with a circle of young 
students round him, whom he was entertaining with wit and keeping 
from their studies, if not spiriting them up to rebellion against the 
college discipline, which in his maturer years he so much extolled l . 
He would not let these idlers say " prodigious," or otherwise misuse 
the English tongue.' 

' Even then, sir,' Oliver Edwards told Boswell half a century after- 
wards, ' he was delicate in language, and we all feared him.' 

Dr. Adams told Boswell that Johnson was caressed and loved by all 
about him, was a gay and frolicsome fellow, and passed at Pembroke 
the happiest part of his life. When Boswell mentioned this to him he 
replied, ' Ah, sir, I was mad and violent. It was bitterness which they 
mistook for frolick. I was miserably poor, and I thought to fight my 
way by my literature and my wit ; so I disregarded all power and all 
authority.' His lines in the Vanity of Human Wishes reflect the lot 
which he had tasted : — 

' When first the college rolls receive his name, 
The young enthusiast quits his ease for fame ; 
Through all his veins the fever of renown 
Spreads from the strong contagion of the gown. 
O'er Bodley's dome his future labours spread, 
And Bacon's mansion trembles o'er his head. 



Deign on the passing world to turn thine eyes, 
And pause awhile from letters to be wise. 
There mark what ills the scholar's life assail, 
Toil, envy, want, the garret [patron] and the jail.' 

Dr. Birkbeck Hill, whose pious care for the glory of the greatest son 
of his College has brought to light everything, probably, that can be 
known about Johnson's residence at Pembroke, shows from the batell 
books that his weekly bills were not particularly small. They range 
from >\s. nd. to 12s. 6d. Carlyle, in the modern picturesque style, 
depicts the rough, seamy-faced, rawboned servitor starving in view of 

1 Fifty years later he complained that subordination was sadly broken down in 
Colleges, as everywhere else. 



33 6 



JOHNSON. 



the empty or locked buttery. Mr. Leslie Stephen also, without the 
excuse of ignorance, talks about ' servitors and sizars.' Johnson was 
not a servitor and did not starve. He did not wait, but was waited 
upon. He was fag-master, not fag. ' It was the practice for a 
servitor, by order of the Master, to go round to the rooms of the 
young men and, knocking at the door, to enquire if they were within, 
and if no answer was returned to report them absent. Johnson could 
not endure this intrusion, and would frequently be silent when the 
utterance of a word would have ensured him from censure, and . . . 
would' join with others of the young men in hunting, as they called it, 
the servitor who was thus diligent in his duty ; and this they did with 
the noise of pots and candlesticks, singing to the tune of " Chevy 
Chase " the words of that old ballad — 

"To drive the deer with hound and horn."' 
Johnson's room was over the gateway, at what used to be the top of 
the tower, but is now the second floor. Dr. Jeune often heard an aged 
College servant identify it. In 1784, a little before his death, Johnson 
had a desire to mount once more the narrow winding stair. He was 
very infirm, and the porter had to push him up. This janitor was 
alive in 1837, and gave the account to Mr. J. Coke Fowler 1 , who 
matriculated in 1833. Boswell, who also specifies its position, says, 
' The enthusiast of learning will ever contemplate it with veneration. 
The front window is only a yard or two from the Master's house, and 
one day Dr. Panting heard Johnson soliloquizing in his strong, 
emphatic voice : ' Well, I have a mind to see what is done in other 
places of learning. I'll go and visit the Universities abroad. I'll go to 
France and Italy. I'll go to Padua — And I'll mind my business. For 
an Athenian blockhead is the worst of all blockheads.' Dr. Adams told 
Boswell this. Johnson himself related that one day, as he was turning 
the key of his chamber, he heard his mother, who was at Lichfield, 
distinctly call him by name. Perhaps it was here that he began to learn 
the flageolet. The rooms are internally almost unchanged, though half 
a century ago (and again in December, 1871) they narrowly escaped 
destruction. The Rev. N. Howard M'Gachen (matr. 1844) writes : — 

' During my residence a fire broke out in the rooms once occupied by 
Dr. Johnson, and the furniture was hurriedly removed to a place of safety. 
Among other articles there was a self-acting piano or some such instru- 
ment. In the act of removal the button was accidentally touched, which 
set the music going, and it was melancholy to hear it, in the quad, playing 
some lively air while the fire was going on above.' 

1 From 1853 a stipendiary magistrate in South Wales. 



JOHNSON. 



337 



The staircase balusters must be the same which Johnson clutched in 
his headlong descents after the flying servitor. Any one who has 
occupied that narrow stair 1 can imagine the noise of his unwieldy 
body tumbling down it in hot pursuit. 

In those days there was no distinction of senior and junior common- 
room. For one thing, the Fellows were usually younger than they are 
now. In one of Johnson's later visits to Oxford, Dr. Adams told him 
that in some of the Colleges the Fellows had excluded the students 
from social intercourse with them in the common-room. Johnson 
approved of this. ' They are in the right, sir : there can be no real 
conversation, no fair exertion of mind amongst them, if the young men 
are by.' They walked with Dr. Adams into the Master's garden and 
into the common-room. Johnson (after a reverie of meditation): 
' Aye ! here I used to play at draughts with Phil Jones and Fludyer. 
Jones loved beer, and did not get very forward in the Church. 
Fludyer turned out a scoundrel, a whig, and said he was ashamed of 
having been bred at Oxford. He had a living at Putney, and got 
under the eye of some retainers to the court at that time, and so 
became a violent whig : but he had been a scoundrel all along to be 
sure.' Boswell : ' Was he a scoundrel, sir, in any other way than 
that of being a political Scoundrel ? Did he cheat at draughts ? ' 
Johnson : ' Sir, we never played for money V 

The summer common-room at Pembroke on the town-wall was, till 
its demolition in 1 869, the only one left in Oxford, except that at Merton. 
Dean Burgon wrote in 1855 : ' This agreeable and picturesque apart- 
ment was in constant use within the memory of the present Master ; 
but, while I write, it is in a state of considerable decadence. The old 
chairs are drawn up against the panelled walls ; on the small circular 
tables the stains produced by hot beverages are very plainly to be 
distinguished : only the guests are wanting, with their pipes and ale — 
their wigs and buckles — their byegone manners and forgotten topics 
of discourse.' When Johnson revisited this room with Dr. Adams, 

1 Having choice of rooms on first coming to the College, a freshman's religions 
reverence led the historian to become the occupant of this eyrie. After a term or 
two I deemed myself unworthy of the spot, and, one of the largest rooms in 
College falling vacant, moved in locum spatiostim. 

2 Fludyer was on the "Wightwick foundation, and was of Johnson's standing. 
'Nov. 27, 1728. Joh. Fludyer, 16. Joh. fil. Abingdon. Com. Berk. Gen. fil.' His 
father was Mayor of Abingdon in 1722, and excused from serving in 1757 on 
account of his 'great age.' Jones was a year senior. ' 1727. Dec. 5. Phil Jones 
18. Rich. fil. S cti Petri in Ballivo Civ. Oxon. Gen. fil.' In the buttery book is 
scrawled : ' O yes, O yes, come forth Phil Jones, and answer to your charge for 
exceeding the batells,' with other uncomplimentary references. 

Z 



338 



JOHNSON. 



smoking in common-room was being discontinued. A Latin poem, 
recited in the Theatre on July 8, 1773, at Lord North's Installation, 
decrying the change of times, speaks of the 

' Camerae Communis amor, qua rarus ad alta 
Nunc tubus emittit gratos laquearia fumosV 

Boswell says that he cannot find that Johnson formed any close 
( intimacies ' with his fellow-collegians. He was senior to Shenstone, 
Blackstone, Graves, Hawkins, and Whitefield, none of whom matri- 
culated before he left. Two of his contemporaries ' got forward in the 
Church,' Francis Potter, Prebendary of Bath and Wells, Archdeacon 
of Taunton and of Wells, and William V yse, Treasurer of Lichfield 
Cathedral and Archdeacon of Salop. 

When Johnson first entered the College Adams told him that he was 
the best qualified for the University that he had ever known come there. 
But his reading at Oxford, as all through his life, was desultory and fitful. 
He gorged half a book and left the rest untasted. In October, 1729, 
at the beginning of his last term, he made fierce resolutions against 
sloth : ' Desidiae valedixi ; syrenis istius cantibus surdam posthac aurem 
obversurus.' Yet he considered method in reading to be mischievous 2 . 

He told Boswell that what he read solidly at Pembroke was Greek 
— not the historians, but Homer and Euripides, and a little epigram. 
He was fondest, however, of metaphysics, but did not go deeply into 
them. Indeed he was not metaphysical, as his refutation of Berkleyism 
by dashing his foot against a post evinces. One book he read which 
deeply impressed his mind. He had been a lax talker, rather than 
thinker, against religion till he went to Oxford. ' When at Oxford 
I took up Law's Serious Call to a Holy Life, expecting to find it a dull 

1 In the Oxford Sausage the ex-fellow who has taken a living regrets the time 

' When calm around the common room 
I pufT'd my daily pipe's perfume ! 
Rode for a stomach, and inspected 
At annual bottlings, corks selected, 
And dined untax'd, untroubled, under 
The portrait of our pious Founder.' 

2 He observed many years later: 'Idleness is a disease which must be combated; 
but I would not advise a rigid adherence to a particular plan of study. I myself 
have never persisted in any plan for two days together. A man ought to readjust 
as inclination leads him, for what he reads as a task will do him little good. A 
young man should read five hours in a day and so may acquire a great deal of know- j 
ledge.' Dr. Johnson was ignorant that the end of education is to pass examinations. 
An old gentleman gave him some advice when at College which he often recalled : | 
' Young man, ply your book diligently now, and acquire a stock of knowledge ; for 
when years come upon you, you will find poring upon books will be but an j 
irksome task.' Johnson, though not a diligent, was a voracious and feverish reader. ! 



JOHNSON. 



339 



book, as such books generally are, and perhaps to laugh at it. But 
I found Law quite an overmatch for me ; and this was the first occa- 
sion of my thinking in earnest about religion/ The non-juror's 
strangely impressive blending of masculine common sense, literary 
raciness, and mystical piety was exactly what was likely to lay hold on 
a mind like Johnson's. He called it ' the finest piece of hortatory 
theology in any language.' A book which he found in the College 
Library fascinated him — the Portuguese Jesuit Lobo's Voyage to 
Abyssinia. This, after leaving Oxford, he borrowed, to translate it 
out of French into English. It subsequently suggested to him the 
plan of Rasselas. He does not appear to have returned the book. 

Boswell says : ' Dr. Adams, the worthy and respectable master of 
Pembroke College, has generally had the reputation of being Johnson's 
tutor. The feet, however is, that in 1731 Mr. Jorden quitted the 
college and his pupils were transferred to Dr. Adams ; so that, had 
Johnson returned, Dr. Adams would have been his tutor. It is to be 
wished that this connexion had taken place. His equal temper, mild 
disposition, and politeness of manners might have insensibly softened 
the harshness of Johnson. . . . Dr. Adams paid Johnson this high com- 
pliment. He said to me at Oxford in 1776, "I was his nominal 
tutor; but he was above my mark." When I repeated it to Johnson 
his eyes flashed with grateful satisfaction, and he exclaimed, " That 
was liberal and noble." ' 

Adams' compliment certainly appears to imply that Johnson was 
actually under his tuition, and supports the positive assertion of 
Boswell as to the length of Johnson's residence : — 

' The " res angusta domi " prevented him from having the advantage 
of a complete academical education. The friend to whom he had 
trusted for support had deceived him. His debts in College, though 
not great, were increasing ; and his scanty remittances from Lichfield 
could be supplied no longer, his father having fallen into a state of 
insolvency. Compelled therefore by irresistible necessity, he left the 
college in autumn, 1731, without a degree, having been a member of 
it little more than three years.' 

We have also Johnson's remark to Boswell that he was at Pembroke 
with Whitefield, and (smiling) ' knew him before he began to be better 
than other people.' But this is inexplicable, and proves too much ; 
for Whitefield entered in November, 1732, whereas Johnson had footed 
it to Bosworth some months before \ 

1 ' I 73 2 > Julii 16. Bosvortiam pedes petii.' He divided his father's effects the 
day before. It is difficult to account for the years 1730 and 1731. The Memoirs 

Z 2 



34° 



JOHNSON. 



As, however, Croker and Dr. Hill observe, there is one witness 
which is conclusive — the buttery books. These prove that Johnson 
batelled in College from Nov. i, 1728, till Dec. 12, 1729. He 
resided continuously during these fourteen months, Dr. Hill being 
misled by a slip in Prof. Chandler's transcript from the books when he 
says that he was absent for one week in the Long Vacation of 1729. 
After Dec. 12, 1729, the name is entered every week (except for some 
months in the winter of 1730) till Oct. 1, 1731, but with no charges 
against it, save that a few pence are charged on May 15 and Sept. 30, 
1730. After March 12, i73y, 'Johnson' appears at the end of the 
commoners, which I think Dr. Hill has not observed. The conclusion 
he draws is irresistible, that Johnson ceased to reside in December, 
1729. Croker supposes that the hypochondriacal attack of that year 
brought his residence to an abrupt termination, but that his name 
remained on the books in the hope that his health and his means 
would enable him to return. ' If Johnson had remained in College in 
1730 there were two scholarships to which he would have been eligible, 
and one of which Dr. Hall did not doubt that he would have obtained.' 
The whole question, with the evidence from the dates of Johnson's 
College friends, has been patiently unravelled in Dr. Hill's Johnson; 
his Friends and Critics. The explanation of Adams' remark that he 
was but nominally his tutor can only be that Johnson's name was on 
the list of his pupils, but that he was not in residence. Croker 
unnecessarily affirms, ' Dr. Adams was never in any sense Johnson's 
tutor.' 

A recent writer 1 observes : * It is questionable whether Johnson's 
connexion with Pembroke is more of a credit or a disgrace to the 
College. His abilities and learning were well known ; his poverty also 
was notorious ; yet no substantial help was afforded him.' On the 
other hand it has been thought that the College did help him 
pecuniarily. It is certain that the authorities did not reckon too 
nicely with him, for his account was allowed to run on for eleven 
years : — 

say, ' He went to Bosworth immediately after he had left Oxford.' The following 
part of a letter in the College library describes him at the age of twenty-five : 
'Solihull, ye 30 August, 1735. . . . The feoffees desired some time to make 
enquiry of y e caracter of M r Johnson, who all agree that he is an excellent 
Scholar, and upon that account deserves much better than to be Schoolmaster 
of Solihull. But then he has the caracter of being a very haughty ill-natured 
gent., and that he has such a way of distorting his Face (which though he can't 
help) y e gent, think it may affect some young ladds ; for these two reasons he is 
not approved on. . . . Henry Greswold.' 

1 The Rev. Frederick Arnold, Oxford and Cambridge. 



JOHNSON. 341 

'March 26, 1740. At a convention of the Master and Fellows to settle 
the accounts of the Caution, it appear'd that the Persons Accounts under- 
written stood thus at their leaving the College. 

1 Caution not Repay'd M r Johnson £7. o. o. 
Battells not discharg'd M 1 ' Johnson £7. o. o.' 

It is unlikely that the batells exactly balanced the caution. Even if 
it be the case that pecuniary help was not given, it has to be remem- 
bered that College funds are strictly appropriated. Johnson was for- 
ward to express bitter resentment when no helping hand was given to 
the slow rise of worth by poverty depressed. But he had till his death 
' love and regard ' for the College, and dwells on the ' zeal and grati- 
tude of those that love it.' In later life, when commending a learned 
Benedictine to the hospitality of the Master and Fellows, he spoke 
of himself in no mere phrase of civility as having ' had the honour of 
studying among ' them. He thought of bequeathing the house at 
Lichfield to the College, but was reminded of the claim of some poor 
relatives 1 . 

In the early struggling years, while he wrote famae /antique, Johnson 
was not likely to revisit his College, from which Jorden and Adams 
were gone. But when he had won repute and friends he renewed his 
Oxford days. In, or soon after, 1752 he passed a considerable time 
at Oxford in the society of Bennet Langton and of Beauclerk, who had 
the charm, the wit, and the morals of his royal ancestor. ' What a 
coalition/ said Garrick. ' I shall have my old friend to bail out of the 
round-house/ In Langton's rooms he wrote an Idler in half-an-hour 
and sent it off unread. In 1754 he lodged for five weeks at Kettel 
Hall to consult the libraries for his Dictionary, though, Boswell says, 
he collected nothing for that purpose. Warton says that he had not 
been to Oxford before. Johnson gave him a third version of the 
playing truant episode : — 

'When Johnson came to Oxford in 1754, the long vacation was 
beginning, and most people were leaving the place. This was the first 
time of his being there, after quitting the university. The next morning 
after his arrival, he wished to see his old college, Pembroke. I went 
with him. He was highly pleased to find all the college servants which 
he had left there still remaining, particularly a very old butler 2 ; and 
expressed great satisfaction at being recognized by them, and conversed 
with them familiarly. He waited on the master, Dr. Radcliffe, who 

1 The dignified-looking old house has been put to various base uses and was 
lately (1895) in danger of demolition. 

2 Croker, on Dr. Hall's authority, says that this butler was the old servant who 
was Dr. Ratcliff's residuary legatee. But Dr. Ratcliff did not die till 1775. 



342 



JOHNSON. 



received him very coldly. Johnson at least expected, that the master 
would order a copy of his Dictionary, now near publication ; but the 
master did not choose to talk on the subject, never asked Johnson to 
dine, nor even to visit him, while he stayed at Oxford. After we had left 
the lodgings, Johnson said to me, " There lives a man, who lives by the 
revenues of literature, and will not move a finger to support it 1 . If 
I come to live at Oxford, I shall take up my abode at Trinity." We 
then called on the reverend Mr. Meeke, one of the fellows, and of Johnson's 
standing 2 . Here was a most cordial greeting on both sides. On leaving 
him Johnson said, " I used to think Meeke had excellent parts, when we 
were boys together at the college : but, alas ! 

' Lost in a convent's solitary gloom ! ' — 
I remember, at the classical lecture in the hall, I could not bear Meeke's 
superiority ; and I tried to sit as far from him as I could, that I might 
not hear him construe." As we were leaving the college, he said, " Here 
I translated Pope's Messiah. Which do you think is the best line in it?— 
My own favourite is, 

' Vallis aromaticas fundit Saronica nubes.'" 

I told him, I thought it a very sonorous hexameter. I did not tell him, 
it was not in the Virgilian style. He much regretted that his first tutor 
was dead ; for whom he seemed to retain the greatest regard. He said, 
" I once had been a whole morning sliding in Christ-church meadows, 
and missed his lecture in logick. After dinner he sent for me to his room. 
I expected a sharp rebuke for my idleness, and went with a beating heart. 
When we were seated, he told me he had sent for me to drink a glass of 
wine with him, and to tell me he was not angry with me for missing his 
lecture. This was, in fact, a most severe reprimand. Some more of the 
boys were then sent for, and we spent a very pleasant afternoon." Besides 
Mr. Meeke, there was only one other fellow of Pembroke now resident ; 
from both of whom Johnson received the greatest civilities during this visit, 
and they pressed him very much to have a room in the college.' 

It seems that in the Long Vacation at that time there were twenty-five 
residents out of a maximum of little more than fifty. 

The next year in the summer he again visited Warton at Kettel Hall. 
In Johnson's famous audience of George III he told the King that it gave 
him pleasure to go to Oxford and pleasure to leave. He ever looked 
on himself as a University writer. But Boswell mentions no further 
stay in Oxford till 1767. In 1768 he stayed with Chambers, Vinerian 
Professor, in New Inn Hall, for a long visit. He expatiated to 

1 Dr. Ratcliff was a great invalid. Johnson is unjust to him, for he was a 
considerable benefactor to the College. 

2 John Meeke, elected Scholar 1726, therefore Johnson's senior. Ob. Sept. 1763. 
Horace Walpole relates a mistake that he made about Meeke {Letters, Oct. 3, 1763). 
Meeke died in Nell Gwynne's old timbered house near Maidenhead, but was 
brought to St. Aldate's for burial. 



JOHNSON. 



343 



Boswell on the advantages of Oxford for learning. The next year he 
was at Oxford again. No other visit is recorded till 1773, and after 
that till 1776, when Dr. Adams, the new Master, took him round 
Pembroke, as previously narrated. The next year he again went 
there. Murphy says he stayed at the College in August, 1783. Of 
the 1784 visit Boswell gives a minute account. The Oxford post-coach 
took them up at Bolt Court on June 3. Mrs. Beresford, an agreeable 
American lady, travelling with her daughter, was awed at finding what 
company she was in, but nearly got into trouble by mentioning that 
her husband was a member of the American Congress, a remark 
which Johnson, fortunately, did not overhear. He was very gracious 
and communicative on the journey. At the inn where they dined he 
was human enough to be exceedingly dissatisfied with the roast mutton 
— ' as bad as bad can be : ill fed, ill killed, ill kept, and ill drest/ ' He 
bore the journey very well, and seemed to feel himself elevated as he 
approached Oxford, that magnificent and venerable seat of learning, 
orthodoxy, and toryism. Frank [the negro] came in the heavy coach, 
in readiness to attend him, and we were received with the most polite 
hospitality at the house of his old friend Dr. Adams, master of Pem- 
broke college. . . He was easy and placid with Dr. Adams, Mrs. and 
Miss Adams, and Mrs. Kennicott, widow of the learned Hebraean, 
who was here on a visit.' Boswell had to leave, but returned on the 9 th , 
' happy to find myself again in the same agreeable circle at Pembroke 
college, with the comfortable prospect of making some stay/ The late 
venerable Bishop of Chichester, Dr. Richard Durnford (who himself 
entered the College in 1820), remembered his father, the Rev. Richard 
Durnford, relating that, when a Pembroke freshman, he was invited 
one evening to the Lodgings by Dr. Adams — who was a friend of his 
family — Johnson and Boswell being of the party. The latter had quitted 
the room for a few minutes, and on his return ran eagerly to the Master, 
placing his hand on his arm, and asked : ' Has he said anything 1 ? ' 

This, however, must have happened at the visit in November. The 
Biographer gives a number of conversations which took place at the 
Master's. One of Johnson's remarks was this : ' I would be a papist 
if I could. I have fear enough, but an obstinate rationality prevents 
me. I shall never be a papist unless on the near approach of death, 
of which I have a very great terrour. I wonder that women are not 
all papists/ He also argued for certain pre-Reformation practices. 

1 I was favoured with an account of this reminiscence in a letter from his 
lordship, dated Dec. 24, 1894. From the Bishop's father Archbishop Howley 
learned to fish with a worm. 



344 JOHNSON. 

One day in Dr. Adams' coach Boswell took courage to tell Johnson 
that many who might have been benefited by his conversation had 
been frightened away by his roughness, and to ask whether he would 
not have done more good if he had been more gentle. Johnson : 
£ No, sir; I have done more good as I am. Obscenity and impiety 
have always been repressed in my company.' Boswell : ' True, sir ; 
and that is more than can be said of every bishop.' He was full of 
tenderness, however, in that house. Miss Sarah Adams, an accom- 
plished and bright girl \ who ventured on the dangerous enterprise of 
arguing with Johnson, happened to tell him that a little coffee-pot, in 
which she had made him coffee, was the only thing she could call her 
own ; to which, rolling, no doubt, and blinking, he replied gallantly : 
1 Don't say so, my dear ; I hope you don't reckon my heart as nothing/ 
Boswell says : ' There was something exceedingly pleasing in our 
leading a college life, without restraint and with superiour elegance, in 
consequence of our living in the Master's house and having the com- 
pany of ladies. Mrs. Kennicot related, in his presence, a lively saying 
of Dr. Johnson to Miss Hannah More, who had expressed a wonder 
that the poet who had written Paradise Lost should write such poor 
sonnets : — " Milton, madam, was a genius that could cut a colossus 
from a rock, but could not carve heads upon cherry-stones." ' There 
were, however, some occasions which were not mollia tempora fandi, 
as when Boswell was told not to cant in praise of savages. He does 
not mention Hannah More's visit, but the following letter to her sister 
is dated Oxford, June 13, 1784: — 

' Who do you think is my principal cicerone in Oxford ? Only 
D r Johnson ! And we do so gallant it about ! You cannot imagine with 
what delight he showed me every part of his own College (Pembroke) 
nor how rejoiced Henderson looked to make one of the party. D r Adams 
had contrived a very pretty piece of gallantry. We spent the day and 
evening at his house. After dinner Johnson begged to conduct me to 
see the College ; he would let no one show it me but himself. " This 
was my room : this Shenstone's." Then, after pointing out all the rooms 
of the poets who had been of his College, " in short," said he, " we were 
a nest of singing birds. Here we walked, there we played at cricket." 
He ran over with pleasure the history of the juvenile days he passed 
there. When we came into the Common room we spied a fine large 
print of Johnson 2 , framed and hung up that very morning, with this 

1 She married Benjamin Hyett, Esq., of Painswick House, but died without 
issue in 1 804, aged fifty-eight. Painswick was left to her cousin Francis Adams, 
who assumed the additional name and arms of Hyett in 18 15. Dr. Adams had 
two brothers and four sisters. 

2 When Johnson saw his portrait by Trotter he said : « Well, thou art an ugly 
fellow ; but still I believe thou art like the original.' 



JOHNSON. 



345 



motto, " And is not Johnson ou^s, himself a host ? " under which stared 
you in the face, " From Miss More's Sensibility." This little incident 
amused us : but alas ! Johnson looked very ill indeed ; spiritless and 
wan. However he made an effort to be cheerful, and I exerted myself to 
make him so V 

A letter from Miss Adams in the College Library, dated June 14, 
1784, says : — 

' On Wednesday we had here a delightful blue-stocking party ; D r and 
M rs Kennicott and Miss More, D r Johnson, M 1 ' Henderson, etc., dined 
here. Poor D 1 ' Johnson is in very bad health, but he exerted himself as 
much as he could, and being very fond of Miss More he talked a good 
deal, and every word he says is worth recording. He took great delight 
in shewing Miss More every part of Pembroke College, and his own 
rooms, etc., and told us many things of himself when here.' June 19. 
' We dined yesterday for the last time with D r Johnson. He went away 
today.' Johnson himself says : ' I returned last night from Oxford, after 
a fortnight's abode with D r Adams, who treated me as well as I could 
expect or wish : and he that contents a sick man, a man whom it is 
impossible to please, has surely done his part well 2 .' 

At the end of the year, in the dark November days, he was again at 
the College, where he spent four or five days. He and his old friend 
had much serious talk together, especially about prayer. Miss Adams 
writes, Dec. 23, 1784, 'He promised to come again, as he was, he 
said, nowhere so happy.' But he went back to London to die, not 
amid terrors, but with Christian tranquillity and hope. 

Johnson to all the world is Doctor Johnson. Until his forty-fifth 
year, however, he had no University degree. But Boswell observes that, 
the Master's degree being desired for the title-page of his Dictionary, 
his friends thought that, if proper exertions were made, the University 
of Oxford would pay him the compliment. Johnson wrote anxiously 
to Warton about it : ' I shall be extremely glad to hear from you again 
to know if the affair proceeds. I have mentioned it to none of my 
friends, for fear of being laughed at for my disappointment.' Early in 
1755 the diploma passed the suffrages of the Heads, on the recom- 
mendation of the Chancellor, the Earl of Arran, and on Feb. 20 it was 
carried in Convocation with no dissentient voice — 

'Cum vir doctissimus Samuel Johnson, e Collegio Pembrochiensi, 
scriptis suis popularium mores informantibus dudum literato orbi inno- 
tuerit ; quin et linguae patriae turn ornandae turn stabiliendae (Lexicon 
scilicet Anglicanum summo studio, summo a se judicio congestum pro- 
pediem editurus) etiam nunc utilissimam impendat operam.' 



1 Memoirs, i. 261. 



2 Letters to Mrs. Thrale, vol. ii. p. 372. 



346 JOHNSON. 

Johnson, deeply gratified, wrote a Latin letter of thanks to the Vice- 
Chancellor. Ten years later Trinity College, Dublin, paid him the 
unsolicited compliment of creating him Doctor Utriusque Juris, and 
after another ten years his own University conferred on her illustrious 
son, as rightly acknowledged to be ' in Literarum Republica Princeps 
jam et Primarius,' the Doctorate in that one branch of Law which 
alone, through the jealousy of Henry VIII, she has to bestow. 
Johnson, though he called himself 'Mr. 7 to the end, was above the 
littleness of affecting to undervalue the honour done him by the 
University. When he "'gallanted it about' with Hannah More he 
wore his doctor's gown with pride, and was scrupulously academic. 
Speaking of the Universities, he said that though degenerated they 
still were homes of learned men and abounded in conveniences and 
opportunities of study to be found nowhere else. ' There is at least 
one very powerful incentive to learning — I mean the genius of the 
place. This is a sort of inspiring deity.' Oxford in particular, as 
the ' home of impossible loyalties,' drew a passionate affection from 
him, and those characteristics which made Gibbon 1 revile the place 
endeared it to Johnson. He had the feeling expressed by Newman in 
1833 : ' Oxford, of course, must ever be a sacred city to an Oxonian, 
and is to me.' Pembroke he loved none the less that it was reputed 
the most Jacobitical of the colleges. 

An object of interest to visitors to the Common Room is Dr. John- 
son's tea-pot, a piece of Worcester, with roses, lilies, and sprays 
in blue on a white ground. It was acquired with a view to 
presentation to the College by Mr. Alfred Thomas Barton, M.A., now 
Vicegerent and Senior Tutor, from the writer of the following 
letter: — 

' Sir — D r Johnson's Tea Pot belonged to my paternal grandmother, 
M rs Samuel Parker (maiden name Charlotte Bagnall). She was brought 
up by Sir Thomas and Lady Aston at their place at Frodsham in 
Cheshire, where also lived as Vicar the Rev d — Gastrel, who afterwards 
lived at New Place, Stratford on Avon, and cut down the celebrated 
mulberry tree in that garden. Jane Gastrel his wife was a great friend 
of my grandmother's, and also was very intimate with D 1 * Johnson. So 
by that means my Grandmother was thrown very much into the Doctor's 
society when at Lichfield. 

' In this way the Tea Pot and other things came into her possession. 
In Boswell's Life oj Dr. Johnson, page 68, vol. 2, pub. 1831, alluding to 
the Tea Pot, is a note at the foot of the page : " The Rev d M r Parker of 

1 ' To the University of Oxford I acknowledge no obligations ; and she will as 
cheerfully renounce me for a son as I am willing to disclaim her for a mother.' 



JOHNSON. 



347 



Henley is in Possession of a Tea Pot which belonged to D r Johnson, and 
which contains about 2 quarts." 

'The above was the Rev d Samuel Hay Parker, only child of William 
and Charlotte Parker, and the same who on taking his Degree in 1827 
gave D r Johnson's Letters and Papers to the Library of his College 
(Pembroke) through D 1 ' Hall, on 1 June in same year. 

'His first Curacy was at Henley in Arden in Warwickshire in 1828. 
He afterwards went to Stratford on Avon, where he died in 1844. The 
Tea Pot was given to my Brother, who left it to me (his Eldest Sister). 

' Sarah Anne Parker.' 

' 8 Jany 1885. Waterloo, n r Liverpool.' 

' I suppose no person,' writes the Biographer, ' ever enjoyed with 
more relish the infusion of that fragrant leaf than Johnson. The 
quantities which he drank of it at all hours were so great, that his 
nerves must have been uncommonly strong not to have been extremely 
relaxed by such an intemperate use of it. He assured me that he 
never felt the least inconvenience from it.' The only literary contro- 
versy he ever deigned to pursue was with Jonas Hanway, a misothe-ist, 
on this great argument. On one occasion he is recorded to have 
drunk twenty-two cups at a sitting. It was from this 1 teapot, probably, 
that blind Mrs. Williams poured for Boswell, who fancied that she put 
her finger down a little way into the cups to see if they were full. In 
his first elation at being admitted to such domestic intimacy with 
Johnson he ' willingly drank cup after cup, as if it had been the 
Heliconian spring. But as the charm of novelty wore off I grew more 
fastidious ; and besides I discovered that she was of a peevish temper.' 
In it, too, was made the tea which, without milk and with cross-buns, 
formed the sole Good-Friday meal. Johnson did not enjoy drinking 
tea at Garrick's, for Garrick was of a saving nature and grumbled at 
lovely Margaret Woffington for making it blood-red. In the same 
cabinet is a pretty Worcester cider-mug, authenticated as used for 
gruel by Johnson during his visits to Kettel Hall. It was acquired 
Oct. 28, 1858. 

In the Library is the little deal varnished desk on which the 
Dictionary was written. This, with 'a chair and a half and five or 
six Greek folios, formed the curia supeliex of Johnson's garret when 
Dr. Burney was received by him there in 1758. Dr. Adams found 
him one day busy at the Dictionary and was surprised at the smallness 
of the apparatus used. 

'Adams : This is a great work, Sir. How are you to get all the 
Etymologies ? Johnson : Why, Sir, here is a Shelf with Junius and 

1 Burke mentions a silver tea-pot of Johnson's belonging to W. Hoper, Esq. 



348 JOHNSON. 

Skinner and others ; and there is a Welsh gentleman who has published 
a collection of Welsh proverbs who will help me with the Welsh. Adams : 
But, Sir, how can you do it in three years ? JOHNSON : Sir, I have no 
doubt that I can do it in three years. Adams : But the French Academy, 
which consists of forty Members, took forty years to compile their 
Dictionary. Johnson : Sir, thus it is : This is the proportion. Let me 
see ; forty times forty is sixteen hundred. As three to sixteen hundred, 
so is the proportion of an Englishman to a Frenchman. With so much 
ease and pleasantry could he talk of that prodigious labour which he had 
undertaken to execute.' (Boswell.) 

Johnson, however, employed six amanuenses, five of them Scotsmen, 
whom, nevertheless, he treated as a father his sons. Also in the 
Library is another small deal escritoire which once belonged to 
Johnson, and afterwards to a person of notoriety, at the sale of whose 
effects it was acquired. An inscription on it states that it was bought 
with the other furniture of Edial Hall by a Mr. Elvery, being then 
known as 'the Doctor's desk.' Mr. Elvery's grandson, Mr. John 
Styche, of Edial, sold it with his other effects in December, 1880, 
the purchaser being Mr. T. Page, of Lichfield, who parted with it 
in the following April to the last possessor. 

The superb and characteristic portrait, in perfect condition, which 
now hangs in the Common Room, is certainly not, as Mr. Napier 
alleges, a replica of the Reynolds in the National Gallery, which was 
painted for Mrs. Thrale, to take the place of the 'Blinking Sam' 
picture, in 1778. It was presented to the College in 1850 by Mr. 
Andrew Spottiswoode in recognition of kindness showed to his son, 
Mr. William Spottiswoode. The latter informed Mr. Napier in 1883: 
c It was painted by Reynolds for a relative of ours, Mr. Strahan \ and 
always remained in the house where he lived (10, Little New Street, 
Shoe Lane) until it was removed to Pembroke College. Johnson and 
Reynolds were both friends and frequent guests at that house.' Miss 
Adams told Johnson that he ought to give Pembroke his picture to 
hang in the hall. ' His answer was that he had no right to be placed 
among the Founders and Benefactors in the Hall ; that the most he 
could aspire to would be a place in the Lodgings if the Master could 
find room for his picture there.' There is an inferior picture, ascribed 
to Reynolds, in the Master's house, given in 1804 by Mr. Panton 
Plymley, or Corbett (knight of the shire for Salop 1820-30), who 
entered in 1800, aged 14, and a copy of the picture in Trafalgar Square, 
lately presented by E. J. Leveson, Esq., now hangs in the Hall. In the 
Library is a small oval framed pencil sketch. The features are aged 
1 Mr. Andrew Strahan, Mr. Spottiswoode's uncle. 



JOHNSON'S FRIENDS 



349 



and drawn ; the wig is a flowing one. On t is written ' Done by 
permission of Mr. Samuel Johnson himself for the Rev d . H. Bright. 
1769.' At the bottom ' The Head of Dr. Johnson from a seal of the 
Rev d . G. Strahan.' The Library also contains a bust by Bacon, 
copied from the statue in St. Paul's. The famous Samuel Whitbread 
wrote, on Dec. 17, 1796, to the Master saying that his father had left 
directions that it should be presented to the College. 

A copy of Johnson's Political Tracts in the Library has, in his hand, 
J To Sir Joshua Reynolds from the Authour.' Sir Joshua has written 
his own name on the title-page. Two College exercises, some letters 
and other papers written by Johnson, and the prized MS. of the Prayers 
and Meditations, are preserved here. 

Biographical sketches of Johnson, ' warm from the heart when his 
friend was scarce buried/ were written by Thomas Tyers, who, 
entering Pembroke in 1738, aged thirteen, was afterwards called the 
Boy Bachelor. Rich, unmarried, inquisitive, talkative, valetudinarian, 
distinguished among ' the mob of gentlemen who write with ease/ 
affecting to be ashamed of the imputation of authorship, the intimate 
of great men in London, and at Ashted ' considered by all the 
surrounding gentry a man of profound learning who had some little 
peculiarities in his manners/ Tyers was the typical Eighteenth Century 
dilettante. Yet ' Dr. Johnson loved him.' Tyers, he said, always told 
him something he did not know before. He was, the Gentleman's 
Magazine says, the ' son of the famous Jonathan Tyers, the original 
embellisher of Vauxhall Gardens, and a joint-proprietor of that 
delightful spot. Many of the poetical trifles which were exhibited in 
these gardens were the production of his pen/ He dedicated a 
pastoral called Lucy to Lord Chesterfield, and one called Rosalind to 
Lord Granville. These were printed for Dodsley. He also wrote 
Rhapsodies on Pope and Addison (17 8 1-3), Dramatic Conferences 
(1782), Political Conferences, and many other works. A drawing of 
Tyers by Taylor has been engraved. 



NOTE A. 
John Taylor, LL.D., of Ashburne. 

Johnson told Mrs. Thrale : 1 The history of my Oxford exploits is all 
between Taylor and Adams.' He kept up a life-long intimacy with 
Dr. Taylor, though the Whig interest in Derbyshire had no stronger 
supporter, and Boswell could perceive nothing congenial in the characters 



35° 



DR. TAYLOR. 



of the two men. Taylor was a litigious Tom Tusher. His private wealth 
and political connexions surrounded him with fat livings, pluralities, 
dignities, and power. He affected the hearty broad-shouldered squire 
with a touch of parson superadded, was diligent on the bench and 
liberal to charities ; yet the farmers of Market Bosworth would throw 
away their milk rather than pay ' white tythe ' to the non-resident 
rector. His pew at Ashburne, once the chantry of the Holy Cross, 
was hung with velvet used at George Ill's Coronation, the per- 
quisite of his Westminster stall ; in his mansion, where the chantry- 
priest had starved, Dr. Taylor was served, like a bishop, by a large grave 
butler in purple and a white wig. He had hopes of a deanery, and 
subscribed to the arming of volunteers against the invasion of the Young 
Chevalier. Johnson said: ' Sir, I love him; but I do not love him more ; 
my regard for him does not increase. As it is said in the Apocrypha, 
"his talk is of bullocks." I do not suppose he is very fond of my 
company. His habits are by no means sufficiently clerical : this he 
knows that I see ; and no man likes to live under the eye of perpetual 
disapprobation.' He wrote Taylor's most orthodox sermons {Condones 
pro Toy lore). However he said, 4 Sir, he has a very strong under- 
standing.' Johnson liked venison, and Reynolds suggested to Boswell 
that the explanation of his attentions to Taylor was that the latter, as 
Johnson told him, had made him his heir. This seems unlikely, both 
from Johnson's character and because Taylor was likely to outlive him. 
He read the service in the Abbey (unfeelingly, Malone and Steevens 
said) over Johnson's grave, dying himself early in 1788, aged seventy- 
seven. Johnson clung wistfully to old intimacies. A little before his 
death he wrote to Taylor : ' Dear Sir, — What can be the reason that 
I hear nothing from you ? ... Do not omit giving me the comfort of 
knowing that after all my losses I have yet a friend left. I want every 
comfort. My life is very solitary and very cheerless. . . . O ! my friend, 
the approach of death is very dreadful. It is vain to look round and 
round for that help which cannot be had. Yet we hope and hope, and 
fancy that he who has lived to-day may live to-morrow. But let us learn 
to derive our hope only from God. In the meantime let us be kind to 
one another. I have no friend now living, but you and M r Hector, that 
was the friend of my youth. Do not neglect, dear sir, Yours affection- 
ately Sam. Johnson.' This is not the letter of a legacy hunter. Dr. Taylor, 
who was twice married, left his estates to his shoeblack and page, William 
Brunt, to spite his relatives whom he overheard, when in a grave illness, 
discussing the distribution of his property. The boy, the son of a vendor 
of besoms, swooned at hearing the news. He was in truth descended 
from Dr. Taylor's grandfather, and took thenceforward the name of 
a common ancestor, Webster. The gold coin which had been placed 
round Johnson's neck by Queen Anne, when touched in childhood for the 
King's Evil, Taylor bequeathed to his patron and friend, the Duke of 
Devonshire. I am indebted for most of the foregoing note to the 
Rev. Francis Jourdain, M.A., Vicar of Ashburne and Rural Dean, a 
loyal member of the College. 



FRESHMEN'S NIGHTS. 



35i 



NOTE B. 

Freshmen's Gaudies— Going Round the Fire (see pp. 327, 334). 

The custom at Merton of singing hymns round the charcoal fire on 
holy days and vigils from Allhallowmas to the Purification is described 
by Wood, and also the initiation of freshmen on these occasions. At 
Exeter, Shaftesbury, while a senior in 1637, had a principal hand in 
putting down ' that ill custom of tucking freshmen.' These ' freshmen's 
gawdies ' (vide supra, p. 280) were the same no doubt at Pembroke, and 
probably in the Broadgates times were connected with the All Saints' 
festival. Wood (Life and Times, i. 133, 138), says: — 

1 On the holydayes their nights and eves, at all these fires every night, which 
began to be made a little after five of the clock, the senior undergraduats would 
bring into the hall the juniors or freshmen between that time and six of the clock, 
and there make them sit downe on a forme in the middle of the hall, joyning to the 
declaiming desk; which done, every one in order was to speake some pretty 
apothegme, or make a jest or bull, or speake some eloquent nonsense, to make 
the company laugh. But if any of the freshmen came off dull, or not cleverly, 
some of the forward or pragmatical seniors would " tuck " them, that is, set the 
nail of their thumb to their chin, just under the lower lipp, and by help of their 
other fingers under the chin, they would give him a mark, which some times would 
produce blood.' At Shrove-tide ' the fire being made in the common hall before 
5 of the clock at night, the fellowes would go to supper before six, and making an 
end sooner than at other times, they left the hall to the libertie of the under- 
graduats, but with an admonition from one of the fellowes that all things should be 
carried in good order. While they were at supper in the hall, the cook was 
making the lesser of the brass pots ful of cawdel at the freshmans' charge ; which 
was brought up & set before the fire in the hall. Afterwards, every freshman, 
according to seniority, was to pluck off his gowne & band, and if possible to make 
himself look like a scoundrell. This done, they were conducted each after the 
other to the high table, and then made to stand on a forme placed thereon ; from 
whence they were to speak their speech with an audible voice to the company : 
which if well done, the person that spoke it was to have a cup of cawdle and no 
salted drinke ; if indifferently, some cawdle and some salted drink ; but if dull, 
nothing was given to him but salted drink or salt put in college beere, with tucks to 
boot. Afterwards when they were to be admitted into the fraternity, the senior 
cook was to administer to them an oath over an old shoe, part of which runs thus — 
" Item tu jurabis quod penniless bench non visitabis &c." the rest is forgotten, and 
none there are now remembers it. After which spoken with gravity, the Fresh- 
man kist the shoe, put on his gowne and band and took his place among the 
seniors. This was the way & custome that had been used in the college, time 
out of mind, to initiate the freshmen ; but between that time & the restoration of 
K. Ch. 2 it was disused, and now such a thing is absolutely forgotten.' See also 
Life and Times, iv. 60. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 



WHITEFIELD. 

Almost contemporary at the College with the great high-church 
moralist of the fireside and the study was the reviver, or creator, in 
England of pietistic Calvinism, the most powerful pulpiteer of the last 
century. George Whitefield, born in the Bell Inn at Gloucester 
Dec. 1 6, 1 7 14, was taught Latin and Greek at the St. Marie de Crypt 
School, where at the annual visitations his eloquence already attracted 
attention. His father had died when George was a baby, and his 
mother was glad of his help in the inn. ' At length I put on my blue 
apron and snuffers and became professed and common drawer for 
nigh a year and a half.' One day an old schoolfellow, a Pembroke 
servitor, visited the £ Bell,' and related that he had not only discharged 
his College expenses for the term but had received a penny ; at which 
the ale-wife cried out, ' That will do for my son. Will you go to 
Oxford, George ? ' ' With all my heart,' he replied. His school- 
fellow's friends promised their interest to procure him a servitor's place 
at Pembroke. 1 For a twelvemonth I went on in a round of duties 
receiving the sacrament monthly, fasting frequently, attending con- 
stantly on publick worship, and praying often more than twice a day 
in private. One of my brothers used to tell me he feared this would 
not last long, and that I should forget all when I came to Oxford. . . 
Being now eighteen years old, it was judged proper for me to go to 
the University. God had prepared my way. The friends before 
applied to recommended me to the master of Pembroke College. 
Another friend took up ten pounds upon bond, which I have 
since repaid, to defray the first expense of entering, and the master 
[Dr. Panting], contrary to all expectations, admitted me servitor 
immediately/ 

Whitefield entered Pembroke a few months after Shenstone. He 
matriculated Nov. 7, 1732. Shenstone, however, as a gentleman- 



WHITEFIELD. 



353 



commoner, occupied a very different social position. In A Short 
Account of God's Dealings with the Reverend George Whitefield we 
read : — ' Soon after my admission to Pembroke College I found my 
having been used to a publick-house was now of service to me. For 
many of the servitors being sick at my first coming up, by my diligent 
and ready attendance I ingratiated myself into the gentlemen's favour 
so far that many chose me to be their servitor. 

' This much lessened my expence, and indeed God was so gracious, 
that with the profits of my place and some little presents made me by 
my kind tutor, for almost the first three years I did not put all myrelations 
together to above 24/. expence. And it has often grieved my soul to 
see so many young students spending their substance in extravagant 
living. . . I was quickly sollicited to joyn in their excess of riot with 
several who lay in the same room \ God, in answer to prayers before 
put up, gave me grace to withstand them. And once in particular, it 
being cold, my limbs were so benummed by sitting alone in my study, 
because I would not go out amongst them, that I could scarce sleep 
all night. But I soon found the benefit of not yielding ; for when 
they perceived they could not prevail they let me alone as a singular 
odd fellow. 

' All this while I was not fully satisfied of the sin of playing at cards 
and reading plays till God, upon a fast day, was pleased to convince me. 

'Before I went to the University I met with Mr. Law's " Serious 
Call to a Devout Life," but had not then money to purchase it. Soon 
after my coming up to the University, seeing a small edition of it in 
a friend's hand, I soon procured it. God worked powerfully upon 
my soul, as He has since upon many others, by that and his other 
excellent treatise upon Christian Perfection. I now began to pray and 
sing psalms thrice every day, besides morning and evening, and to fast 
every Friday, and to receive the Sacrament at a parish church 2 near 
our College, and at the Castle, where the despised Methodists used to 
receive once a month. 

' The young men so called were then much talked of at Oxford. . . 
For about a twelvemonth my soul longed to be acquainted with some 
of them, and I was strongly pressed to follow their good example, 
when I saw them go through a ridiculing crowd to receive the Holy 
Eucharist at St. Marys. At length, God was pleased to open a door. 

1 The present sitting-rooms were then shared for sleeping, the present bed-room 
and servants' pantry forming the studies. 

2 Not, I think, St. Aldate's, used till this year as the College Chapel, but probably 
St. Ebbe's. 

a a 



354 



Will TEFIEL D. 



It happened that a poor woman in one of the Workhouses had 
attempted to cut her throat, but was happily prevented. Upon hearing 
of this, and knowing that both the Mr. Wesleys were ready to every 
good work, I sent a poor aged apple-woman of our College to inform 
Mr. Charles Wesley of it, charging her not to discover who sent her. 
She went ; but, contrary to my orders, told my name. He having 
heard of my coming to the Castle and a parish church Sacrament, and 
having met me frequently walking by myself, followed the woman when 
she was gone away, and sent an invitation to me by her to come to 
breakfast with him the next morning. I thankfully embraced the 
opportunity/ 

Charles Wesley lent him books, which convinced him that 'true 
religion is a union of the soul with God.' ' From time to time 
Mr. Wesley permitted me to come unto him and instructed me as 
I was able to bear it. By degrees he introduced me to the rest of his 
Christian brethren. . . I now began, like them, to live by rule, and to 
pick up the very fragments of my time that not a moment of it might 
be lost. Whenever I ate or drank or whatsoever I did I endeavoured 
to do all to the glory of God. Like them, having no weekly sacra- 
ment (although the rubrick required it), at our own college, I received 
every Sunday at Christ Church. I joined with them in keeping the 
stations by fasting Wednesdays and Fridays, and left no means unused 
which I thought would lead me nearer to Jesus Christ. 

c Regular retirement, morning and evening, at first I found some 
difficulty in submitting to ; but it soon grew profitable and delightful. 
As I grew ripe for such exercises I was from time to time engaged 
to visit the sick and the prisoners and to read to poor people, till 
I made it a custom, as most of us did, to spend an hour every day 
in doing works of charity. 

* The course of my studies I soon intirely changed. Whereas before 
I was busied in studying the dry sciences, and books that went no 
farther than the surface, I now resolved to read only such as entered 
into the heart of religion/ 

He mentions several short fits of illness, in which he is much 
cheered by the society of his new friends, with whom he spent many 
sweet and delightful hours. ' Never did persons, I believe, strive 
more earnestly to enter in at the strait gate. They kept their bodies 
under even to an extreme. They were dead to the world, and were 
willing to be accounted as the dung and offscouring of all things, so 
that they might win Christ' 

Some fell away under the displeasure of a tutor or head of a College, 



WH1 TEFIELD. 



355 



or in changing a gown from a lower to a higher degree. As for him- 
self, ' God was pleased to permit Satan to sift me as wheat. . . At my 
first setting out, in compassion to my weakness, I grew in favour both 
with God and man, and used to be much lifted up with sensible 
devotion, especially at the blessed Sacrament. But when religion 
began to take root in my heart, I was visited with outward and inward 
trials. 

' The first thing I was called to give up for God was what the world 
calls my fair reputation. I had no sooner received the Sacrament 
publickly on a weekday at St. Marys but I was set up as a mark for 
all the polite students that knew me to shoot at. [* By this they knew 
that I was commenced Methodist ; for though there is a Sacrament at 
the beginning of every term, at which all, especially the seniors, are, 
by statute, obliged to be present, yet so dreadfully has that once 
faithful city played the harlot, that very few masters and no under- 
graduates (but the Methodists) attended upon it.] 

' Mr. Charles Wesley, whom I must always mention with the greatest 
deference and respect, walked with me (in order to confirm me) from 
the church even to the college. I confess, to my shame, I would 
gladly have excused him ; and the next day, going to his room, one of 
our Fellows passing by, I was ashamed to be seen to knock at his 
door. But, blessed be God ! this fear of man gradually wore off. . . 

* Soon after this I incurred the displeasure of the Master of the 
College, who frequently chid, and once threatened to expel, me, if 
I ever visited the poor again. Being surprized by this treatment, and 
overawed by his authority, I spake unadvisedly with my lips, and said, 
if it displeased him, I would not. My conscience soon pricked me for 
this sinful compliance. I immediately repented, and visited the poor 
the first opportunity. . . My tutor, being a moderate man, did not 
oppose me much, but thought, I believe, that I went a little too far. 
He lent me books, gave me money, visited me, and furnished me with 
a physician when sick. In short he behaved in all respects like a 
father ; and I trust God will remember him for good in answer to the 
many prayers I have put up in his behalf. 

' I daily underwent some contempt at college. Some hath thrown 
dirt at me ; others by degrees took away their pay from me ; and two 
friends that were dear unto me grew shy of and forsook me/ 

These trials he found useful. But his inward struggles were to him 
as the buffetings of the Evil One, who he came to believe had 
possession of his body. ' When I kneeled down I felt great heavings 
1 These words are omitted in the 1756 edition of the Autobiography. 

A a 2 



35 6 



WHITEFIELD. 



in my body, and have often prayed under the weight of them till the 
sweat came through me. At this time Satan used to terrify me much, 
and threatened to punish me if I discovered his wiles. It being my 
duty, as servitor, in my turn to knock at the gentlemen's rooms by ten 
at night, to see who were in their rooms, I thought the devil would 
appear to me every stair I went up/ 

Then he sets himself to break the chain of sensual appetite. 
' Accordingly by degrees I began to leave off eating fruits and such 
like, and gave the money I usually spent in that way to the poor. 
Afterwards I always chose the worst sort of food, tho' my place 
furnished me with variety. I fasted twice a week. My apparel was 
mean. I thought it unbecoming a penitent to have his hair 1 powdered. 
I wore woollen gloves, a patched gown and dirty shoes ; and, though 
I was then convinced that the kingdom of God did not consist 
in meats and drinks, yet I resolutely persisted in these voluntary 
acts of self-denial, because I found them great promoters of the 
spiritual life/ 

Besides Law, his favourite books at this time are a Kempis and 
Castaniza's Spiritual Combat. Castaniza says that he who is employed 
in mortifying his will is as well employed as though he were converting 
Indians ; a thought which much impressed Whitefield and led him to 
shut himself up in his study to learn to know and conquer self. 
Afterwards he considers this was one of the devices of Satan, 
ploughing with God's heifer. ' His main drift was to lead me into 
a state of quietism/ Satan suggested to him to leave off all forms and 
not use his voice in prayer at all. 

' The devil also sadly imposed on me in the matter of my college 
exercises. Whenever I endeavoured to compose my theme, I had no 
power to write a word. . . Saturday being come (which is the day the 
students give up their compositions) it was suggested to me that I 
must go down into the hall, and confess I could not make a theme, 
and so publickly suffer, as if it were for my Master's sake. When the 
bell rung to call us, I went to open the door to go downstairs, but 
feeling something give me a violent inward check I entered my study 
and continued instant in prayer, waiting the event. For this my tutor 
fined me half-a-crown. The next week Satan served me in like 
manner again ; but now, having got more strength and perceiving no 
inward check, I went into the hall. My name being called I stood up, 
and told my tutor I could not make a theme. I think he fined me 

1 But Graves makes him say in later life, that nothing contributed more to the 
conversion of sinners than a good periwig. 



WHITEFIELD. 



357 



a second time ; but, in imagining that I would not willingly neglect my 
exercise, he afterwards called me into the common-room, and kindly 
enquired whether any misfortune had befallen me, or what was the 
reason I could not make a theme ? I burst into tears and told him it 
was not out of contempt of authority, but that I could not act other- 
wise. Then at length he said he believed I could not ; and when he 
left me told a friend, as he very well might, that he took me to be 
really mad. This friend, hearing from my tutor what had happened, 
came to me, urging the command of Scripture to be subject to the 
higher powers. I answered " Yes, but I had a new revelation. Lord, 
what is man ? " ' 

Perhaps if Whitefield had not so cast aside those ' dry sciences,'' for 
the study of which after all he had been sent to Oxford, theme-making 
would have been less troublesome to him. The College which 
supported him required theme-making, but in that ' new revelation ' 
and that 1 Lord, what is man ? ' comes out the impatience of authority 
which characterized developed Methodism. 

On another occasion we see him silently praying under a tree in 
Christ Church walk, in imitation of Jesus Christ, ' for near two hours, 
sometimes lying flat on my face, sometimes kneeling upon my knees, 
all the while filled with fear and concern lest some of my brethren 
should be overwhelmed with pride. The night being stormy it gave 
me awful thoughts of the day of judgment. I continued, I think, 
till the great bell rung for retirement to the College. 

' Soon after this the holy season of Lent came on, which our friends 
keep very strictly, eating no flesh during the six weeks except on 
Saturdays and Sundays. I abstained frequently on Saturdays also, 
and ate nothing on the other days (except on Sunday) but sage-tea 
without sugar and coarse bread. I constantly walked out in the cold 
mornings till part of one of my hands was black. This, with my 
continued abstinence and inward conflicts, at length so emaciated my 
body that at Passion-tide, finding I could scarce creep upstairs, I was 
obliged to inform my kind tutor of my condition, who immediately 
sent for a physician to me. 

' This caused no small triumph among the collegians, who began to 
cry out, " What is his fasting come to now ? " 

' . . As fast as I got strength after my sickness, my tutor, physician, 
and some others were still urging me to go into the country. . . I wrote 
letters, beseeching my mother, if she valued my soul, not to lay her 
commands on me to come down. She was pleased to leave me to my 
choice.' Whitefield found, however, a temporary retirement necessary 



358 



WH I TEF1 EL D. 



for health. This was at the end of his ninth term. He spent three 
quarters of a year at Gloucester, and then returned to Pembroke. At 
the end of his fourth year the time came for him to leave. He says, 
however : ' My friends urged several reasons for my continuing at the 
University. . . No one was left to take care of the prison affairs. They 
further urged that God blessed my endeavours there as well as at 
Gloucester ; that the University was the fountain-head ; that every 
gownsman's name was legion ; and that if I should be made instru- 
mental in converting one of them, it would be as much as converting 
a whole parish. At the same time, unknown to me, some of them 
sent to that great and good man, the late Sir John Phillips 1 , who was 
a great encourager of the Oxford Methodists ; and though he had 
never seen but only heard of me, yet he sent word he would allow me 
30/. a year if I would continue at the University. Upon this, finding 
the care of the prisoners to be no more than under God I could under- 
take with pleasure, and knowing that the University was the best place 
to prosecute my studies, I resolved, God willing, to wait at Oxford 
a blessing on the first fruits of my ministerial labours/ He did not, 
however, long carry out this intention. Having received the diaconate 
at Gloucester on June 20, 1736, at the age of twenty-one, and ' driven 
fifteen mad ' out of a vast auditory of his townsmen by his first sermon, 
he a week later put on his bachelors gown, the expenses of his 
ordination and degree being defrayed by five guineas from the good 
Bishop of Gloucester (Dr. Martin Benson) and Sir John Philipps' 
allowance. Before finally leaving Oxford he ministered once again to 
the poor wretches in the Castle. In a passage which he afterwards 
excised, perhaps as sounding undutiful, he writes : ' Oh the unspeak- 
able benefit of reading to the poor and exercising our talents while 
students at the University. . . Would the Heads and Tutors of our 
Universities follow His example, and instead of discouraging their 
pupils from doing anything of this nature send them to visit the sick 
and the prisoners, and to pray with and read practical books of religion 
to the poor, they would find such exercises of more service to them 
and to the Church of God than all their private and publick lectures 
put together.' 

Whitefield, after his seventh voyage to Georgia, died exhausted by 

1 Of Picton Castle. Vide supra, p. 301 ; described by his cousin, Horace 
Walpole, in 1746 as 'a noted Jacobite.' The 'Holy Club,' 'Bible Bigots' or 
' Bible Moths ' were of distinctly nonjuring proclivities. Whitefield can have had 
little in common, at bottom, with the Oxford Methodists, except a spirit of un- 
worldliness and mortified devotion. 



JOHNSON AND WHITEFIELD. 



359 



his labours at Newbury Port in New England, Sept. 30, 1770, aged 
fifty-five. He usually described himself as ' A.B., late of Pembroke 
College, Oxford.' Meeting his old tutor at Bristol in 1748 he told 
him that ' his judgment (as he trusted) was a little more ripened than 
it was some years ago.' 

Whitefield's stature was above the middle height. He was slender, 
but well proportioned, his features regular, his complexion fair, his 
eyes small, lively, and of a dark blue colour, but one of them oblique 
— the result of measles in his childhood. When he began to speak 
this defect was forgotten — how few sermons could carry conviction 
against a squint ! 1 His manner was graceful and natural, his voice 
unusual both in strength and melody. Graves describes him at 
home as having an episcopal appearance in a purple night-gown and 
velvet cap. 



NOTE A. 

Johnson and Whitefield. 

Johnson, as we have seen, said he knew Whitefield at Pembroke, 
though it is not easy to explain this. Though himself, as Boswell remarks, 
'in a dignified manner a methodist,' and believing in 'the whole dis- 
cipline of regulated piety,' as also in the powerful influences on the heart 
of the Holy Spirit, and though he praised the sincerity of a man who 
would travel 900 miles in a month and preach twelve times a week, 
Johnson disparaged the Gospel of Assurance and the Inward Light. He 
would allow no merit to Whitefield's oratory, which David Hume said 
was worth travelling a score of miles to hear. 'His popularity, Sir, is 
chiefly owing to the peculiarity of his manner. He would be followed by 
crowds were he to wear a nightcap in the pulpit or were he to preach 
from a tree.' Boswell tells us : 'Of his fellow-collegian, the celebrated 
Mr. George Whitefield, he said, "Whitefield never drew as much 
attention as a mountebank does. ... I never treated his ministry with 
contempt ; I believe he did good. He had devoted himself to the lower 
classes of mankind, and among them he was of use. But when familiarity 
and noise claim the praise due to knowledge, art, and elegance, we must 
beat down such pretensions." ' He placed him in one of the four classes 
of Egotists. Johnson approved of the expulsion of the six methodist 
undergraduates from Edmund Hall ; they had come to Oxford, he said, 
to be taught religion, not to teach it. 

1 Graves records : ' He has preached to twenty thousand people at a time . . . 
they would have plucked out their eyes and have given them to him.' {Spiritual 
Quixote, i. 81.) 



360 



WHl TEFIELD. 



NOTE B. 
Servitors. 

WHITEFIELD, Mr. Overton remarks, had 'exchanged the drawer's apron 
for the degrading badge of a servitor.' ' After two or three years' 
experience in this scarcely less menial capacity than he had filled at 
home, he found himself at the age of twenty-two with hardly any intel- 
lectual or moral discipline, without having acquired any taste for study, 
without having had the benefit of associating on anything like terms of 
equality with men of refinement, suddenly elevated to a degree of notoriety 
which few have attained.' Again, ' Whitefield's training at Oxford, no 
less than at Gloucester, was all calculated to foster a habit of servility.' 
It would appear to follow from this kind of reasoning that there should 
be no servants, or that one who, like Whitefield, has been born in a 
menial position should be given no facilities for obtaining a higher 
education 1 . But for his servitorship he would have ended his days 
among the pewter pots, serving boors, or become a mere ranting preacher 
in an obscure conventicle. Had these exhibitions been of more value 
and attended by no conditions of service, either Whitefield would not have 
obtained one, or he must have gone from the provincial beer-house to 
associate as an equal with dandies and gentlemen wits, the victim of 
worse humiliations than any he could experience in carrying about the 
alejack in the College hall. The truth is that servitorships and other 
graduations of rank at the University belong to an older and less 
sophisticated constitution of society. The mediaeval University drew 
the studious and aspiring of all ranks of life, in vast numbers, into its 
embracing commonwealth, each student retaining there the social con- 
dition which was his at home. There was no more degradation in service 
inside the University than outside it, nor at one time were menial offices 
considered to disgrace even youths of noble degree, who often acted as 
pages. The servitors of a college corresponded to the lay brethren of 
a monastery. They were not poor gentlemen, but came from the plough 
and the shop. Such a system was already beginning in the eighteenth 
century to be ' not convenient.' The Universities were no longer great 
pandocheia nurturing all conditions and sorts of youth. It had come to 
be not unusual for a servitor— as was the case with Jago, Shenstone's 
friend — to be, if not gentle-born, at any rate the son of a country curate. 
Johnson wished the institution abolished. It lasted in ill odour till 
comparatively recent times, a clear anachronism. Since its abolition 
none come to College but generosorwn Jilii, or those who, from a humbler 

1 Graves, speaking of servitors of this College, makes Wildgoose say sensibly : 
' I don't see why a man should be ashamed to have appeared in a situation which 
was agreeable to his circumstances. There is nothing ridiculous in a small fortune 
or even a low birth. But there is in the discovery that we are too anxious to 
conceal them, and even give the lye to them by our dress and appearance.' 
{Spiritual Quixote, i. 336.) 



SERVITORS. 



361 



condition, will dress, talk, and deport themselves like the public-school 
men around them. There are still servants attached to the Colleges, but 
they are not admitted to lecture room or chapel, and they leave Oxford 
what they were intellectually when they came to it. The conception of 
equal comradeship among students is an attractive one, and any other 
is now impossible. But it has necessitated the discommuning of the 
t poor clerk ' and the loss of a great ideal. Half a century earlier Wesley's 
father had footed it to Oxford with forty-five shillings in his purse, and 
been admitted as a servitor of Exeter : during five years' residence he 
received but a crown from his family. Dr. John Prideaux, Bishop of 
Worcester, who also had trudged to Oxford, served the spit in Exeter 
kitchen. He was chosen Fellow, and thence advanced to a mitre. 
Robinson, Bishop of London and Ambassador to the King of Sweden, 
went to Brasenose from the furrow. Bishop Jeremy Taylor left the 
barber's block for a sizar's place at Caius. A poor Pembroke student, 
John Moore, starting with a small exhibition ascended the throne of 
St. Augustine and became the first non-royal subject of the Crown. 
Whitefield himself, when at the end of his College career he found the 
priesthood within his grasp, boasted : ' For my quality I was a poor 
mean drawer ; but by the distinguishing grace of God am now intended 
for the ministry. As for my estate I am a servitor.' Pembroke to him 
had been no harsh stepmother. ' I left,' he writes at parting, ' my sweet 
retirement at Oxford.' 



CHAPTER XXVII. 



THE CHAPEL. 

For more than a century after its foundation Pembroke had no 
separate Chapel, but continued to use Docklinton's aisle. The 
Charles I panelling of the Master's pew is now in Stanton St. John's 
church. But in 1728, the year of Johnson's matriculation (who 
attended St. Aldate's for daily prayers, while Whitefield worshipped 
there for two months only, afterwards attending the new Chapel), the 
College, encouraged by a benefaction of £210 from Bartholomew 
Tipping, of Oxford *, and a legacy of £100 from Dr. Charles Sloper, 
sometime Fellow (Proctor 1697), Chancellor of Bristol, resolved to 
build itself a place for worship. Among contributors were the Earl of 
Arran, then Visitor (£100), the Earl of Pembroke (£50), the Rev. James 
Phipps (£105), Dr. Panting, the Master (£21 io.r.), Archdeacon 
Robert Cooper (£100), Dr. Samuel Baker, Canon and Chancellor of 
York (£50), the Rev. John Haines (£50). The College found 
£375 143*. \d. Mr. Adams, the manciple, had left in his will £20 
for the purpose. This and Dr. Sloper's legacy seems to show that 
the project had been in the air for some time 2 . Chapels had been 
built for Hart Hall in 17 16 and at Queen's in 1719. The building 
was not finished till 1732. Mr. Tipping, who is described in Oxonia 
Depicia of the next year as ' inter munificos Benefactores primus,' and 
whose arms are on the screen, had canvassed all his friends for funds, 
and the foundation-stone was laid by him. On July 10, 1732, the 

1 An earlier Bartholomew Tipping entered, with his elder brother John, 
May 8, 1635. Their father was Bartholomew Tippinge, of Chequers, Stoken- 
church, Oxon (ob. 1656), son of Bartholomew, of Woolley Park, Chaddleworth, 
Berks. The eldest brother of the latter, Sir George, of Whitfield and Draycott, 
Oxon, was father of ' Eternity Tipping,' and great-grandfather of Sir Thomas, 
who sate for Oxon and for Wallingford at the close of the century. The mansion 
house at Chaddleworth was built by Bartholomew, the Pembroke benefactor, in 
1690. The last of this line, Mr. Bartholomew Tipping, died there in 1798. 

2 The College ' hath now full power to receive benefactions and neede of helpe for 
necessaryes for Chappell, Library, Hall . . . Thomas Clayton, Maister' (in 1624). 



THE CHAPEL. 



363 



Chapel was consecrated by Dr. John Potter 1 , Bishop of Oxford, after- 
wards Primate. A sermon from Gen. xxviii. 20-22, on religious vows 
and dedications, was preached by the Master. Sir Jemmet Raymond 
afterwards gave £50 to improve the approaches to the Chapel. 

' This edifice,' writes Dr. Ingram, ' is small but elegant ; being 
ornamented with Ionic pilasters between the windows and surmounted 
by a panelled parapet which judiciously conceals the roof. The 
interior is very neat.' We need not smile at the adjectives of a bygone 
taste. Elegance and judiciousness are good and somewhat rare 
qualities, and they are displayed by the early Georgian fane which 
was described in recent guide-books as ' a neat Ionic structure/ The 
interior is admirably proportioned, an excellent screen divides the 
chapel from the ante-chapel, the oak panelling and seating is sufficiently 
good, and there is a pleasing marble altarpiece, in which is framed 
a graceful copy by Cranke of our Lord's figure in the picture executed 
by Rubens for the Petits Carmes — St. Theresa pleading at the feet of 
the risen Saviour for the souls in Purgatory 2 . It was given, about 
1786, by a Fellow-Commoner, Mr. Joseph Plymley (from 1804 
Corbett), afterwards archdeacon of Salop 3 . He presented, in 1824, 
the picture of Shenstone. The floor of the Chapel is of black and 
white marble squares. On the screen are these arms :— 

East side : A Dove holding in its beak an Olive Branch. In base 
two Serpents embowed. Crest, a Dove treading on a Serpent. 
For Sloper of Woodhay, Berks. 

West side : Or, on a bend engrailed, vert, three Pheons of the field. 
Crest, out of a ducal coronet, or, an Antelope's head, vert, attired 
and maned of the first. Motto, Vive ut Vivas. For Tipping. 

1 Hearne in earlier days had the very poorest opinion of Dr. Potter as a Whiggish 
divine. He is ' our sneaking,' ' our spruce,' ' our White Liver 'd ' Regius Professor. 
The inaugural lecture, on May 7, 1708, of ' Y e famous Low-Church Man' was 
' a very flat immethodical & poor leaden Discourse.' ' How he can be said to be 
a modest Man I cannot see, having declin'd nothing y* has been offer'd him. . . . 
It looks rather y* he is an ambitious, conceited, proud Man. But let us not judge.' 
There was little merit in Potter's Clement of Alexandria, or in his 'riff-raff notes 
upon Lycophron.' 

2 ' I could not look on it without emotion ' ; Mrs. Jameson {Legends of the 
Monastic Orders, pp. 423, 424). 

3 Ob. 1830 ; father of Panton (see above p. 348), of Uvedale (a judge), and of 
Joseph (rector of Holgate), all of Pembroke. The last-named presented to the 
Library in 1837 the Syriac Scriptures and other books. The Corbets of Longnor, 
Salop, were Johnson's friends. They were for generations knights of the shire. 
Edward was one of the Parliamentary Visitors. Sir John, second baronet, was 
a Rumper and on the commission to try Charles I. Sir Vincent fought for 
the King. 



3 6 4 



THE CHAPEL. 



The exterior may be compared with the New Buildings in Magdalen 
Grove, begun Oct. 1733, and with a portion of Queen's which was 
finished that year. Pembroke College, with the new Chapel, is 
engraved in Williams' Oxonia Depicta of 1733. Dr. Ingram says: 
' It is remarkable that in the print of this College by Williams the 
tower gateway, as finished in 1694, is first seen in the angular situa- 
tion which the present gateway occupies.' It would seem that 
Dr. Ingram was not acquainted with Burghers' print. 

The Chapel has now been elaborately embellished, but I give three 
descriptions of it as it was in its simplicity. One from the old 
Oxford Pocket Companion : ' The Chapel is a small but elegant 
Building ; and though seldom visited by Strangers, this Cabinet (for 
so it may be deservedly called) merits that favour more than some 
others which rarely escape their notice.' One from Salmon (1749): 
' The Chapel is a fine Piece of Architecture (but not large) built of 
hewn Stone and extremely well furnish'd without and within: The 
marble Pillars, particularly at the Altar, are exceeding beautiful.' 
The third is from Rowley Lascelles' Dialogue after the manner of 
Casliglione, 1821 : — 

II Cortegiano : This Chapel is a handsome building of the Ionic order. 
I admire much the altar-piece. 

Falkland: It was for the sake of its chapel I ranked this among the 
classical Colleges ; the rest of its buildings are homely and rustic. Four 
well-proportioned windows, with semi-circular heads, range along that 
northern front, in which is the handsome doorway. Between each of the 
former is an entablature and a low blank attic, which nearly conceals 
the finely arched roof. 

77 Cortegiano : I observed over the altar a picture of Our Saviour after 
the resurrection ; it is a painting of considerable merit ; a copy by Cranke 
after that of Reubens in the cathedral at Antwerp. 

Falkland: The design and colouring are highly natural. 

Edgar: But ought they not to be sitpernaturalt 

Falkland: Westward of the Chapel is the garden, in which is a 
pleasant common-room and an agreeable terrace-walk formed on the city 
wall. . . . 

The Lady Gertrude : I like this plain gateway opening beneath a low 
tower that conducted us into the quadrangle. 

Edgar: Have you seen a bird's eye view of this College in Loggan's 
plates ? Its plan and terraced walks really look like an enchanted palace 
or like the Borromean Isles and gardens in the Lago Maggiore. 

77 Cortegiano : You must have been under some enchantment when 
you thought so ; or you saw it perhaps in a dream ? 

Edgar: No, indeed : or at least if I did, it was a waking one. 

A person of truly idealizing imagination ! 



THE CHAPEL. 



365 



In 1792 £150 was spent in repairs of the Chapel. In 1824 the 
ceiling was renewed. Dr. Ingram writes : ' The interior has been very 
recently repaired and improved.' In 1884 the Master and Fellows 
resolved to make the building really worthy of its sacred purpose, and 
invited Mr. Charles Earner Kempe, M.A., himself a member of the 
College, to submit plans for a scheme of decoration. The work of 
Mr. Kempe for the Church in the revival of mediaeval decorative art 
and the rescuing of the crafts ancillary to architecture from the 
' ecclesiastical shop ' to which an earlier school of architects had 
relegated them, is now recognized throughout England. Pembroke 
Chapel has now a most beautiful interior. The ceiling, divided as 
before into three compartments, is enriched with a variety of plaister 
mouldings and worked reliefs, bound together with fillets and ribands. 
In the most western are the College arms, and in the corners four 
tablets, bearing the titles (from the ancient sequence De No??iine Jesu) : — 
(1) Receptor Advents, (2) Colum?ia Naufragis, (3) Patronus Orphanis, 
(4) Monile Regibus. The middle compartment has a large shield 
inscribed with the letters I. N. R. I. In the corners are the words, 
( 1) Nomen quod est super omne nomen ; (2) Sit Nomen Domni benedictum; 
(3) Redemptor Omnibus ; (4) Corona Fortibus. The eastern division 
of the ceiling has a long cross with the Sacred Monogram, and in the 
corners the titles, (1) Magister Insciis, (2) Lucerna Deviis, (3) Medela 
Saudis, (4) Levamen Anxiis. The whole is very richly coloured and 
gilded, as is the cornice. 

On either side, and on the east wall, standing on brackets, are 
painted statuettes under curious wooden canopies. On the right of 
the altar is St. Peter, on the left St. Paul. On the north wall, between 
the windows, are St. John, Zechariah, Isaiah. On the south wall, 
St. Luke, Micah, Daniel. Niches remain for Moses and David. 

The most remarkable feature of the decoration is the superb glass, 
richly painted in the Renaissance manner, which might be placed in the 
same building with the finest Flemish work of the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries 1 . The easternmost window on the north side — the 
least striking, perhaps, of the eight — represents the Annunciation. An 
angel above holds a scroll inscribed ' Deus de Deo,' and two cherubic 
boys exhibit the words ' Benedicta tu es in mulieribus.' The medal- 
lions below are of Zacharias and Esaias, the prophets of the evangelical 
Hope. Facing this window is the Nativity. The legends here are 

1 ' The scheme of glass illustrates the Doctrine of the Incarnation : the pictures 
which show it, the writers who defend it, and the founders and benefactors who 
may be regarded as teaching it in Oxford.' 



3 66 



THE CHAPEL. 



' Lumen de Lumine,' ' In terra pax,' ' Hominibus bonae voluntatis.' 
The second window on the north side represents St. Bernard and 
St. Anselm, attended by two figures, ' Contemplatio ' and ' Theologia.' 
St. Anselm is writing his Cur Deus Homo. Two cherubs carry a scroll 
on which is written, ' Notum fecit Dominus salutare suum.' Opposite 
is the Adoration of the Shepherds. Angels bear the words, ' Gloria 
tibi, Domine, qui natus es de Virgine,' and the boyish forms below 
exhibit ' Quern vidistis, Pastores, dicite annuntiate nobis, in terris quis 
apparuit, Natum videmus et choros angelorum collaudantes Dnum. 
Alleluia.' In the upper part, with delightful incongruity, is a medallion 
of Francis Rous, of Barebones fame, in Puritan hat and cloak ; at the 
bottom, 'Ex dono Henrici Elford Luxmoore hujus Collegii nuper 
Scholaris, Beneficiorum memoris a Francisco Rous sibi et Etonensibus 
collatorum.' Two shields show the arms of Eton College and of the 
donor (arg. a chevron between three martlets sable). In the third 
window on the north St. Cyril of Alexandria and St. Hierome are 
represented writing, attended by Veritas and Sapientia. The legend 
above is ' Veniet desideratus omnibus gentibus,' and, below, the 
University motto, ' Dominus illuminatio mea.' The corresponding 
window on the south side reminds the spectator that the College is 
a royal foundation. It represents the Coming of the Wise Kings, 
mounted on great sumptuously caparisoned German steeds and 
attended by pages. Two boys uphold the royal arms of England and 
Scotland. The legends are ' Per Me reges regnant,' ' Beati Pacifici,' 
and * Magnificatus est Rex Pacificus super omnes reges universae 
terrae.' The other two windows, added in 1892 as a memorial to the 
late Master, are of a slightly different tone. In that on the north 
side King Charles I kneels, stately and devout, before the altar of the 
College Chapel — a pardonable anachronism — in his white Corona- 
tion robes, with crimson and ermine mantle, and jewels. On the 
page of the richly bound book before him is inscribed 'In verbo 
Tuo sperabo.' On the ground lie axe, sceptre, and crown. Two 
attendant figures, Benefactio and Abnegatio, carry scrolls, on which 
can be read, ' Erunt reges nutritii tui,' and ' Majorem hac dilectionem 
nemo habet, ut animam suam ponat quis pro amicis suis.' In the 
background is St. Aldate's Church. Above, a medallion shows Queen 
Anne and Gloucester Cathedral. At the sides are the arms of Lord 
Ossulston (gules, three demi-lions argent), and of Bishop Hall. At 
the foot is written, ' Mementote in Dno Evan Evans, S.T.P. Qui per 
xxvii annos huic Collegio benignissime praefuit et obdormivit in Xto 
ix Kal. Dec. A.S. mdcccxci. In cujus memoriam amici et sodales 



THE CHAPEL. 



367 



gratis animis hanc vitrea ponenda curavere.' Facing this is an 
extremely rich Founders' Window, in which appear the figures of 
King James, the Earl of Pembroke, Tesdale, and Wightwick, the 
two last kneeling at faldstools. Four shields exhibit the arms of 
Herbert, Tesdale, Wightwick, and the Marquess of Salisbury, the 
present Visitor. In a small oval are, on a field gules, three garbs or 
— the signature of the artist. In the background of the picture is 
the inside of the Old Quadrangle, as modernized. In all the windows 
the ironwork has been kept, which is always desirable both for strength 
and to break up the coloured surface with black geometrical lines. 

The altarpiece was in 1884 raised, and the marbles re-polished and 
gilded. The moulded decoration framing it was added. The mensa 
of the altar itself is a massive slab of marble standing on an arcaded 
frame of oak. On the delicately carved alabaster gradine are a lofty 
cross and candlesticks. The latter are copies in silver of bronze 
candlesticks in the Certosa at Pavia, and the cross (which has a rayed 
centre) was designed by Mr. Kempe to match them. They are thus 
inscribed : ' Candelabrum hoc in usum altaris Collegii Pembrochiae 
d. d. Aluredus T. Barton, A.M., Socius, 1885,' and '. . . Athelstanus 
Riley, Art. Mag., 1885.' The cross: 'Hoc signum Redemptionis 
nostrae dedit dedicavit D. M. Socius, olim de fundatione B. Caroli 
Regis Scholaris, a n0 1885.' On the credence, of polished walnut, are 
the great silver-gilt alms-dish (1731), the excellent silver-gilt candle- 
sticks (1679), among the oldest in England, which used to stand on 
the retable, and a tray with crewets, also silver-gilt, of Spanish rococo 
workmanship. This has the inscription : ' Ad calicem Salutis prae- 
parandam has phialas collegio Pembrochiae dono dederunt Ath. Riley 
in art. mag., H. C. R. Cunnynghame in art. bacc. a. d. 1885/ with the 
arms of the College. The alms-dish is inscribed thus : ' Sacrum hoc 
Donum contulere Benjamin et Nicolaus Hyett Filij Caroli Hyett 
Armigeri de civitate Glovernia et Colleg. Pembrochiani Sup. Ord. 
Commensales.' The former was Dr. Adams' son-in-law. The lights 
are inscribed thus : ' D.D. Gul. Howard Fil. Natu Secundus Comitis 
Carleolensis e Coll. Pemb. Sup. Ord. Com. 1 An. Dom. 1694/ with 
the College arms (the rose, wrongly, on a ground or) and the arms 
of the donor. 

The fine Commonwealth flagon and William and Mary chalice and 
patens were somewhat clumsy for reverent handling, and were super- 
seded by the crewets above mentioned and by a beautiful chalice and 
paten designed by Mr. Kempe. The latter is inscribed ' Venerabili 
1 Vide supra, p. 274. 



3 68 



THE CHAPEL. 



Corpori Jesu,' the former ' Venerabili Sanguini Jf.su.' It was the 
disused chalice that touched the lips of Johnson and of Whitefield. 

To the stalls of the Master and Vicegerent were added rich curtains 
on wrought-iron supports. The marble floor of the sanctuary was 
taken up and renewed, the woodwork throughout the Chapel cleaned 
of its foxy oiled appearance, the gas abolished and candles in old- 
fashioned sconces substituted. A new heating apparatus was also 
introduced. It is permitted to regret that the two closets (in which 
the other sex could worship as members of the Invisible Church) were 
abolished in 1884. They were entered from the ante-chapel. 

In 1893 the undergraduates presented a petition to the Master and 
Fellows expressing their desire for the introduction of some music 
into the services, and their readiness to assist in this as far as possible. 
In a paper inviting subscriptions for an organ it was said, ' It is not 
proposed to have a choral service, for which the building would be in- 
appropriate, and the means at the disposal of the College inadequate, 
but a simple Service with hymns and chorales in which all members 
of the congregation may join in unison.' In Mr. Kempe's original 
drawings an organ (of painted woodwork) was designed, affixed to 
the west wall of the ante-chapel and reached by a staircase. For this 
he now substituted a classical design, with uncoloured wood and plain 
pipes, played from the ground. This is the more effective in appearance 
amid so much colour. The case is in part made out of Archbishop 
Sheldon's organ-case, removed from the Theatre. It should be men- 
tioned that the greatest part of the cost was defrayed by the Master. 

The window and demi-window of the ante-chapel are still plain. 
Rich ' carpets of silk ' to cover the altar, a new sanctuary carpet, the 
completion of the decoration on either side of the altar, and possibly 
some embellishment of the screen and other woodwork, are waiting 
for further funds. The entire cost of what has been carried out has 
been more than £4,000. 

There have been no regular sermons in Chapel for half a century. 
But a venerable member of the College \ who entered in 1824, told 

1 The Rev. Robert Morgan Jones, who died Oct. 21, 1895, aged ninety, 
for nearly fifty years Vicar of Cromford, Derbyshire, and from 1870 to 1886 Rural 
Dean of Alfreton, was an interesting link with the past. His grandfather was 
a Pembrokeshire farmer, to whose house the arms of the French soldiers after their 
famed descent upon Fishguard Bay were carried. Mr. Jones told me that 
as a boy he used the ammunition for shooting rabbits, and started on the coach 
for Oxford wearing a Frenchman's military coat. (The French, 1,400 strong, 
surrendered to a handful of Yeomanry and some red-cloaked Welshwomen.) He 
was a Scholar of Pembroke — the examination was merely to construe 'Est in 
conspectu,' &c. Vide supra, p. 289. 



THE CHAPEL. 



3 6 9 



me that Charles Wightwick, then Vicegerent, used to preach, in his 
day, fifteen-minute sermons out of a book. Dr. Jeune preached 
there on one occasion ; but sermons had then been dropped. 

The services had not always been said nakedly and plainly. In the 
sixties a voluntary choir and a harmonium produced some music, and 
ritualistic innovations began to alarm those in authority \ Herbert 
Augustus Salwey, however, early in 1868 was allowed to introduce 
a choir of boys on Sunday evenings. Though subsidized by the 
College it was not of long continuance. 

It was the custom until the Mastership of Dr. Evans to bring the 
Holy Sacrament to the communicants kneeling in their places. With 
the arrangement of the seats usual in a college chapel, such a practice 
was painfully inconsistent with reverence. It is very unlikely, how- 
ever, to have been a puritan survival, and savours rather of monasticism. 
The custom 2 was only this last year (1896) abolished at St. Mary's, but 
is retained at Christ Church, once in each month. A mere Calvinistic 
illegality would scarcely have escaped the vigilance of such a Visitor 
as Laud ; nor, if introduced by Langley, would it have outlived the 
Restoration. If invented by Bishop Hall could it have survived the 
migration to the new Chapel under high-church Dr. Panting ? 

A photograph of the Chapel, as it was, was taken in 1884. It was 
amid such surroundings that Johnson humbly worshipped on his 
visits to the College, in his later years, while the Chapel was crowded 
with sightseers who had flocked thither to gaze